Military Review

"Heavy" machine guns Slostina

These days the most famous multi-barreled weapons systems are machine guns designed according to the Gatling scheme. Popular among directors and developers of computer games, exotic six-barreled machine guns with an external drive managed to overshadow almost all developments of this type, firmly occupying their niche both in popular culture and among real-life weapons.

Nevertheless, we should not forget that there were other, no less interesting designs that could well be a serious competitor to the "turntables" of Dr. Gatling. What is especially interesting, among the developers of such systems were our compatriots.

Ivan Ilyich Slostin, not so widely known as many others, the gunsmith’s designer, devoted about twelve years of his life to creating and working out multi-barreled high-temperature machine guns, the design of which was founded, unlike Gatling’s systems, not on an external drive, but on the principle removal of powder gases. The first sample of such an eight-barreled machine gun with the removal of gases through a muzzle on each separate barrel was tested in 1939 year. It was developed as a weapon for aircraft, as an air defense system and to fight the enemy’s infantry.

During the tests, the rate of fire at 3300 rounds per minute was recorded, but when the standard tape in 250 rounds was warmed up after firing cartridges due to expansion of barrels and an increase in harmful resistance during their rotation, the machine gun refused to work. The accuracy of the shooting also left much to be desired, but for this type of weapon - a heavy fire weapon - it was, in principle, sufficient. The outbreak of war did not allow the completion of the entire test cycle, but in 1946 the 7,62 mm of the eight-barreled Slostin machine gun was again tested, but a machine gun of an entirely new, revised design was presented on them, different from the machine gun of the 1939 model of the year.

The Slostina machine gun is a weapon with a rotating block of barrels chambered for 7,62 x 54 mm. This is an automatic weapon with eight consistently firing barrels, the operation of which is based on the extraction of powder gases through a special transverse channel in the barrel. The machine gun is a weapon of heavy fire and can be used to combat the enemy's manpower, to fight against unarmored and lightly armored targets, and also as an anti-aircraft weapon.

"Heavy" machine guns Slostina

The machine gun is a weapon with eight barrels, which are interconnected by the front and rear clutches in such a way that the assembly of the barrels is a drum in which each individual barrel can move in the longitudinal direction. On each barrel there is a gas chamber and a gas piston and with their help the impulse of powder gases is transmitted to complete the automation cycle. The gas piston of each barrel is placed in the gas chamber of the barrel, which is located next to it, so that a closed circuit is obtained between all the trunks. Assembly trunks placed on the axis, the ends of which are located in the bearings of the butt pad and the front rack. With the help of these bearings, the trunks together with the couplings make rotation. On the basis of the machine gun and on the lid there is a copy groove through which the rollers located on the spikes of the barrels move. On the rear bearing of the machine gun rotates a special gear connected with the trunks. It has an external and end tooth. With the help of an external tooth, the cartridge belt moves, and the end tooth produces cocking and lowering of the impactor during automatic shooting. In the back of the weapon weapons are placed drummer, mainspring and warhead. In a constructive respect, the system does not have a shutter as such - the barrel bore is locked by pressing the barrel roller against the wall of the base groove.

In the machine gun prepared for shooting, the cartridge was completely placed in the chamber and the channel was locked in the lower barrel of the machine gun. At this time, the cartridge's cap is against the striker, and the drummer is cocked and held in a sear. In the course of the automatic operation, shooting is conducted from the barrel, which becomes after turning the barrel barrel to the lower position. To start automatic firing, when the trigger is pressed, the firing pin is freed from the sear and, under the action of the mainspring, begins to move forward, striking the striker that breaks the cap. The gases that follow the bullet through the barrel pass through the holes in the gas piston of the firing barrel. At this time, the gas chamber of the trunk next to it, located to the right of the shooter, is put on the gas piston of the shooting barrel. Due to the movement of this neighboring trunk forward, the whole drum is rotated counterclockwise, as a result of which it appears to be leading in the work of the entire system. The roller of the leading barrel, when the barrel moves forward, moves along the copy groove of the base and thus makes the entire barrel barrel rotate around its longitudinal axis.

