Military Review

USSR nuclear artillery

14
The artillery of the Soviet Union played a decisive role in achieving victory over Germany in 1945, but later the difficult and sometimes tragic fate of development was prepared for this branch of the army.


USSR nuclear artillery


With the coming to power of Nikita Khrushchev in 1953, the decision was made to practically get rid of artillery units, given the rapid development of rocket firing systems. Huge stocks of guns, which remained after the Second World War, were cut into metal, it was a period of time when new systems of guns were not developed and not manufactured, and the old ones were destroyed. The main goal of the government of the USSR at that time was to create weapons, which was supposed to carry a real threat to potential enemies. With this in mind, it was decided to create weapons for firing nuclear ammunition.

In the year 1954 in the USSR, in accordance with the decree of the Supreme Council, the design of giant mobile guns for firing nuclear weapons began. It was decided to create three types of nuclear artillery installations: a recoilless weapon, a cannon and a mortar, which in their calibers significantly exceeded those of the United States. For the most part, a huge caliber was needed because of the inability of Soviet nuclear scientists to develop and manufacture compact atomic ammunition.



In 1955, in Leningradsky TsKB-34, the drawings were fully completed and documentation for the manufacture of X-NUMX-mm CM-406 guns (54-2), which shot a special “Capacitor” shot, was transferred to production.

The weight of the projectile was 570 kg, the maximum firing range was 25,6 km. The making of an artillery monster was entrusted to the Barricades factory. At the Leningrad Kirov Plant for the gun, a chassis was designed and manufactured, which received the code name "271 object". In 1957, the first sample of the CM-54 left the gates of the Kirov factory. The final weight of the gun was 64 tons (without ammunition). In total, four giant self-propelled guns were manufactured.

Simultaneously with the creation of the “Condenser” at SKB MOP, they began the development of an 420-mm smooth-bore mortar codenamed 2B2 “Oka”. In 1957, the first prototype of a mobile mortar installation for firing a special shot called "Transformer" was ready. The barrel of a mortar cannon with a length of more than 20 meters was made from a single piece. The weight of the gun mount was 55,3 tons, the firing range of 45 kilometers. The tracked chassis for the mortar (“273 object”) was manufactured at the same Kirov factory.



“Transformer” and “Condenser”, in view of their enormous size, did not fit into the railway gauge, did not pass over bridges and overpasses, and also could not turn around on the city streets. After much deliberation, a completely justified decision was made not to take supergiants into service and to refuse further work on both systems. But at the same time, at the Central Research Institute-58, under the guidance of designer Vasily Grabin, a 420-mm recoilless S-103 gun was designed, mounted on a heavy chassis tank. The first tests of the installation were carried out at the Rzhevka military training ground located near Leningrad. But after the hundred and first shot, made on November 29, 1956, the barrel was torn and the gun mount completely collapsed.

At the end of the 50s in the United States, the first installation for recoilless nuclear ammunition, Davy Croquet, was manufactured. As a response, a complex consisting of two 230-mm recoilless guns called Reseda on the BTR-60PA chassis was designed in the USSR. The fire was conducted by uncontrollable over-caliber solid propellant rockets 9М-24. The diameter of the combat detail of the projectile was 360 mm, the length of the 2,3 meter, the weight of 150 kilogram, the maximum range - 6 kilometers. But for unknown reasons, work on the project was discontinued. Instead of the Reseda complex, in the 1968 year, the KBP began developing tactical missile systems Rosehip and Taran with special combat units. "Rosehip" was intended for motorized rifle regiments, and "Taran" - for tank. According to the tactical and technical features, the maximum firing range was 8 kilometers, and the minimum 1 kilometer.



The Taran launcher was installed in the turret of the T-64A tank, which made it possible to carry out a round-up attack. The total weight of PU was 37 tons (taking into account the ammunition of the three missiles). The additional armament of the complex also included the 10-12 ATGM “Taran-1”, which were launched from the same pipe as the nuclear ammunition. The firing range of the Taran-1 ATGM missiles was up to 10 kilometers, with armor penetration no less than 300 millimeters. Similar to the "Taran" PU complex "Rosehip" with the main ammunition in the 2-3 missiles installed on the BMP-1. At the beginning of 1972, all further work on the Rosehip and Taran complexes was stopped. Presumably, under a secret agreement with the United States, as evidenced by the removal from service of the army of the Devi Crocket system. The regiments and battalions of the Soviet Army were left without their mobile Hiroshim.
 
