Military Review

On the road to financial autonomy. Stalin's gold ruble. Part of 2

45
Monetary reform in the USSR 1922 — 1924


By the spring of 1922, the problem of stabilization of the ruble became particularly acute, as the depreciation of the ruble prevented the economic recovery. It should be noted that the Soviet government knew why he needed a hard ruble. And this was different from modern economists, who like to talk about the profitability of a “weak ruble” for Russia. In reality, the depreciation of the ruble is beneficial to the West, which with its hard currency makes it easier to buy Russian raw materials. Favorable devaluation of the ruble and the modern large Russian capital. All this reinforces the raw material nature of the Russian economy. For the development of national production and domestic trade profitable solid ruble. The Bolsheviks understood this well.

Foreign currency and gold, which penetrated into the economic turnover of the USSR, reduced the sphere of circulation of the Soviet ruble. It was necessary to create a stable currency. Two denominations were the first stage of reform. The denomination unified monetary circulation, but did not strengthen the Sovznak. Since the summer of 1922, the State Bank has been conducting preparatory work in preparation for the release of new banknotes. Decrees of the Council of People's Commissars of July 25 and October 11 of 1922, the State Bank received the right to issue new banknotes - banknotes of large bills. It was planned to put into circulation notes in denominations of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 25 and 50 chervonets. Money received the name from "pure gold" (high-grade pure gold), which had red, that is red shade. In the future, banknotes with denominations in 2 and 50 ducats, which were provided for by decree, were not released into circulation. The Soviet chervonets was equated to the 10-ruble gold coin of the Russian Empire weighing 7,74. The chervonets was 25% secured with gold, other precious metals, and also foreign currency; on 75% it was provided with short-term government obligations and goods.

Sovznak was not completely canceled, not enough security. Chervonets was a very large amount, and in fact it could only be used for large and bulk purchases. Small retailers needed small amounts. Metallic gold coins were mainly used by the Soviet government for foreign trade, internal circulation was limited. As a result, a solid Soviet currency was created on a gold basis, but without the circulation of gold money. By the summer of 1923, the chervonets was firmly introduced into circulation as the main currency of Soviet Russia. The number of bank notes in circulation increased from 3,5 million rubles on January 1 1923 of the year to 237 million rubles on January 1 of 1924. Their share in the whole mass of money, calculated in gold pieces, increased from 3% to 75%.

Along with the release of the chervonets in October 1923, the so-called transport certificates of a banknote in 5 rubles were put into circulation, they were accepted into payments by the railway along with chervonets. Almost transport certificates were accepted in payments not only by railways. Transport certificates were included in the money turnover of the country as a small denomination of gold pieces.

Monetary reform stabilized the situation of the country, but failed to eliminate a number of negative phenomena. The depreciation of the Sovznak continued at a rapid pace. The falling Sovznak remained the leading currency in the countryside for some time, as the chervonets had too much banknotes. Chervonets, with low productivity (when the peasants produced a little more than they consumed themselves) and low cash incomes of the peasants, was not accessible to the broad masses of the population. In addition, in the village there were no compensation mechanisms protecting cash income from the devaluation of the Soviet signs that were in the cities. Thus, the problems that caused the falling currency, lay mainly on the Soviet peasantry. In fact, the burden of building the Soviet state was placed on the shoulders of the peasantry.

The preservation of a falling currency had a negative effect on the position of workers. Salary was still largely issued not by ducats, but by Soviet signs. Jumps of Sovznak and chervonets courses and fluctuations in the rates of the same money in different markets created grounds for speculation. The stratum of the NEPmen (the “new Russian” 1920s) and the kulaks won on the speculative rise in prices and the depreciation of their debts. Prosperous peasantry (fists) profit from usury and speculative operations. This showed the need to introduce a single currency.

Not only the representatives of the Nepman bourgeoisie and the kulaks, but also the Trotskyists resisted. They prophesied the failure of monetary reform and proposed to cancel it or stay on top of this. Economists at the Narkomfin Economic Research Institute also predicted the collapse of monetary reform, saying that it was impossible to quickly reduce budget expenditures and find other sources to cover the budget deficit. Thus, certain segments of the population in the Soviet Union wanted to maintain the weakness of the ruble and the dependence of Soviet money circulation on the world money market and on our economy and on foreign capital. Private traders and Nepmen wanted a free exchange of gold coins for gold, in order to be able to withdraw gold abroad and escape there too.

At the beginning of 1924, the final stage of the reform was carried out. In the spring of 1924, treasury notes in denominations of 1, 3 and 5 rubles began to be received in money circulation. Sovznaky ceased to produce and began to withdraw them from circulation by buying them at a fixed rate. The Sovznaks of the 1923 sample of the year were redeemed from the population at the rate of one gold ruble in treasury notes for 50 thousand old (in the old sample banknotes 50 billion rubles). At the same time, a high-grade silver coin worth 1 ruble and 50 kopecks, as well as a bargaining silver and copper coin, were issued.

The successful completion of monetary reform in 1924 year led to the creation of a single stable Soviet currency. Without outside help, they eliminated with their own forces the frustration of the monetary system that lasted 10 years. After the issuance of treasury notes and a bargaining chip, before the withdrawal of banknotes, five types of banknotes were in circulation for some time: treasury bills, chervonets, bargaining, banknotes and transport certificates.

