Military Review

Russian large caliber revolvers

Revolvers are called weaponEquipped with a rotating drum, the chambers of which serve as a room for ammunition and barrel chamber. At the same time, the stem rigidly fixed in the frame does not have its own chamber. The main advantage of revolvers is the possibility of the next shot in the event of a misfire without reloading the gun. Also, revolvers are distinguished by their reliability in handling and comparative simplicity of design. The disadvantages of such weapons are large transverse dimensions, duration of reloading, as well as tight descent.

Today, revolvers under the pistol cartridge is quite difficult to compete with self-loading pistols. Any advantage of such a weapon can be obtained when using non-standard large-caliber cartridges for pistols. Since in our country special revolving ammunition was never produced, new cartridges began to be developed on the basis of a metal sleeve from a common hunting cartridge of 32 caliber. For a smooth-bore weapon it is the caliber 12,5 mm, for a rifled barrel - 12,3 mm. In Russia, several samples of large-caliber revolvers were created for this cartridge.

One of the most famous revolvers is the Nagan revolvers.

Revolver "Blow" (Klimovsk)

For example, the revolver “Udar” created in the Central Research Institute for Scientific and Technical Information Institute in the city of Klimovsk was distinguished by a rather archaic reloading scheme due to the removal of the drum. This scheme is found today, for example, in the supercompact revolvers of the company North American. At the same time in the American revolver its use was due to the desire to achieve minimum dimensions and maximum simplicity of design. In the case of Klimov's “Strike,” which was not distinguished by its miniature dimensions, this approach was controversial. As a possible reason for the implementation of such a recharge, there was a version that replacing the drum made it possible to switch quickly from the use of non-lethal ammunition to lethal ammunition, which would be convenient for police officers. The advantage of the revolver was the fact that a sufficient amount of ammunition for various purposes was created for it. At the same time, this revolver was not widely used.

A prototype of a new large-caliber revolver was presented by TsNIItochmash in 1993 year. Especially for it was created a whole family of cartridges caliber 12,3 mm, which were created on the basis of the hunting sleeve 32-caliber. A pistol powder charge was placed in the brass sleeve, and the KV-26 primer-igniter was used, which is similar to that used in the 9xXNNXX PM pistol cartridge. The use of large caliber allowed to create a whole range of different cartridges:

- a cartridge with a combat bullet of a stopping action, at a distance of 25 meters, it saved energy 49J;
- cartridge with armor piercing bullet. This bullet combined high punching action when it hit a rigid barrier (door, wall, glass, body armor) with a high stopping effect and a lower probability of rebounding. At a distance in 25 meters, a bullet could pierce a sheet of steel with a thickness of 5 mm;
- shotgun cartridge, equipped with steel shot;
- pyrofluid cartridge containing irritant (irritant fluid), covered with plastic wad. This cartridge is effective at a distance of up to 5 meters. Spraying a jet of liquid into an aerosol is already in the air, which reduces the likelihood of the shooter falling into the aerosol cloud, in contrast to the firing of traditional gas cartridges;
- the light and sound cartridge, which, at the moment of the shot, gives a powerful flash of light and a very strong sound, the combination of these factors disorienting the enemy, can disrupt the coordination of movements;
- cartridge with spherical rubber bullet of traumatic action;
- cartridge with a painting bullet.

Russian large caliber revolvers

The design of the “Strike” large-caliber revolver is quite common - a solid metal frame, a tide box for a ramrod-axle, an open trigger with a knitting needle, comfortable handle cheeks made in the form of a molded plastic part. The classic appearance of the frame is broken only by the front ledge of the trigger guard, which is designed for firing with two hands. The main feature of the revolver is its replacement drum for 5 cartridges (12,3x35 mm), which is made together with the cleaning rod-axis. This revolver assembly is fixed in a frame with a latch, the levers of which are located on both sides of the frame. Squeezing levers, you can get the drum and replace it with a new one. In fact, the drum can be changed like a regular pistol store. With live ammunition, the drum weighs 380 g, with non-lethal ammunition its weight is slightly less. Dimensions revolver 174x44x136 mm, weight without cartridges - 0,8 kg.

The trigger trigger of the revolver "Strike" allows you to fire both self-platoon and with a preliminary cocking of the trigger. The revolver is equipped with an aiming device designed for a distance of 50 meters, although the effective range of the “Strike” is the 25 meters distance. The base of the front sight, which is beveled back, smoothly passes into the bar of the trunk. The balance and grip of the revolver are comfortable, but, like any other powerful revolver, it requires a trained hand from the shooter. When using live ammunition, the revolver surpasses the PM pistol by 1,5 by the accuracy of fire. When using a plastic bullet guaranteed to hit the silhouette of a person from a distance of 15 meters, three bullets in a row - from 5 meters.