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  1. Mikhado
    Mikhado 15 June 2013 08: 59 New
    +2
    Nuclear artillery "died" only because the storage periods for such miniature charges are only a few months, and you cannot store warehouses in reserve. It seemed expensive even to our overseas "friends" ...
    1. VictoRO
      VictoRO 15 June 2013 15: 22 New
      +2
      Nothing has died. Modern nuclear weapons charges for artillery are stored practically in the same time frame as from missiles. It's just that they are more "dirty" because of the use of more fuel when compared with the total weight (cannon-type), a small caliber to accommodate reflectors and protection from radiation, and therefore more fading.
  2. cartridge
    cartridge 15 June 2013 09: 15 New
    +5
    Thank God there are enough ammunition in Russian artillery. It is not for nothing that the Americans are so awakening the topic of reducing precisely tactical nuclear weapons.
    But figs to them! Our slogan is different: every American company is guaranteed 0,3 ct!
    1. Yarbay
      Yarbay 15 June 2013 09: 17 New
      +4
      Quote: cartridge
      Our slogan is different: every American company is guaranteed 0,3 ct!

      smiled)))
  3. The comment was deleted.
  4. cobalt
    cobalt 15 June 2013 09: 47 New
    +5
    I saw these guns in St. Petersburg at the Museum of Artillery and Engineering Troops. Especially close to impressive.
    The most dangerous mushrooms in the world in this video.
    1. MG42
      MG42 15 June 2013 18: 16 New
      +6
      Quote: cobalt
      The most dangerous mushrooms in the world in this video.

      Nice, but only the "tsar-bomb" is not here
      The results of the explosion of the charge, which received the name "Tsar bomb" in the West, were impressive: The nuclear mushroom of the explosion rose to a height of 65 kilometers; the diameter of its two-tier “hat” reached (at the upper tier) 95 kilometers. A ball of fire of a gap with a radius of about 4,6 kilometers reached the surface of the earth - which is uncharacteristic of aerial nuclear explosions. The radiation caused third-degree burns at a distance of up to 100 kilometers. The shock wave resulting from the explosion three times circled the globe. Ionization of the atmosphere caused radio interference even hundreds of kilometers from the landfill for about 40 minutes. Witnesses felt the blow and were able to describe the explosion thousands of kilometers from its center. The sound wave generated by the explosion reached the island of Dixon at a distance of about 800 kilometers.

      1. SlavaP
        SlavaP 16 June 2013 00: 21 New
        +1
        Krrr-asota!
        I always envied the guys from the Strategic Missile Forces a little - what strength is in their hands ... I myself can’t boast of anything more than 122mm OF.
  5. Murzyak
    Murzyak 15 June 2013 11: 18 New
    +1
    In early 1972, all further work on the Rosehip and Taran complexes was discontinued. Presumably, by secret agreement with the United States, as evidenced by the removal of the Davy Crocket system from the army. The regiments and battalions of the Soviet Army were left without their mobile Hiroshima.
    In 1982-1985, at the Magdeburg test site, he studied a nuclear projectile for the D-20 PG (a separate army artillery brigade), so that the "Regiments and battalions of the Soviet Army were left without their mobile Hiroshim" ".
  6. penyvr
    penyvr 15 June 2013 20: 00 New
    0
    it is a pity that the D-30 is basically being discontinued
  7. Coast
    Coast 15 June 2013 21: 13 New
    0
    Presumably, by secret agreement with the United States, as evidenced by the removal of the Davy Crocket system from the army. The regiments and battalions of the Soviet Army were left without their mobile Hiroshima.


    The author, apparently, has never heard of the 2C5 system: http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/2%D0%A15
  8. Aryan
    Aryan 16 June 2013 00: 58 New
    +1
    Opposing parties spend too much on nuclear delivery vehicles.
    it would be easier to immediately lay the Russian bons under the capital of USA,
    USA to the capital of China
    I throw under the capital of USA ...
    and everyone would keep their hands on the remote control and would not curry favor ...
    Yes, and everyone saving on missiles
    and even African children would have left for ice cream
    approximately for each train fellow
    and ferrari to everyone as a gift, who will eat well yes
  9. mirag2
    mirag2 16 June 2013 13: 50 New
    0
    At that time, they tried to do everything possible with the nuclear, and missiles and torpedoes and artillery, and even almost mortars.
  10. mirag2
    mirag2 16 June 2013 13: 52 New
    0
    From all possible means of delivery of nuclear weapons, we now need "nuclear trains" - and much cheaper than submarines, and very difficult to detect.
  11. vkrav
    vkrav 16 June 2013 18: 52 New
    +2
    Why not mention "Tulip"? It had standard nuclear mines for 10kt ...
  12. Basarev
    Basarev 26 January 2014 22: 43 New
    0
    Still there are very tiny - 152 mm nuclear shells.