Monetary reform was of great importance for the economy of the USSR. 1924-1925 year - the first financial year after the monetary reform - was the year of the maximum for the entire recovery period of the rise of the industry. Industry output grew by 57% compared with the industrial year 1923-1924. A stable currency has created the conditions for cost reduction, strengthening cost accounting, control and planning in industry. So, in the second half of 1924, the cost of production fell by almost 20%. Labor productivity in the 1925 year reached the pre-war level. Wages also reached the pre-war level. The reform was of great importance for the development of agriculture. The losses of peasants from the depreciation of money stopped, conditions for the sale of agricultural products improved; The price difference between industrial and agricultural products has slightly decreased. This contributed to the rise of the peasant economy, expanded the raw material and industrial base for industry. The market for industrial products was expanded.

Thus, for three years of serious work with the financial system, the Soviet government, without any external loans and credits, managed to strengthen the monetary system so much that a paper coin was worth more than a gold coin of the same denomination — more than gold. The introduction of hard currency calmed the population. And with a sharp increase in production, there was an increase in the mass of money. The USSR could, like the British with sterling and the Americans with the dollar, receive a net profit from the issue - from the printing press.

But in the end everything was still kept on the Soviet peasantry. In the USSR, “price scissors” continued to exist: prices for industrial goods were high, and for agricultural products - low. Peasants were not given a fair price for their products, since funds were needed for the development of the Soviet Union. Actually, the Bolsheviks did not hide this. They honestly said that, in addition to the usual taxes, direct and indirect, it was necessary to receive another “supertax” in the form of overpayments for industrial goods and in the form of the peasants who did not receive funds for agricultural goods. As Joseph Stalin noted at the April 1929 plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), it is “something like a tribute for our backwardness.” The overtax was necessary for the development of industry and the elimination of the backwardness of the USSR from the advanced Western powers. It was believed that this tax was due to the peasants, as they have a personal farm, the income from which allows them to pay an additional tax. This distinguished the peasants from the workers who lived only on wages. As a result, at the expense of the Soviet peasantry they exported agricultural products and received currency.

In the Russian Empire, they did the same, but the difference was that in the USSR the funds received were used for development. In addition, in the Soviet Union there was an industrial development strategy and a planned economy. Bought machines, built heavy industry enterprises. Patience and the “tightening of the belts” made it possible in the shortest possible time to eliminate the backlog of the USSR from the advanced countries of the West, to create a powerful industry and not only survive the bloody World War II, but also win, become a superpower.

On the road to financial autonomy. Stalin's gold ruble. Part of 2

Soviet chervonets 1923 of the year

Prewar period

Before the start of World War II, the issuance of banknotes was in circulation on the basis of the credit operations of the State Bank. Money was issued into circulation in accordance with the needs of the national economy. During this period, the planned Soviet system of credit and money circulation was finally formed on the basis of the concentration of commodity masses in the hands of the state, which were put into circulation at stable prices.

In 1929, the Soviet government temporarily introduced a card system. This was done to preserve real wages and provide workers with bread at low prices at the expense of state stocks. At the end of 1934, when large-scale mechanized production was finally established in agriculture, and collective and state farms occupied a dominant position in agriculture, it became possible to fully provide the population without cards. Card system canceled. At the same time, there were two price levels in commodity circulation - high in commercial and collective-farm trade and low in a closed trading network.

The consumer demand of the population continued to grow during this period. Thus, the number of workers and employees in the USSR from 1928 of the year to 1934 year doubled and exceeded 23 million. The average annual salary in the same period increased from 703 rubles to 1791 rubles, and the payroll increased from 8,2 billion rubles to 41,6 billion rubles. In 1937, the average annual salary rose to 3047 rubles. Collective farmers' incomes also increased. At the same time, the state’s expenditures on education, free medical care and other socio-cultural activities have seriously increased. The state budget expenditures for these needs in 1937 year increased compared with 1928 year in 17 times.

We must remember how the Soviet leadership developed industry in the USSR. For the goods you need a buyer. If goods are bought up and needed more, production will also develop. But the buyer needs money to buy goods. Stalin chose t. The “American way” of industrial development (the “English way” implies the seizure of colonies and the use of their markets), the way of developing their own market In 1930, hundreds of factories and enterprises were commissioned, but buyers were needed. Then the government began to deliberately issue, throwing money into the Soviet market. At the initial stage, the debts of state enterprises were covered. Then they began to regularly increase the purchasing power of the population. In the postwar period began regular reductions in prices for goods.

The USSR formed the internal market. At the same time, the country had a positive balance in foreign trade; from 1933, the USSR always sold a little more than it bought. The rush of Russia-USSR was striking. If we make a comparison in the prices of 1928 of the year, then the level of industrial production of 1913 of the year is 11 billion rubles. This level reached the Soviet Union in 1927. In the next year, 1928, the country significantly surpassed the pre-revolutionary level - the level of industrial production reached 16,8 billion rubles. In 1938, industrial production in the USSR reached the level of 100,4 billion rubles. In terms of commercial output, the Union has risen from fifth place in the world and fourth in Western Europe to second in the world and first in Europe. The Soviet Union produced 13,7% of world industrial output. The leaders were Americans - the US produced 41,9%. The leading European powers were inferior to the USSR: Germany produced 11,6% of world industrial output; Great Britain - 9,3; France - 5,7%.

Thus, the following prerequisites became the key to the success of the USSR: 1) mobilization of the people, “tightening the belts” for the sake of the highest goal — the creation of a developed and powerful industry. This made it possible, temporarily reducing the consumption of the population, to take a “supertax” on the development of industry; 2) issue of money in the initial period of industrialization, it allowed to expand the domestic market, making it "insatiable." The population trusted the Soviet ruble, so it did not depreciate; 3) monopoly of foreign trade. Stalin protected the domestic market and launched an offensive on the world market.