Revolver "Blow" (Tula)

In the famous Tula KBP, in 1994, on the basis of the P-92 revolver, its own large-caliber revolver was created, also designated “Strike”. The new revolver was made in the same way as the P-92, equipped with a one-piece streamlined frame, a double-action firing mechanism (you can shoot by self-arming or by preloading the trigger), tilted to the left by the drum. With a revolver, different-purpose cartridges of 12,3x40 mm were used, which were made on the basis of the brass sleeve of the 32-nd hunting caliber.

Externally and structurally, the revolver is very similar to the P-92, but was larger than it. Weapon dimensions were 173x44x136 mm. The capacity of the drum is 5 cartridges (for large-caliber revolvers, such capacity is standard, as with the 6 cartridges in the drum, the weapon greatly increases its dimensions). The drum of the revolver was filled with a special clip, which consisted of 2-x plates with special cutouts for cartridges. This holder also serves for the simultaneous extraction of spent cartridges. The weight of the revolver was 0,92 kg, which is not such a big value for such a powerful weapon.

On the basis of the Tula revolver, Udar, a service modification was developed, which used a special cartridge 12,3x22 mm with a soft lead bullet, which in its energy characteristics fully fit into the framework of the Russian Weapons Act. At the same time, this modification of the revolver could be used in situations where it was necessary to combine a small penetrating ability and a large stopping effect. A special training modification was also developed, with the help of which it was possible to conduct training of personnel. It was a kind of "paintball" option for professionals, it used marking bullets.

Revolver Dog

In Russia, another large-caliber revolver was created which was similar in design to the revolver from Klimovsk. It was a Dog revolver created by the employees of the Titan company and IzhSTU employees as a hunting and service weapon. The revolver was produced at the Vyatka-Polyansky machine-building plant "Molot". The reloading system of the revolver was the same as that of Klimov's "Blow", by removing the drum. However, if in the “Impact” a extractor was installed on the drum, then the “Dog” revolver did not have it either. However, such primitivism was due to the fact that such a concept was acceptable for a hunting insuring revolver, and the primitiveness of the design was fully justified by its simplicity. The fate of this revolver was ruined by the efforts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which interrupted his hunting career, transferring the revolver to the category of service weapons, where he had strong enough competitors.

Revolver "Gnome"

The smoothbore revolver “Dwarf” OTs-20 was created at the Instrument Design Bureau in Tula in 1994 by designers V.I. Seregin, A.N. Nevizhin and S.V. Zotov. The revolver was designed to arm the employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and private security companies with special tasks and conditions. The revolver was distinguished by high levels of operational reliability, as well as by a unique powerful striking effect, which is caused by the use of special ammunition. To the “Gnome”, as well as to the “Blow”, a whole range of special cartridges 12,5x40 mm was developed:

The 110 SC is an armor-piercing cartridge with a steel bullet of 11 g and muzzle energy in 900 J. Such a bullet has an initial flight speed of 400 m / s and is able to pierce a bullet at a distance of 50 meters standard armor element thickness 3 mm. This means that no body armor (up to and including the 25 class) can protect against this cartridge;

SC 110-02 - shotgun cartridge, in which 16 pellets of lead with a diameter of 4,5 mm and a total mass of 10 are located. The cartridge can be used when firing in difficult conditions, for example in the dark, to defeat group targets;

SC-110-04 cartridge, equipped with a lead bullet of mass 12 g and the initial speed of the bullet 350 m / s. By its stopping effect, this bullet surpasses the absolute majority of modern revolver and pistol bullets.

The design of this large-caliber revolver is quite common and somewhat resembles a nickel revolver. The revolver has a double-action firing mechanism, which is assembled on a separate basis, its 5 ammunition capacity. The mass of the revolver without cartridges is 1,005 kg, the dimensions of the weapon are 250x45x132 mm. The length of the barrel is 110 mm. It should be remembered that the length of the barrel in the revolver does not include the length of the chamber, so the actual length of the barrel for pistol measures is almost 150 mm, which, in turn, provides a good accuracy when shooting. The effective firing range is 50 meters. To increase the accuracy of shooting revolver "Gnome" can be equipped with a laser pointer.

