Military Review

Flame Engine

Flame Engine

Jet engines in the second half of the XNUMXth century opened up new possibilities in aviation: Flights at speeds exceeding the speed of sound, the creation of aircraft with high carrying capacity, and also made possible mass travel over long distances. A turbojet engine is rightfully considered one of the most important mechanisms of the past century, despite the simple principle of operation.


The first Wright Brothers aircraft, independently detached from the Earth in the 1903 year, was equipped with a piston internal combustion engine. And for forty years, this type of engine remained the main aircraft. But during World War II, it became clear that traditional piston-screw aircraft approached its technological limit, both in power and speed. One alternative was the jet engine.

The idea of ​​using jet propulsion to overcome gravity was first brought to practical feasibility by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. Back in 1903, when the Wright brothers launched their first plane, the Flyer-1, the Russian scientist published the work Exploration of World Spaces with Jet Instruments, in which he developed the fundamentals of the theory of jet propulsion. Published in the "Scientific Review" article approved his reputation as a dreamer and was not taken seriously. Tsiolkovsky took years of work and a change in the political system to prove his case.

Su-11 jet aircraft with TR-1 engines developed by the Cradle Design Bureau

Nevertheless, the birthplace of a serial turbojet engine was destined to become a completely different country - Germany. Creating a turbojet engine in the late 1930-x was a kind of hobby of German companies. In this area, almost all currently known brands were noted: Heinkel, BMW, Daimler-Benz and even Porsche. The main laurels went to Junkers and its first-ever serial turbojet engine 109-004, installed on the world's first turbojet aircraft Me 262.

Despite the incredibly successful launch in jet aircraft of the first generation, the German decisions did not receive further development anywhere in the world, including in the Soviet Union.

In the USSR, the development of turbojet engines was most successfully dealt with by the legendary aircraft designer Arkhip Lyulka. Back in April 1940, he patented his own scheme of a dual-circuit turbojet engine, which later received worldwide recognition. Arkhip Lulka did not find support from the country's leadership. With the beginning of the war, he was generally offered to switch to tank engines. And only when the Germans appeared aircraft with turbojet engines, Lyulka was urgently ordered to resume work on the domestic turbojet engine TR-1.

Already in February, the 1947 of the engine passed the first tests, and the 28 of May made its first flight by a Su-11 jet aircraft with the first domestic engines TR-1, developed by the AM Design Bureau. The cradles, now a branch of the Ufa engine-building software, part of the United Engine Corporation (UEC).


A turbojet engine (TRD) operates on the principle of a conventional heat engine. Without going into the laws of thermodynamics, a heat engine can be defined as a machine for converting energy into mechanical work. This energy has the so-called working fluid - used inside the car gas or steam. With compression in the machine, the working body receives energy, and with its subsequent expansion we have useful mechanical work.

At the same time, it is clear that the work expended in compressing a gas should always be less than the work that gas can do during expansion. Otherwise there will be no useful "products". Therefore, the gas must also be heated before expansion or during it, and it must be cooled before compression. As a result, due to pre-heating, the expansion energy will increase significantly and its surplus will appear, which can be used to obtain the mechanical work we need. That's actually the whole principle of the turbojet engine.

Thus, any heat engine must have a device for compression, a heater, a device for expansion and cooling. All this is in TRD, respectively: compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, and the atmosphere acts as a refrigerator.

The working medium is air, it enters the compressor and is compressed there. In the compressor on one rotating axis, metal discs are fixed, along the crowns of which so-called “working blades” are placed. They "capture" the outside air, throwing it into the engine.

Then the air enters the combustion chamber, where it is heated and mixed with the combustion products (kerosene). The combustion chamber girdles the rotor of the engine after the compressor with a solid ring, or in the form of separate pipes, which are called flame tubes. Aviation kerosene is fed into the flame tubes through special nozzles.

From the combustion chamber, the heated working fluid enters the turbine. It looks like a compressor, but it works, so to speak, in the opposite direction. She spins hot gas on the same principle as the air child's toy-propeller. The turbine has a few steps, usually from one to three or four. This is the most loaded node in the engine. The turbojet engine has a very large rotational speed - up to 30 thousands of revolutions per minute. The torch from the combustion chamber reaches temperatures from 1100 to 1500 degrees Celsius. The air here expands, setting the turbine in motion and giving it some of its energy.

After the turbine - a jet nozzle, where the working fluid is accelerated and expires at a speed greater than the speed of the oncoming flow, which creates jet thrust.