10 chervonets 1937 of the year

War

During the 1940 of the year and the pre-war months of 1941, the reserves of the state budget increased steadily. By the beginning of the war, they reached 9,3 billion rubles. As a result, the Soviet government did not spend all the money that was collected in the budget. The government was preparing for war and created a supply of goods. To these products were not sold, reduced the mass of money. During this period, more than a quarter of the money supply was withdrawn from circulation.

In total, 582 billion rubles were spent on the war, and 1117 billion rubles were received by the budget during the war. The war and the military restructuring of the economy significantly changed the state of money circulation in the Soviet Union. The material and monetary resources of the Soviet state were switched to meeting the needs that were caused by the war with Germany. Huge military expenditures, a sharp decrease in the production of consumer goods (enterprises began to manufacture military products), and consequently, a significant decrease in retail turnover and state budget revenues — all this caused an overstrain of the USSR’s financial resources. Military spending increased steadily from 1940 of the year (57 billion rubles) to 1944 of the year (152,6 billion rubles) and began to decrease from 1945 of the year (144,5 billion rubles). The proportion of military expenditures in the total budget expenditures peaked in 1942-1943. The cost of financing the national economy fell from 58,3 billion rubles in the 1940 year to 31,6 billion rubles in the 1942 year. Then they began to grow rapidly, and in 1945, they reached 74,4 billion rubles. It should be noted that most of the appropriations for the national economy were directed towards capital construction related to the war and to the restoration of the ruined.

Due to the occupation of a large part of the territory, in connection with the transfer of industry to the output of military products, the production of consumer goods and the production of food products dropped sharply. Thus, bread production declined from 24 million tons in the 1940 year to 11 million tons in the 1945 year; cereals from 1,7 mln. tons to 1,1 mln. tons; meat from 1417 thousand tons to 624 thousand tons; catch of fish from 14 million centners to 11,3; sugars from 2151 kt to 465; cotton fabric from 3952 million meters to 1615; leather shoes from 211 million pairs to 63,1, etc. Moreover, the largest decline in production was recorded in 1942-1943.

At the same time, there was an increase in non-market consumption of the majority of the goods produced by the light and food industries. This further reduced market funds and government retail trade. Retail turnover in 1940 prices of the year decreased in 1942 to 34% of the pre-war level. Even in the victorious 1945 year, it was 47% of the turnover of the 1940 year.

While commodity funds for the population seriously declined, cash income fell only in the first years of the war, in 1944-1945. they began to rise again and exceeded the prewar level. Significantly were increased expenditures on the monetary allowance of military personnel, on retirement benefits and allowances to military personnel and their families.

The war violated the balance between the monetary income of the population and the turnover. This created a threat to monetary circulation. Therefore, the government has taken a number of serious measures to eliminate the sharp discrepancy between income and expenditure of the population. On the one hand, they began to increase payments, contributions of the population, on the other hand, they began to increase the prices of some goods - vodka, tobacco, perfumery, etc. In addition, they began to expand commercial trade, enabling a part of the population with extra cash, buy goods at high prices.

So, with the beginning of the war, they introduced a military allowance to the income tax from workers and employees, and to the agricultural tax from peasant collective farmers and individual farmers. Since 1942, a military tax was imposed. At a higher level than before the war, people subscribed to government loans (during the war years they collected 76 billion rubles). Large sums were received from the placement of money and clothing lottery tickets among the population. Established a tax on bachelors and small families. Unmarried people older than 18 years and childless married couples paid 2% of their income. In connection with the cancellation of vacations, compensation for non-use was not handed out, but transferred to registered deposits with savings banks. A significant source of income was the collection of funds to the Defense and Red Army funds, attracting cash contributions of military personnel to the field offices of the State Bank. During the war years at the expense of these events more than 200 billion rubles were attracted from the population.

The increase in prices for vodka, tobacco, perfumery and some other goods, as well as revenues from organized commercial trade, gave an additional 172 billion rubles. At the same time, the main products were able to save pre-war prices. And in the conditions of a shortage of food products and a number of manufactured goods, a rationing system was introduced to ensure a living wage. This allowed us to maintain a minimum level of consumption for all.

All these measures yielded about 90% of the financial resources needed by the country. The budget deficit in the early years of the war and the lag in the receipt of finance in the budget from expenditures necessitated emission. In total, during the war years, 54,4 billion rubles were released into circulation. As a result, the money supply at the beginning of 1946 of the year reached 73,9 billion rubles and surpassed the pre-war money supply by 3,8 times. Especially a lot of rubles had to be printed in the second half of 1941, when huge expenses were required to transfer the country to "war rails" (printed 15,3 billion rubles).

The emission, reduction of state supply of goods to the population, reduction of food surpluses among the rural population led to a large increase in market prices. For agricultural products, growth was 1020% in 1943, compared to 100% in 1940. Then prices began to fall. It must be said that the huge gap between the prices of state trade and market trade, as well as the difference in price levels in different cities and districts led to widespread speculation during the war years. Unfortunately, even in the most difficult years of the Great Patriotic War, when the overwhelming majority of the people gave the front literally everything (from lives to the last money), there were subhuman self-seekers who were rich in someone else's grief.

In general, the monetary system of the USSR stood the test of war. Despite the severe wounds that the war inflicted on the country's economy, the issue was relatively small. For comparison, in the three years of the First World War, Russia increased the money supply by a factor of 9,5, and during the four years of the Great Patriotic War - by a factor of 3,8. Already during the war, it was possible to stop the deterioration of the situation and begin to strengthen the monetary system. The advantage of a socialist economy proved the most brutal war in stories humanity.