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  1. Owl
    Owl April 23 2014 07: 53
    All these samples did not advance beyond "small-scale production", I do not know of a single case of real use of these products by the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
    1. bazilio
      bazilio April 23 2014 11: 31
      Quote: Eagle Owl
      All these samples did not advance beyond "small-scale production", I do not know of a single case of real use of these products by the Ministry of Internal Affairs

      There are probably several reasons at once - for the beginning of the trouble with financing. It's not enough to buy the revolver itself in the required quantities, to it there are also all sorts of accompanying holsters, sets, etc. you need to purchase. Cartridges - "new" cartridge, not mass-produced, although it was created on the basis of a hunting one. Again, spend money. Whether it is the PM-vskie cartridges, there are probably still a lot of them in the storerooms from the Soviet times.
  2. ispaniard
    ispaniard April 23 2014 08: 23
    I really respect such domestic developments in terms of the Power / compactness / legality of ownership ratio - this type of weapon is close to ideal. I would very much like to acquire "Gnome" for personal use, but alas, the legislative base in our state is not yet so friendly to us ordinary lovers of domestic weapons sad
  3. inkass_98
    inkass_98 April 23 2014 09: 29
    We do not have America, there is no respect for revolvers, therefore they do not receive development either. If there are no traditions, then it makes no sense to introduce them now. The revolver, in my opinion, has outlived its own. As an auxiliary weapon (hunting large caliber) - it makes sense, but as a combat ont is no longer relevant. I’m not going to impose my opinion on anyone, but the general trend in the development of small arms is a confirmation of this.
    Although as a product of the human mind - there are very beautiful and elegant cars, it's nice to take it in your hands. And the "Nagan" left a pleasant impression (we were in service, the oldest was in 1912 still at the Tula Imperial Plant, the newest was in 1944, in the neighboring team was a rarity of 1896)
    1. Greenhorn
      Greenhorn April 23 2014 12: 45
      As a weapon of last chance or a weapon of self-defense - that’s it.
    2. Nikoha.2010
      Nikoha.2010 April 26 2014 15: 05
      Yuri login you have in the subject, my wife's grandmother worked in the vokhra and she had a "Nagant". Yes, there is beauty in the classical understanding of weapons, but the revolver is now "relevant" simply because of fashion. Automation is progressing. Thanks to the author!
  4. Svetovod
    Svetovod April 23 2014 09: 38
    I have been wondering for a long time - why did the position of the barrel in the upper drum chamber, and not in the lower one, become the traditional layout for revolvers?
    1. Alexander.B
      Alexander.B April 23 2014 09: 53
      Quote: Svetovod
      I have been wondering for a long time - why did the position of the barrel in the upper drum chamber, and not in the lower one, become the traditional layout for revolvers?

      For more accurate shooting, why else? The closer the barrel to the aiming axis, the higher the chance to get to where you aim. Not?
      1. Terrible ensign
        Terrible ensign April 23 2014 14: 35
        I’ll develop a little ...
        In addition, the recoil momentum during a shot passes (provided that the shooter grabs it correctly, it doesn’t matter with one hand or two ...) to the radius of the arm (or arms), which also affects the accuracy of the shot. When shooting offhand, without preliminary aiming, at short distances with sporadic fire contact, the bullet during the first shot, in principle, flies in a straight parallel line to the large radius and metacarpal bones of the shooter's index finger.
      2. luiswoo
        luiswoo April 23 2014 20: 47
        Quote: Alexander.B
        For more accurate shooting, why else? The closer the barrel to the aiming axis - the higher the chance to get to where you aim. Not?

        This is not a sniper rifle. + - a centimeter at a distance of 10-15 meters, they do not play a special role, I think. But there will be less bullying - it looks more valuable.
        1. Nikolay74
          Nikolay74 April 26 2014 19: 20
          Error in aiming at 1 mm for the PM distance of 25 m the spread is 19 cm if the memory is not out of the way with respect hi
      3. luiswoo
        luiswoo April 23 2014 21: 03
        This is not a sniper rifle

        Although the difference in them is even greater, it seems. In the dock movie, a sniper fired two bullets into the fence in front of him, wondering why the adversary didn't fall. Until I realized that this sight was "looking" through the fence, and the barrel into the fence ... it was lucky that the stoned man did not react to two pops and did not shoot the hostage, but waited for the deserved third bullet.
    2. understudy
      understudy April 23 2014 14: 34
      Quote: Svetovod
      and not the bottom?