In this case, the firing barrel shifts and becomes the place of the leading barrel, and in its place comes a new barrel with a cartridge. With this movement of the firing barrel, the liner, with its fringe, enters the hooks on the back of the barrel, and the end tooth of the gear wheel cocks the hammer. As soon as the drum turns to one eighth of the turn, the drummer jumps off the end tooth and hits the striker again, which in turn breaks the cap in the cartridge of the approached barrel. At this time, the first shooting barrel stands in place of the leader and just as well, due to the pressure of gases on the bottom of its chamber, it begins to move forward and upward, leaving the sleeve in the hooks of the back plate. The stroke length of the barrel is 50 mm. Drum trunks makes a new turn on one-eighth and moving while firing the barrel, pushes the sleeve from the cavity of the machine gun.

The ribbon in the weapon is moved by the outer tooth of the teeth, and the rammer with a screw surface located above it gradually rotates the cartridge from the tape forward 30 mm while the drum rotates, and the firing barrels, moving with rollers along the copy groove, come back and are put on the cartridge. When the trigger is released, the drummer becomes a combat platoon and the shooting stops.

On trials, the reported rate of shooting at 3300 shots per minute was only achieved twice. The real repeatedly recorded rate of fire was 1760-2100 shots per minute. In terms of accuracy, the Slostina machine gun was also six times shorter than the SG-43 SG-1943 machine gun. But it was noted that for a squall fire weapon such a dispersion of bullets could be allowed, since the density of fire from it is still quite large.

In May 1949, the last tests of the model of the eight-barreled machine gun of Slostin were conducted under the cartridge of 14,5x114 mm. In particular, it was planned to use it as an anti-aircraft gun on the then developed heavy tank IS-7. Automation differed from the previous design in that the barrel block was assembled into a rigid structure with the help of the rear clutch and the front cage without the possibility of longitudinal movement of the barrel, and the barrel block was rotated when the slider rolled back with the gas piston of the firing barrel, which interacts with the cam groove of the block and clamp.

In the course of the shooting, two main drawbacks of the 14,5 mm sample were revealed: off-center capsula associated with the difficulties of braking a massive block of barrels and transverse ruptures of the sleeves due to the design of the locking assembly (lack of a bolt) when using an extremely powerful cartridge 14,5x114 mm. It was not possible to modify the machine gun without a cardinal change of the whole structure. история eight-barrel machine guns Slostina over.

Performance characteristics:

Cartridge - 7,62X54, total weight with machine - 67 kg, machine body weight - 28 kg, weight of the rotating unit - 17,2 kg, barrel weight - 1,7 kg, body length of the machine gun - 775 mm, barrel length - 605 mm, number of barrels - 8, machine gun body width (max) - 203 mm, machine gun body height (max) - 180 mm, barrel stroke length - 50 mm, distance between barrels - 73 mm, firing line height: on Sokolov machine - 390 mm, on the stand installation - 1340-1900 mm, tape capacity - 250 or 500 cartridges, tape pitch - 25 mm, ribbon box weight - 3,2 kg, target range - 2000 m, firing rate - 3300 rds / min, BP The name of the creation: the first samples - the end of 30-ies, the last samples (for the cartridge 14,5х114) - in the 1949 year.
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  1. Massik
    Massik 22 June 2013 08: 30
    The idea seems to be not bad ... but the automation is too complicated
  2. leonardo_1971
    leonardo_1971 22 June 2013 10: 22
    Now you’ll sweat it! Eight trunks! Better ShKAS!
  3. svp67
    svp67 22 June 2013 13: 06
    The Slostin machine gun is a weapon with a rotating block of barrels chambered for 7,62 x 54 mm
    such a weapon, under such a cartridge, is probably not the best option for the post-war period, therefore
    In May of the 1949 of the year, the last tests of the model of the eight-barreled machine gun Slostin were carried out under the cartridge 14,5x114 mm.
    such a weapon, on an airplane, a helicopter or on a land chassis, as well as in engineering fortification, would be a really serious machine ...
    1. vikontas56
      vikontas56 22 June 2013 17: 48
      There was a similar design in the form of an aviation 23mm double-barreled gun! In the 60s it was put on our planes, but the return was such that it slowed down the aircraft! However, the designers figured out and eliminated the return! By the way, the American structures have an external electric drive, which makes the weapon more bulky and depending on the power supply - it’s enough to interrupt the cable and weapons to the fenders! Soviet developments are much more reliable and compact - all the work is done by powder gases!
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 22 June 2013 18: 30
        You probably mean GSh-23? If so, you are very mistaken. GSH-23 is a mechanical spark, that is, a double-barreled weapon in which the mechanisms of one barrel, partially or fully, work from the energy developed when fired from the second barrel. For the first time, such a scheme was proposed by Gast in 1917. Specifically, this gun is the most common gun of the USSR / Russia Air Force and it did not slow anyone down. But GSH-6-30 (six-barrel, with a rotating block of trunks) really could stop the MIG-27, on which it was installed. By the way, GAU-8A also slows down the A-10.
        Using or not using an external drive is a moot point. Both options have their advantages and disadvantages.
        1. Ch0sen1
          Ch0sen1 22 June 2013 19: 26
          Persistent rumors are circulating that the shooting and afterburner buttons on the A-10 should be paired to compensate for the gun’s wild recoil.
          1. Aiviar
            Aiviar 23 June 2013 11: 36
            A-10 engines are afterburners request
            1. Argon
              Argon 23 June 2013 12: 19
              And the presence of an external drive is always a minus: more weight, less reliability.
              1. Argon
                Argon 23 June 2013 13: 25
                To me, a solution with a rotating block of barrels seems to be more rational than presented in the article. Although both schemes are quite sensitive to pollution for infantry weapons, and in solving tactical problems such machine guns (short-term creation of extra high density fire) had a competitor solving them radically and without accompanying haemorrhoids - automatic grenade launcher. About MiG-27 I can say that the recoil when firing from a runway pilot was felt but no more (special manipulations of the controls, to counter arising omentov not required) problems vyzyvalla vibration (as well as the Su-25) and a gas-dynamic surge (flame shot) acting on elements of the airframe along which flying projectiles.
                1. Bad_gr
                  Bad_gr 23 June 2013 16: 03
                  Quote: Argon
                  .Pro MiG-27 I can say that the recoil when firing from a runway pilot was felt but no more ...