To be continued ...
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Articles from this series:
On the road to financial autonomy. Stalin's gold ruble
On the road to financial autonomy. Stalin's gold ruble. Part of 2
How Stalin freed the ruble from the dollar. Stalin's plan to create a common "non-dollar" market
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  1. Rambiaka
    Rambiaka April 22 2014 08: 14 New
    +3
    And then Mykita came ... But seriously, after all, the whole west now lives according to the basic rules of the USSR, only we all bury, understood that everything was already ... Okay, at least we understood (harnessed for a long time), I hope we will go.
    1. Forward
      Forward April 22 2014 08: 52 New
      13
      The West lives, but it’s so wrong !!! Their values ​​are significantly different from ours. They are now imposing sanctions against Russia in order to sow dissatisfaction among us with our material situation. The same scenario as with the collapse of the USSR. But a strange fact ???? Nothing happens this time. That's because they have everything measured for money and we have a different mentality. Our spirituality is still alive. Who in Russia will worry about the fact that the oligarchs lost their money? Or which of us often uses dollars? Or which of us has overseas property and accounts? Therefore, I am again talking about transferring the international trade of Russia with gas and oil, not for dollars but for national currencies, especially with China. And I assure you that in the shortest possible time, the ruble will become, if not gold, then one of the world's reserve currencies. Yes, I understand it will not just be. In the first part of this article I already wrote about this and the reaction of some of those present suggests that the fifth column is everywhere, including a lot of them on this site.
      1. alex = 111
        alex = 111 April 22 2014 09: 47 New
        0
        tell me, not far, how will the sale of oil and gas for nat. currencies
        1) for rubles - Russia and China will conclude a sale agreement for 30-40 years at a price, for example, 100 rubles. per barrel, with our inflation and the course of 10-15 years, money for oil can not be taken away, why this trifle is needed
        2) for the yuan - here Russia will be held hostage by the Chinese government, it will want to support its exports, or for another reason, will drop the yuan, and where are we with these colored pieces of paper.
        The dollar is used in sales because it is so far the most stable currency, backed by the military, economic and political potential of the United States
        1. Wheel
          Wheel April 22 2014 10: 43 New
          +2
          Quote: alex = 111
          tell me, not far, how will the sale of oil and gas for nat. currencies

          Quote: alex = 111
          1) for rubles - Russia and China will conclude a sale agreement for 30-40 years at a price, for example, 100 rubles. per barrel, with our inflation and the course of 10-15 years, money for oil can not be taken away, why this trifle is needed

          And who said that price is determined once and for all? This is the first.
          Secondly, inflation is a very manageable thing, there would be a desire (read the article carefully)
          Quote: alex = 111
          2) for the yuan - here Russia will be held hostage by the Chinese government, it will want to support its exports, or for another reason, will drop the yuan, and where are we with these colored pieces of paper.

          No matter how ridiculous, but for wealthy currencies, the probability of falling is close to zero (this is provided that foreign trade is conducted for these currencies).
          In this regard, the yuan is beyond competition, for it is provided with completely liquid products from China's industry.
          Quote: alex = 111
          The dollar is used in sales because it is so far the most stable currency, backed by the military, economic and political potential of the United States
          Military and political - I agree, about the economic - big and reasonable doubts.
          It has long been recognized that a pie cannot pay off its debts at once. What is the economic potential?
          Now the "green" is kept afloat only due to the fact that the agreement on oil trade for this paper is being fulfilled, and, moreover, foreign oil, which is important. That is why the Yankees react so painfully to any inclinations to use another currency in payments for oil. (Iran, Libya) Break this monopoly and the longed-for green piece of paper will at once find its true value tending to zero.
          1. Forward
            Forward April 22 2014 11: 00 New
            0
            Absolutely agree with you
          2. alex = 111
            alex = 111 April 22 2014 13: 42 New
            +1
            Quote: Wheel
            And who said that price is determined once and for all?

            and what will be written in the contract "the price is reviewed every quarter" or "the price of 100 rubles + inflation"? China for inflation in Russia to the star.

            Quote: Wheel
            inflation is a very manageable thing, it would be a desire

            you tell this to our government, and not only ours.

            Quote: Wheel
            for secured currencies, the probability of a fall is close to zero (this is provided that foreign trade is conducted for these currencies).

            neither the yuan nor the ruble are the currencies for world trade.

            "green" is kept afloat due to the fact that at the moment the United States is the coolest kid in the sandbox, whom they owe, so they will forgive)
            1. Wheel
              Wheel April 22 2014 15: 10 New
              0
              Quote: alex = 111
              and what will be written in the contract "the price is reviewed every quarter" or "the price of 100 rubles + inflation"? China for inflation in Russia to the star.

              What difference does it make every minute. hi
              And what about "China to the star", so you contradict yourself:
              Quote: alex = 111
              for the yuan - here Russia will be held hostage by the Chinese government, it will want to support its exports, or for another reason, will drop the yuan, and where are we with these colored pieces of paper.

              What are you worrying about their inflation and falls, but they are denied this right?
              Quote: alex = 111
              you tell this to our government, and not only ours.
              I obey! I said!
              And they even answered me that they know this very well. hi
              Quote: alex = 111
              neither the yuan nor the ruble are the currencies for world trade.