Despite the fact that, in principle, there is no exact classification of generations of turbojet engines, it is possible in general terms to describe the main types at various stages of engine development.

The first generation engines include German and British engines from the Second World War, as well as the Soviet VK-1, which was installed on the famous MIG-15 fighter and on IL-28 and TU-14 aircraft.

MIG-15 Fighter

The second-generation turbofan engines are notable for the possible presence of an axial compressor, an afterburner and an adjustable air intake. Among Soviet examples is the P-11F2C-300 engine for the MiG-21 aircraft.

Third generation engines are characterized by an increased degree of compression, which was achieved by an increase in compressor and turbine stages, and the appearance of a bypass. Technically, these are the most complex engines.

The emergence of new materials, which significantly increase operating temperatures, has led to the creation of fourth-generation engines. Among such engines is the domestic AL-31 developed by the UEC for the Su-27 fighter.

Today, the UDC enterprise UDC begins production of fifth-generation aircraft engines. The new units will be installed on the T-50 fighter (PAK FA), which replaces the Su-27. The new powerplant on the T-50 with increased power will make the aircraft even more maneuverable, and most importantly - will open a new era in the domestic aircraft industry.
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  1. NIVH
    NIVH April 23 2014 08: 41
    A topic worthy of wider disclosure and not within the same article.
  2. Sirocco
    Sirocco April 23 2014 08: 48

    [quote] The idea of ​​using jet thrust to overcome gravity was first brought to practicality by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. Back in 1903, a Russian scientist published the work “Exploring World Spaces with Jet Devices,” in which he developed the foundations of the theory of jet propulsion. ] [/ quote] [/ quote] [quote] Nevertheless, the birthplace of the serial turbojet engine was destined to become a completely different country - Germany. [/ Quote] At the expense of Germany, I had doubts, and they arose after watching the program about K. E. Tsiolkovsky, and his creations, the first metal balloon in the world, the drawings of which he presented to the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Ironically, this device was made a couple of years later by the Germans, and the drawings of this miracle were transferred from this IAN, and apparently, not only these drawings, but also others from other designers. This explains this agility with which the west burst forth. By the way, the same system worked and is still in effect, pay attention to who works in the USA, at least in electronics, physics, and chemistry.
    1. melman
      melman April 23 2014 10: 43
      As an ordinary Russian "if it were possible, the British would have already made it"
  3. Diviz
    Diviz April 23 2014 09: 54
    I can find this information on Wikipedia. You’d better tell us how things are going with the 5th generation engines. At t50, the old engines should be installed first and then modified. And I would like to know about the 6th generation engines, whether they will exist.
  4. inkass_98
    inkass_98 April 23 2014 10: 16
    , in the physics textbook you can get more information. It would be good to cover this topic more broadly.
  5. nvn_co
    nvn_co April 23 2014 13: 18
    No offense, of course, to the author, but what did the author want to convey with this article?
  6. serrrrgo
    serrrrgo April 23 2014 13: 42
    The fact is that this site at your leisure reads a much larger number of people than physics textbooks, so many will be interesting and useful.
  7. 52
    52 April 23 2014 15: 40
    author! Expand the topic wider and deeper! The site is visited not only by those who studied physics in the eighth grade in 1986, but also simply interested people who would be happy to understand and understand, but there is neither time nor a sensible advisor. The level of education has dropped, and pedivics does not give a complete understanding of the subject For example, tell those who are interested about drygels with a centrifugal compressor, their application, about deviations in the "general" line of turbojet engine development. You have an interesting "infa", so share, do not be greedy! Not for self-interest, only by the will of the youth who sent me! And why did A. Lyulka's AL-7 come out "hunchbacked"?
  8. propolsky
    propolsky April 23 2014 16: 01
    A sore subject for our aircraft industry. Together with the excellent aerodynamics of the aircraft, the difficult and often tragic path of engine building ... Not everything is so chic and confident.
  9. dizelniy
    dizelniy April 23 2014 16: 57
    One could keep silent, but young people will take it at face value. The "bloody" Bolshevik regime in the most difficult year of its existence - 1918, in December signed by V.I. Lenin issues a decree on the creation of TsAGI under the leadership of N.E. Zhukovsky (the father of Russian aviation in the terminology of the Soviet era) and allocates money. After half a year, a propeller-driven group was created at TsAGI. Its leader B.S. Stechkin and his team are working on the scientific foundations for the creation of gas turbine engines. This theory was developed and published in 1929. receiving wide response and recognition. In parallel, engineer Bazarov is developing a project for a jet engine with a centrifugal compressor. For the first time in the world. The development project has not received, however, a turboprop engine with a capacity of 1500 hp is being created at the Kolomna plant with a temperature in front of the turbine of 1500 degrees. The turbine was cooled with water. The engine worked at the stand for 50 hours. Cradle submitted its application for a bypass engine for registration on April 22, 1941. In the same year, the drawings for the manufacture of the TR-1 engine with an estimated thrust of 800 kg were transferred to the Leningrad plant. In Germany, the turbojet engine reached operational readiness in 1943. after a string of failures. The TR-1 engine by 1946. produced in a small series for experimental aircraft of various design bureaus. The Su-11 in the text is not the plane on which this engine was. The photo shows a production Su-11 aircraft with an AL-7F engine. Su-11 with two motors under the wing did not go into production. A.I. Cradle was exclusively engaged in the implementation of his ideas. "Bloody" Stalin managed to discern the genius and the perspective of his ideas. As a result, we got AL-5; 7; 21; 31 engines. Source of "TRD" edition of the Perm University.
  10. Takashi
    Takashi April 23 2014 16: 59
    Engine building is generally a very sore subject for Russia. If you drip closer, then normal engines - no.
    1. 13 June 2014 20: 16
      Especially RD-180 is probably bullshit American
    2. 13 June 2014 20: 16
      Especially RD-180 is probably bullshit American
  11. dizelniy
    dizelniy April 23 2014 17: 09
    Quote: Takashi
    Engine building is generally a very sore subject for Russia. If you drip closer, then normal engines - no.