      laughing You can even draw a designated trunk location. But it really hurts to be like ... unaesthetic garbage. And secondly, there will be difficulties with tipping the capsule, you will have to revise and invent the entire trigger mechanism with the dubious effectiveness of the innovation. Do we need it?
      1. Viktor.N.Aleksandrov.
        Viktor.N.Aleksandrov. April 23 2014 19: 28
        We also have revolvers with the lower location of the barrel, although they have not received distribution either - AEK-96 Rhinoceros. Unfortunately I could not insert a picture.
        1. uzer 13
          uzer 13 April 23 2014 22: 45
          From my point of view, a very successful design.
      2. Bosk
        Bosk April 23 2014 19: 52
        Why is this not aesthetically pleasing? Chiappa rhino 60ds
        Really doesn’t take his hand away when shooting, quite an interesting return ...
      3. luiswoo
        luiswoo April 23 2014 20: 36

        It is quite aesthetically pleasing, though it’s a carbine, judging by the configuration ... For some reason, they decided not to use a half-free bolt, although I think we could manage to keep within acceptable 4-5 kg, unlike the 6 kg (carcass) of the older brother ASH-12. But in the end they invented it.
        Something was carried away ... In general, quite a robocop style. Just firing from it without a butt and front handle will probably be somewhat uncomfortable ...
  5. ramsi
    ramsi April 23 2014 10: 10
    Quote: Svetovod
    I have been wondering for a long time - why did the position of the barrel in the upper drum chamber, and not in the lower one, become the traditional layout for revolvers?

    good question. Probably, taking into account the genesis of the short barrel, possible technical problems with your layout ... In general, it is difficult to argue with the classics. Well, let’s say, it would be to shift the drum to the level of the handle - what's the point? The balance will improve, but the battle is unlikely. Personally, it seems to me the only reasonable thing is to move the cartridge in the drum forward with the hammer before breaking the capsule, and then returning it to its original position (like, hi to Nagan)
    1. Terrible ensign
      Terrible ensign April 23 2014 14: 49
      Or by feeding the entire drum forward so that the chamber of the drum, conventionally "located under the shot", moves over the annular protrusion of the chamber (breech) of the revolver barrel to prevent leakage of powder gases. This is what some modern revolvers have implemented. And, in general, this problem (leakage) in revolvers, despite all the high technology and precision mechanics used in the production of modern revolvers not only in Russia, but throughout the world, has not been completely eliminated. Therefore, pistols in the modern arms market and occupy a more leading position.
      And Nagan, of course, a big hello! ..
      1. Michael_59
        Michael_59 April 23 2014 15: 28
        Quote: Scary ensign
        Or feed the entire drum forward

        Or back, "revolver-bullpup")))
  6. Michael_59
    Michael_59 April 23 2014 15: 48
    Some kind of "DOG" from the author is beautiful ... I just knew this ...
  7. Michael_59
    Michael_59 April 23 2014 15: 53
    Quote: author
    based on the P-92 revolver