              Clarify bye.
              In any case, a certain volume of trade in RMB already takes place, if you adhere to the truth.
              Quote: alex = 111
              "green" is kept afloat due to the fact that at the moment the USA is the coolest kid in the sandbox, whom they owe, so they will forgive

              I agree.
              But it turns out that the steepness begins to be challenged.
              No?
        2. dkflbvbh
          dkflbvbh April 22 2014 12: 44 New
          +1
          The dollar is used in sales because it is so far the most stable currency, backed by the military, economic and political potential of the United States

          What is the potential? Have you heard the external debt?
        3. dkflbvbh
          dkflbvbh April 22 2014 12: 53 New
          0
          What is the potential? Have you heard about the US foreign debt?
          1. alex = 111
            alex = 111 April 22 2014 16: 49 New
            0
            Well, the United States will print more dollars and pay, what's the problem?
      2. alex = 111
        alex = 111 April 22 2014 09: 47 New
        -1
        tell me, not far, how will the sale of oil and gas for nat. currencies
        1) for rubles - Russia and China will conclude a sale agreement for 30-40 years at a price, for example, 100 rubles. per barrel, with our inflation and the course of 10-15 years, money for oil can not be taken away, why this trifle is needed
        2) for the yuan - here Russia will be held hostage by the Chinese government, it will want to support its exports, or for another reason, will drop the yuan, and where are we with these colored pieces of paper.
        The dollar is used in sales because it is so far the most stable currency, backed by the military, economic and political potential of the United States
      3. Wheel
        Wheel April 22 2014 10: 22 New
        +2
        Quote: Forward
        Therefore, I am again talking about transferring the international trade of Russia with gas and oil, not for dollars but for national currencies, especially with China. And I assure you that in the shortest possible time, the ruble will become, if not gold, then one of the world's reserve currencies.

        Unfortunately, it’s not enough just to switch to trading for rubles, national currencies or even gold.
        The priority is to neutralize, and then completely get rid of financial speculation when money makes money.
        First of all, money should cease to be a product that is sold and bought, and then everything will be in chocolate.
        Well, the state monopoly on foreign trade will not be superfluous.
        1. Sour
          Sour April 22 2014 11: 18 New
          +1
          Quote: Wheel
          Money must first stop being a commodity

          Money will never cease to be a commodity. Otherwise, it will not be money. It is impossible to withdraw money from commodity circulation; this did not work out even under socialism.
          Lending is actually selling money. Credit interest - the price of this sale.
          The same thing - deposits, only here the bank acts as the buyer of money, and not the seller.
          Do you propose liquidating the banking system? This even the Communists failed.
          1. Kurkin
            Kurkin April 22 2014 13: 51 New
            +4
            Do you propose liquidating the banking system? This even the Communists failed.
            In the USSR there were no private banks and, accordingly, no private capital. All banks were state-owned, lending was carried out at minimum interest rates. In the USSR, money just the same played the role of a medium of exchange in commodity circulation, and not the role of a commodity. There was little cash on hand and it was needed only for retail sale and purchase by the population. All payments between enterprises as well as loans to enterprises were made non-cash. On foreign markets, the USSR conducted trading using either a clearing settlement system or gold. The main goal of USSR foreign trade was not to receive money, but to receive goods (technology, machine tools, equipment). In the trade balance there was parity for the import and export of goods, moreover, if during the first two five-year periods, resources were exported (as now) and goods with high added value were imported (technologies, equipment, entire factories and specialists), then at times 2-3 During the five-year period, the share of export of resources decreased markedly and the USSR began to export goods with high added value. Later, for the convenience of settlements in foreign trade, a transferable ruble was created, which was used by the CMEA countries.
            1. Sour
              Sour April 22 2014 14: 11 New
              0
              Quote: Kurkin
              Do you propose liquidating the banking system? This even the Communists failed.
              In the USSR there were no private banks and, accordingly, no private capital. All banks were state-owned, lending was carried out at minimum interest rates. In the USSR, money just the same played the role of a medium of exchange in commodity circulation, and not the role of a commodity. There was little cash on hand and it was needed only for retail sale and purchase by the population. All payments between enterprises as well as loans to enterprises were made non-cash. On foreign markets, the USSR conducted trading using either a clearing settlement system or gold. The main goal of USSR foreign trade was not to receive money, but to receive goods (technology, machine tools, equipment). In the trade balance there was parity for the import and export of goods, moreover, if during the first two five-year periods, resources were exported (as now) and goods with high added value were imported (technologies, equipment, entire factories and specialists), then at times 2-3 During the five-year period, the share of export of resources decreased markedly and the USSR began to export goods with high added value. Later, for the convenience of settlements in foreign trade, a transferable ruble was created, which was used by the CMEA countries.

              The most interesting thing is when the economy of the USSR is offered as a kind of positive experience.
              And why not the economy of the Roman Empire? Or the Golden Horde?
              If anything, the USSR collapsed to smithereens, largely for economic reasons.
              There is a proverb: "The dead are not dragged back from the cemetery."
              I lived in the USSR for 30 years and 10 months of my life. About how it was good with the economy, tell someone else. I do not need. Plants working in a warehouse (or even a landfill) and rotting crops in the fields I saw with my own eyes. And I will never forget.
              1. Wheel
                Wheel April 22 2014 15: 15 New
                +3
                Quote: Sour
                The most interesting thing is when the economy of the USSR is offered as a kind of positive experience. Why not the economy of the Roman Empire? Or the Golden Horde? If anything, the USSR collapsed to smithereens, largely for economic reasons. There is a proverb: "The dead are not dragged back from the cemetery." I have lived in the USSR for 30 years and 10 months of my life. Tell someone else about how good the economy was there. I do not need. I saw with my own eyes the factories working at the warehouse (or even at the dump) and the crops rotting in the fields. And I will never forget.

                Nuuuu, categorical you what ...
                It is necessary to be able to see the forest behind the trees and to separate the grains from the chaff.
                The collapse of the USSR for economic reasons - this is somewhat exaggerated.
                First of all, these are political reasons.
                In this case, the economy is secondary.
                1. Sour
                  Sour April 22 2014 15: 54 New
                  0
                  Quote: Wheel
                  In this case, the economy is secondary.