                  There was a case when the dashboard fell out of the mounts during the shooting. Therefore, to say "felt but no more" is too mildly said.
                  1. Argon
                    Argon 23 June 2013 22: 37
                    There was a case in the year 86 when, during a test flight of a "reactivated" aircraft, the TLU went off when the safety lock was removed, the flashlight fired off at the same time (but did not go off) and the squib of the chair went off, the guy was saved by the fact that the safety checks were not removed (which, in general, as well as the case described by you has nothing to do with the return of the GSh-6-30 cannon).
                    1. Bad_gr
                      Bad_gr 23 June 2013 23: 48
                      Quote: Argon
                      ........... in general, the case you are describing has no relation to the recoil of the GSh-6-30 gun)

                      "...... In August 1980, during a mission of one of the squadrons of the 722th apib to the Air Force Research Institute, on the plane of the navigator of the regiment Major Shvyrev returning from the test site, after firing from the cannon, the front landing gear flaps were deformed and it was not possible to release it. The pilot, for the first time during the operation of the MiG-27, I had to put the car on two main wheels ...
                      .... August 8, 1988 in the 19th Guards. apib in the GSVG after firing on the MiG-27D of Lieutenant MV Poluektov, the front pillar did not come out due to the fact that the fuselage "led" and the doors jammed. As noted in the report, "the pilot had a high moral and political training" and was able to land the plane on the main wheels, extinguished speed and touched the bow of the concrete with minimal damage.
                      On May 599, 15, in the 1990 apib, a similar case occurred with more serious consequences: the localizer was pulled off the gun by the line, the shutters hit it, the rack didn’t come out and the MiG-27K plowed the nose of the runway, after which the car had to be written off.
                      Gas stations were "knocked out", disconnecting equipment, communication and systems failing.
                      Some of the cases, for all the seriousness of the situation, bordering on curiosity. In the 24th Aviation Division, on April 18, 1988, the MiG-27 came to the airfield, not only "deaf", but also left without the PrNK - a cannon burst at once "knocked out" all radio equipment and gyroscopes.
                      On September 2, 1989, in the GSVG, the volley of the MiG-27 gun led to a complete loss of radio communications - contacts blew off at the radio station and printed circuit boards cracked.
                      In the 23rd VA in January 1989, cannon firing led immediately to two incidents: in the 58th apib, a flying fuse caused an almost complete de-energization of the "side" with a failure to control the stabilizer, flaps, landing gear and MRK, and a week earlier in the neighboring 266th the apib MiG-27K returned from flight without the cover of the flashlight torn off during firing (the emergency locks themselves opened, releasing the flashlight into "free flight").
                      Even against this background, the incident that occurred in the 24th division on March 29, 1989 was unique: at the exit from the dive after firing, the pilot fell off the pilot’s dashboard panel, the mount of which interrupted with recoil. Holding his hand hanging on the harness panel, the pilot flew to the airfield.
                      More than once it happened that the reflector of the sight burst and crumbled from the blows of the queue. The landing lights split so often that they were removed and replaced with plugs before flying out to fire. The introduction of protective shields-deflectors did not completely save the situation, which required clarifications to the Instructions to the pilot: after night shooting, landing was allowed only on the runway illuminated by searchlights. .... "