    If you DROP then you will not see them. We have gone through de-industrialization, the loss of the right motivation, because of this money began to be "sawed", and not invested in production. Now the mechanism for managing the industry is being adjusted, it is very painful, there are few workers, wages are low, etc.
  12. skitden
    skitden April 24 2014 18: 34
    interesting article. +
  13. gridasov
    gridasov April 25 2014 20: 24
    Modern turbines have a key drawback, which cannot be said out loud. This is still poorly said. The algorithm of the physical process of organizing the hydro-gas dynamic flow is organized in a fundamentally illogical way. This necessitates the use of pure hydrocarbon fuel, rather than stable emulsion mixtures, moreover, prepared at the time of use. Moreover, there is no need to solve complex, or rather impossible tasks of cooling turbine blades. But the most important problem is that on modern physical principles and algorithms of the process, it is impossible to increase the speed of non-destructive rotation of the rotor by orders of magnitude. This, in turn, does not allow not only to correctly balance the energy content of the flow at the "inlet and outlet", but also to increase the productivity of the "liquid or gas" flow itself. There will be no understanding of the fundamentals of the physical process, there will be no result. It is impossible to analyze highly potential energy complex processes using partial and approximate algebraic solutions. The body moves in the environment and this forms the space of conjugate interactions. Without knowing how and why magnetic fluxes are formed and where and why areas of critical polarization are formed, it is impossible to move forward.
  14. rubin6286
    rubin6286 April 26 2014 19: 21
    The formation of Soviet jet engine and jet aviation in the late 40s was based on German technology, industrial designs and was carried out with the participation of German experts. Entire factories were exported to reparations in the USSR, where new laboratories, design bureaus, production shops and buildings arose. Other victorious countries followed the same path, and the difference, at first, was that the Russians had nothing to create a jet aircraft, and the allies had not only a wide industrial and scientific base, but also considerable economic opportunities.
    Claiming that German decisions in the field of jet aviation were not developed anywhere further, the author simply does not have sufficient information. Little was written about this before and even less was said. The British Dervent and Nin aircraft engines purchased and copied in the post-war years, which were subsequently installed on the MiG-9, MiG-15, La-15, were created with the active participation of German specialists. German engines were on the first Argentinean jet designed by Kurt Tank in the 50s and on the Indian Hindustan-24. In the same period, many German developments in the field of engines were used by the French to create airplanes with a combined (TRD + LRE) power plant - Ledyuk, Tridan. Willy Messerschmitt provided technical and consulting support for the creation of the American F-102 Voodoo and F-8 Cruzeider aircraft. The German experience, of course, was useful to everyone, but Soviet designers went much further in solving practical problems. TU-50, IL-16, Mig-28, Yak-19 aircraft that entered service in the 25s already had domestic turbojet engines that were not inferior to Western models.