                  Did classics teach the primacy of economics?
                  What are you doing? Against the classics, then?)))
                  It is clear that there were reasons of an interethnic nature. But there were enough economic ones.
                  Grains from the chaff? I would love to separate if there were grains.
                  Sorry, it's time to close the discussion. The man proving the viability of the Soviet economy in the 80s is a clear fanatic. But fanatics do not accept the arguments.
                  1. Kurkin
                    Kurkin April 22 2014 16: 53 New
                    +2
                    The man proving the viability of the Soviet economy in the 80s is a clear fanatic. But fanatics do not accept the arguments.
                    And where did you see that I spoke about the 80s? An article about the Stalinist economy, and this is not the same as the Soviet economy during the stagnation and perestroika period. You, too, turn out to be a fanatic if you are so zealous in upholding a capitalist economy that will never come out of the crisis. And the essence of the crisis is that there is no necessary real security for that huge mass of debt obligations (dollars, euros, treasuries) that exists today in the world. Providing unsecured obligations with new obligations is the way to nowhere, they themselves must understand this. The crisis of trust (liquidity) cannot be solved by financial instruments of the capitalist economy, and this is a fact!
                    If anything, the USSR collapsed to smithereens, largely for economic reasons.
                    Why, then, in 1990, according to Western economists and the UN, the USSR had the second economy in the world?
                    Plants working in a warehouse (or even a landfill) and rotting crops in the fields I saw with my own eyes.
                    So these are miscalculations in the planning and politics of the country's leadership, this is not a problem of the real sector of the economy, everything was in order with him. Instead of improving the quality of products, reducing production costs, modernizing the production base, introducing high defense technologies in industry and the civilian sphere, analyzing the demand of the population for the categories of goods, the decrepit communist leadership was only interested in the numbers of quantitative indicators of products.
                    Listen to what smart people say http://youtu.be/iSiYy_6YJ9E
                    1. Sour
                      Sour April 22 2014 17: 01 New
                      -1
                      Quote: Kurkin
                      And where did you see that I spoke about the 80s?

                      And I didn’t answer you, but the Wheel.
                      Since it was a question of the collapse of the USSR (where the economy was allegedly out of business), then he commented on the USSR economy at the time of its collapse.
                      Quote: Kurkin
                      So these are miscalculations in the planning and politics of the country's leadership, this is not a problem of the real sector of the economy, everything was in order with him. Instead of improving the quality of products, reducing production costs, modernizing the production base, introducing high defense technologies in industry and the civilian sphere, analyzing the demand of the population for the categories of goods, the decrepit communist leadership was only interested in the numbers of quantitative indicators of products.

                      All your modernization would lead to the fact that in the USSR they would continue to produce unnecessary and bad products, as before, only on more modern machines, using the latest technologies.
                      "Analysis of the population's demand" in the conditions of total state property was impossible. And it is not needed. Why be interested at all in the desires of the population? This is bourgeois philistinism. I had to eat, drink and wear what they give.
                      1. Kurkin
                        Kurkin April 22 2014 17: 11 New
                        +2
                        "Analysis of the population's demand" in the conditions of total state property was impossible. And it is not needed. Why be interested at all in the desires of the population? This is bourgeois philistinism. I had to eat, drink and wear what they give.
                        Well, under Stalin they were doing it. By the way, under Stalin, both private ateliers and cooperatives for tailoring clothes and shoes, and other private small and medium-sized businesses worked, the NEP legacy that Stalin did not liquidate. Khrushchev completely eliminated it.
                      2. Sour
                        Sour April 22 2014 17: 32 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Kurkin
                        Khrushchev completely eliminated it.

                        It was such, I do not argue.
                        This was a grave mistake. The private and cooperative sector could become the basis for economic recovery.
                        Quote: Kurkin
                        Well, under Stalin, they were doing this

                        I don’t know, I didn’t live under Stalin. Born already under Khrushchev. Although I think that you did not live under Stalin. It’s hard for me to say how the demand study was planned then. But in my opinion, nothing at all. Horror how much trash was produced, which no one needed. And not only consumer goods, but also industrial equipment. But on paper there was an increase in machine tool industry. Human labor and material resources were wasted. It was a strong agitation against the system. And the CIA agents are hardly to blame for this, here it is necessary to ask other people. I see no reason at all to defend this economy. They even thought of giving the state food service and retail trade, where state property was simply inappropriate. Our socialist camp allies were smarter. Surprise those people who idealize those times. Is this hunting for them again? Or did you hear from your father and mother about those times, but didn’t see them yourself?
                      3. Kurkin
                        Kurkin April 22 2014 18: 08 New
                        +1
                        I don’t know, I didn’t live under Stalin. Born already under Khrushchev. Although I think that you did not live under Stalin.
                        Didn't live, you're right.
                        It’s hard for me to say how the demand study was planned then. But in my opinion, nothing at all. Horror how much trash was produced, which no one needed. And not only consumer goods, but also industrial equipment. But on paper there was an increase in machine tool industry. Human labor and material resources were wasted.
                        The study of demand for the main groups of consumer goods, under Stalin, was carried out constantly, on the basis of such an analysis and a plan was drawn up for light industries. This is evidenced by both historians and economists, and this is documented. In general, the Stalinist economy is very different from the Soviet as a whole, which was after it. This actually explains folk love (personality cult). Under him, it was impossible to spend energy and resources inefficiently, it was punished. The standard of living of the population in the prewar and postwar years was quite high. You just read the serious authors and their research on the Stalinist economy. Its essence was reduced to state control of strategic areas of the economy: resources, land, category A means of production (metallurgy, mechanical engineering), agriculture, foreign trade and currency monopolies, and the state banking system. Stalin's private small and medium-sized businesses were of little interest, but he did not liquidate him and did not put any sticks in the wheel. Moreover, there were examples of the use of state land and production facilities by cooperatives for profit. Moreover, the use was free of charge, and users were obliged only to bear the costs of maintaining and repairing the state. property received for use. Imagine this today! This is impossible in today's conditions, when the regime is openly thieves, and the economy is of a parasitic type.
                      4. Sour
                        Sour April 22 2014 18: 25 New
                        0
                        Quote: Kurkin
                        under Stalin, it was constantly conducted, on the basis of such an analysis, and a plan was drawn up for light industries.