                      Perhaps I agree with you, "I felt but no more" - the very thing that can be said about these cases.
                      1. Argon
                        Argon 24 June 2013 03: 38
                        Strategically, the decision is right ... however, you don’t understand the question and I wouldn’t just give up. Read my second comment carefully. Please note that the recoil-force acting back to the direction of the shot was supplemented by a significant gyroscopic moment in this system. a consequence of the influence of the gas-dynamic wave and, to a greater extent, the sloppiness / incompetence of those personnel (which was not uncommon before the collapse of the Union). Ultimately, the gas turbine engines won but the dimensions of the new stainless steel localizer st steel (and therefore the weight) nepozvolyali install it on 27y (niche overlap the chassis).
  4. Matt eversmann
    Matt eversmann 22 June 2013 13: 34
    Harsh thing. Especially under the cartridge of 14,5x114 mm. It is a pity that it did not work out, such a machine gun would have been used now.
  5. Navy7981
    Navy7981 22 June 2013 17: 17
    We had an excellent machine gun ShKAS - 1800 rpm. (1930) Coaxial respectively 3600 rpm. It will be modernized on the basis of modern materials and there will be an excellent system of heavy fire, moreover, it will also be very accurate. At least while the 7,62 mm cartridge allowed him to cope with the tasks of the fighter, he was in service. Korobov’s development of a three-barreled machine gun with a simultaneous shot, etc. was not continued. Many examples are not deservedly forgotten, it's a pity.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 22 June 2013 18: 37
      Will not be. ShKAS was originally sharpened under our three-line cartridge and it is not very realistic to remake it under a cartridge with a sleeve without a flange. In addition, it is very complex, expensive and has a very small resource. The machine guns of the first issues were generally almost disposable. If you mean the mechanical spark of ShKAS, which, in a small amount, was placed on the SB, then the rate of fire of this unit was 4200 rpm.
      Another question is, where and why is such an aggregate needed?
      1. dustycat
        dustycat 23 June 2013 16: 03
        In short-range air defense, machine guns ...
        I think the fighters of the Pskov riot police could more accurately tell what is the point of such cars.
      2. Navy7981
        Navy7981 23 June 2013 21: 10
        So we still use 7,62x54P in machine gun ammunition. The problem with ShKAS was that for him the bullet crimp in the sleeve was specially reinforced, and when reloading the sleeve sometimes broke. I’m saying that if in the 30s they could do it, now with modern materials and technologies it is quite possible to significantly improve it. And apply it? Well, let's say the on-board machine gun on the Mi-8. Amer work normally with helicopters with rapid-fire machines! When attacking the column for 30 - 40 seconds, give a flurry of fire. I think that the problem can always be found. Well, maybe I'm wrong.
  6. Kurtshaar
    Kurtshaar 23 June 2013 06: 56
    To my shame, I never even heard the name of Slostin
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 23 June 2013 07: 18
      Well, we haven’t heard many names. For more than a quarter of a century, I have been interested in handguns and, believe me, there are moments that make me wonder.
  7. Alex
    Alex 9 September 2013 23: 23
    The land of Russia is rich in talents. It turns out, and we have our own doctor Gatling. I didn’t even think that a multi-barrel system with a rotating block is possible due to the removal of powder gases. Respect and respect, it is a pity that I did not go into the series.

    By the way, I recently watched on one of the cable just about amerovskie "gatlings" on airplanes and turntables. Impressive, contagion ...