    That's the P-92 itself under the PM 9n18 cartridge
  8. allexx83
    allexx83 April 23 2014 22: 48
    An excellent melee weapon, primarily for self-defense. WANT!!!!
    Why didn't they mention "Rhino" in the article? A very interesting sample with a life-affirming caliber 12.7)))))))))
  9. uzer 13
    uzer 13 April 23 2014 23: 32
    Not very aesthetically pleasing, but cheap, reliable and practical. It was apparently assumed that the enemy, having seen a revolver of such a flawed design, shooting bolts and nuts, would be frightened and flee from the battlefield without entering into any shoot-out. Such kind of revolvers are used by hunters for insurance and some types of hunting. Only these are not Russian hunters. In the police and the army, too, such revolvers are also unlikely to take root, there are more problems with them than good. For whom are they made, you can find out? Where weapons are not sold to the population, degradation is always observed gunsmiths. Revolvers actually do something like this:
    1. George Sviridov
      George Sviridov 14 July 2016 15: 29
      Well, it's beautiful, but it's really a "civilian" weapon - it doesn't have any unique combat properties. On the contrary, army weapons do not matter how they look and what the quality of the finish is, but it is important that they have outstanding qualities in their niche.
      The same OTs-20 Gnome I would have bought myself, a chic thing, universal. If you want an injury, you want a flare gun, you want a shotgun, and if you need a bullet you can hit it.
  10. wasjasibirjac
    wasjasibirjac April 24 2014 15: 16
    revolvers have their own tactical niche, it's just quite narrow at the moment. as an army weapon, revolvers have really outlived theirs, but as a weapon for police and self-defense, they are quite real. even for the special forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, they may be suitable: in some documentary filmm I saw how the special forces entered the building - a "caterpillar": in front of him was a soldier with bulletproof bulletproof shields, armed with a PM, followed by others. the PM has insufficient energy for the shot, perhaps a revolver that surpasses the pistol in energy would do.
    but our large-caliber revolvers still have low shot energy compared to the caliber, if the Dwarf gives out 900 joules of 12,7 mm caliber. those. in the west - 50 cal., then Desert Eagle 50 cal. gives up to 2300 J., i.e. almost 3 times more. there is something to work on.
    1. George Sviridov
      George Sviridov 14 July 2016 15: 43
      So in the Gnome weakened cartridge. If you need energy and armor-piercing-RSh-12, nothing will stand next to it.
      But I can say more than this - at D. pistol distances the energy of D. Needle is not needed at 2300 - he doesn’t break through a bulletproof vest, and to stop a person this energy is not only redundant, so the bullet transfers to the body by no means all of it — but breaks through only giving it through part of the energy and flies on.
      The gnome is not needed by the "shieldman", since the "shieldman" is limited in weapons to him the revolver does not fit with a small ammunition.
      OTs-20 is primarily needed by patrol, district, security guards, as it allows you to store lethal and non-lethal ammunition in one drum. That is, you met a punks — you won’t beat them into combat — you use a gas or traumatic shot, but if you need to shoot tires there, for example, to a criminal, shoot buckshot if you want to damage the engine-bullet.
      That is, it is not for special forces and the battle with aliens, it is for utilitarian tasks - to detain, stop, disperse the crowd, stop transport, kill a dangerous animal (yes, the police are also engaged in this). The only negative is he is healthy of course. But if you could buy it as a hunting weapon, I would buy it right away.
  11. Leader
    Leader April 24 2014 21: 50
    What is there to "work" on? Revolvers have outlived theirs.
    And in Russia - you can only admire the short-barrel in the pictures. If they were on sale - one could talk about some kind of "niche".
  12. Sour
    Sour April 25 2014 09: 32
    The era of revolvers has passed. They are being rejected with might and main even in the States, where they were most common.
    As a military and police weapon, a revolver has no advantages over a pistol.
    Quote: wasjasibirjac
    PM does not have enough shot energy; perhaps a revolver that surpasses a pistol in energy would be suitable.

    I noticed that supporters of revolvers like to compare them with low-powered pistols. Why exactly compare with PM?
    For example
    1. wasjasibirjac
      wasjasibirjac April 25 2014 19: 55
      [quote = Sour] I noticed that supporters of revolvers like to compare them with low-powered pistols. Why exactly compare with PM? [/ qu
      probably because it is PM that is in service with law enforcement agencies, and therefore they are compared.
      1. Sour
        Sour April 26 2014 09: 36
        probably because it is PM that is in service with law enforcement agencies, which is why they are compared

        I think that’s not why. But because lovers of revolvers choose a weaker gun for comparison. They clearly do not want to compare revolvers with powerful pistols.
        A powerful revolver cannot always and not everywhere replace a PM, if only because a powerful revolver is unsuitable for hidden carrying. I can hardly imagine the Ugrozysk operative with a revolver. And if you create a revolver for hidden wear, it will be deliberately weaker than the PM.
        As a police weapon for medium-range fire, the revolver will lose, for example, the "Cedar", and for special forces there is a 9A-91. Once again, the time for revolvers is over. I have been abroad, saw the service weapons of the police. In Europe it is Beretta, Browning High Power or something similar. As an automatic weapon - MP-5 chambered for the same cartridge as pistols. I have not seen revolvers. Perhaps they are in countries where I have not been.
        perhaps a revolver would come up, surpassing a pistol with energy.

        But why exactly a revolver ??? Why can't create pistol more powerful, if the PM is too weak? You again have a stereotype - "a revolver is more powerful than a pistol". But this is not so! A revolver will never be more powerful than a pistol chambered for the same cartridge. And the number of cartridges in the drum and in the pistol magazine is not worth comparing. Can you imagine a revolver with a 15-round drum? And "Beretta" has just that much in the store.
  13. Svetovod
    Svetovod 7 May 2014 15: 50
    A very successful scheme of the domestic revolver "OC-38"... The SP-4 pluggable cartridge is used there. Chinarem - the barrel is at the bottom, the recoil shoulder is short, and the drum does not lean back on the longitudinal axis, but rotates on the vertical one.
    1. George Sviridov
      George Sviridov 14 July 2016 15: 45
      Well, this is a special forces pistol, a gorgeous thing and it is better than the PB because it does not leave any shells.