                        Under Stalin, the people lived so poorly that the market would swallow everything. Therefore, it was possible to produce, not really caring about demand. All the same, the product would be in demand.
                        Quote: Kurkin
                        The standard of living of the population in the prewar and postwar years was quite high

                        I heard different things from my relatives. I have no reason not to believe them. Collective farms flourished in kind. Money was generally tight, so there was no inflation. My grandfather was able to recruit for a 2 year construction site, returned home only before the Finnish War. Worked for 2 years without holidays and almost seven days a week and considered it a success, because he could send some money home (he had four children). And on the collective farm they paid in kind, if not with money. In addition, the agricultural tax had to be paid. The war began, he left to fight, died in 1945. What high level of life did he see, what are you talking about? My father worked on the collective farm until 1944, in 1944 he left to fight without finishing school. He returned home only in 1952. That was such a life. Why should I read some authors? I heard from eyewitnesses about that life.
                      5. Kurkin
                        Kurkin April 22 2014 20: 23 New
                        +2
                        Well, my grandfather also fought. In general, he was a military man, then a fireman, the head of the fire department of the plant. The second grandfather after the war, the whole union traveled around the restoration and new construction projects of communism as an installer. Neither one nor the other complained about the Stalin period; they still remember with nostalgia. Yes, during and immediately after the war, of course it was difficult, but otherwise everything was said. Food, clothing, furniture, movies, dancing.
  • Wheel
    Wheel April 22 2014 09: 41 New
    +3
    Quote: Rambiaka
    But seriously, then the whole west now lives by the basic rules of the USSR

    In which place?
    Where is the solid security?
    Where is the reliance on the domestic market?

    The West now lives according to the British model at the expense of the rest of the world, including Of Russia.
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 April 22 2014 10: 07 New
      +5
      The difference between us and them was most accurately expressed by Tyutchev:

  • Takashi
    Takashi April 22 2014 10: 20 New
    -3
    It seems to me that the "miracles" of the Soviet financial system were directly proportional to the impoverishment of the people (rural residents), and the miracles of industrial growth were the sale (sometimes for a song) of national assets from the Oruzh Chamber and the State Hermitage Museum.
    1. Wheel
      Wheel April 22 2014 10: 45 New
      0
      Quote: Takashi
      It seems to me that the "miracles" of the Soviet financial system were directly proportional to the impoverishment of the people (rural residents), and the miracles of industrial growth were the sale (sometimes for a song) of national assets from the Oruzh Chamber and the State Hermitage Museum.

      Take good advice: "When it seems you need to be baptized." hi
  • Forward
    Forward April 22 2014 10: 39 New
    +2
    Quote: alex = 111
    tell me, not far, how will the sale of oil and gas for nat. currencies
    1) for rubles - Russia and China will conclude a sale agreement for 30-40 years at a price, for example, 100 rubles. per barrel, with our inflation and the course of 10-15 years, money for oil can not be taken away, why this trifle is needed
    2) for the yuan - here Russia will be held hostage by the Chinese government, it will want to support its exports, or for another reason, will drop the yuan, and where are we with these colored pieces of paper.
    The dollar is used in sales because it is so far the most stable currency, backed by the military, economic and political potential of the United States

    Russia will not become a hostage to China, or India, for example, if only because China already needs more hydrocarbons than America and demand continues to grow, and there is no and cannot be a better partner than Russia. Therefore, cooperation will be mutually beneficial. Secondly, -You are so vain about the ruble so skeptical! In the case of the above actions, the ruble will not slightly squeeze the dollar and will greatly strengthen its position in the global currency market. Therefore, one can forget about high inflation. In addition, when similar transactions are concluded, such risks are taken into account. And in the case of cooperation with the yuan, the ruble will simply collapse the dollar, which will become cut paper. Which, incidentally, is now. By the way, you underestimate the yuan. You will receive it as payment, almost anywhere in the world. Commodity and stock exchange futures and other speculators are already a matter of technology as they say. Another question is that those who print green paper just do not give up their positions. They, as you rightly noted, have the most powerful army in the world and will fight for their interests in every possible way. That’s worth thinking about. And lastly. Everyone knows that we have an eight-hour work day. Working every day for about 3-4 hours, we are working all over the country in the United States providing their debt obligations, because the world economy is so cunningly arranged. I do not want to personally be in their slavery
    1. alex = 111
      alex = 111 April 22 2014 11: 01 New
      0
      start selling for rubles, and the ruble will squeeze the dollar and strengthen its position - I'm afraid these are only our assumptions and desires, as this will turn into practice xs. By the way, China also has high inflation, I rest there almost every year.
      1. Sour
        Sour April 22 2014 11: 37 New
        0
        Quote: alex = 111
        and the ruble will squeeze the dollar and strengthen its position

        What is the use of this?
        Will this increase the competitiveness of our products? Increase their quality and reduce their cost?
        Why are you all so obsessed with the ruble exchange rate? And in general on financial matters? Yes, this is not our problem !!! Not once in this!
        Or is it important for you that the "dollar weakened its position"? Don't give a damn about how Russia lives, if only the States get worse? But this is no longer patriotism, but idiocy. This is called - "in spite of my mother-in-law I will frostbite". And this is no different from the position of Svidomo're coming out in relation to Russia.
        1. Wheel
          Wheel April 22 2014 11: 54 New
          0
          Quote: Sour
          Will this increase the competitiveness of our products? Increase their quality and reduce their cost?

          Yes, it will increase and decrease.
          Quote: Sour
          Or is it important for you that the "dollar weakened its position"? Don't give a damn about how Russia lives, if only the States get worse? But this is no longer patriotism, but idiocy. This is called - "in spite of my mother-in-law I will frostbite". And this is no different from the position of Svidomo're coming out in relation to Russia.

          And did it not occur to you that Russia SO lives solely thanks to the dollar? Well, the plus is still the mass of the enslaving obligations undertaken, which, when trading for rubles, will be much easier to refuse.
          1. Sour
            Sour April 22 2014 12: 16 New
            0
            Quote: Wheel
            And did it not occur to you that Russia SO lives solely thanks to the dollar?

            No, it didn’t come. I'm not sick, I'm mentally healthy.
            If you have come, then this is your problem.
            By the way, we have approximately 54th place in the world in terms of living standards. But in terms of labor productivity, it is below 100th.
            That is, we, in fact, did not deserve the standard of living that we have. We live better than we deserve. And in these conditions, to say that someone is "robbing" us means not to be on friendly terms.
            We live better than we deserve. And we steal our standard of living from our descendants. It did not occur to you?
            It's easier to blame your problems on the dollar, and not on your own laziness and inability.
            1. Kurkin
              Kurkin April 22 2014 14: 02 New
              +2
              That is, we, in fact, did not deserve the standard of living that we have. We live better than we deserve. And in these conditions, to say that someone is "robbing" us means not to be on friendly terms.
              We live better than we deserve. And we steal our standard of living from our descendants. It did not occur to you?
              It's easier to blame your problems on the dollar, and not on your own laziness and inability.
              Here I agree with you. The technology park is probably more than 90% worn out. The number of industrial enterprises producing competitive, high-quality, high-tech products with high added value is catastrophically small. The entire potential of the USSR was completely killed and plundered in the 90s. The state, instead of carrying out a new industrialization according to Stalin’s scheme, for some reason, is saving up money earned from the sale of resources, and at the same time investing in the US economy.
              1. Sour
                Sour April 22 2014 15: 10 New
                -1
                Quote: Kurkin
                The state, instead of conducting a new industrialization according to Stalin’s scheme,

                Industrialization under the Stalin scheme implies a significant excess of the rural population, which can be moved to cities during the construction of new plants and factories. Now such a scheme is not feasible. No matter how much the Stalinists would like the opposite.
                1. Wheel
                  Wheel April 22 2014 15: 52 New
                  +3
                  Quote: Sour
                  Industrialization under the Stalin scheme implies a significant excess of the rural population, which can be moved to cities during the construction of new plants and factories. Now such a scheme is not feasible. No matter how much the Stalinists would like the opposite.

                  But tuyeva heap office plankton.
                  It's time for this contingent to do something useful.
                  1. Sour
                    Sour April 22 2014 15: 57 New
                    0
                    Quote: Wheel
                    But tuyeva heap office plankton.

                    You say you lived under the USSR?
                    Explicitly did not live.
                    Otherwise, they would remember a huge number of aunts and uncles who do nothing at work, except for knitting mittens and solving crosswords.
                    Nobody will just keep the current "plankton". Now everyone counts money, including me. But in the USSR there were more parasites than anywhere else.
            2. Wheel
              Wheel April 22 2014 14: 31 New
              +3
              Quote: Sour
              No, it didn’t come. I am not sick, I am mentally healthy. If you have come, then these are your problems. By the way, we have about 54th place in the world in terms of living standards. But in terms of labor productivity, it is below 100. That is, we, in fact, did not deserve the standard of living that we have. We live better than we deserve. And in these conditions, to say that someone is "robbing" us means not to be on friendly terms with our heads. We live better than we deserve. And we steal our standard of living from our descendants. Didn't it occur to you?

              Who considers this performance and how?
              Performance of what?
              Performance to whom?
              If for industrial production, then I have to nightmare upset you.
              He worked his considerable life in production, traveled all over our former large homeland, then, after the collapse, he also visited the West and their production facilities.
              So, their productivity is not higher, they work the same way as we worked, and similar pieces of iron are manufactured at them exactly at the same time as ours, and more often slower.
              Perhaps this will not convince you, but try to answer one indiscreet question: why, with our low productivity, the overwhelming majority of similar products are cheaper than theirs (though we must frankly admit that the farther from the Soviet regime, the smaller this gap, because the more the general collapse of production affects, crushing it into small pieces and the use of western expensive components)
              A somewhat different situation in agriculture, but there is nothing to be done, our climate is not the same when the sowing is completed in the west, and snow still lies in most of our country.
              Guess from three times where productivity will be higher, where you can sow two crops in a row or hardly one?

              Now about the standard of living ...
              Let me remind you that in 1988 the USSR was in 26th place, according to the UN report.
              In 1991, Russia became attached to the dollar ...
              And?
              What caused this if we are now in 54th place?


              Quote: Sour
              It's easier to blame your problems on the dollar, and not on your own laziness and inability.

              Are you sure of my laziness and inability?
              You don’t take much on yourself?
              By the way, you have not sprinkled ashes on your head? For, in that ass by the standard of living there is both your laziness and your inability .., if you approach from your position.
              But, alas, tales of low competitiveness, productivity, laziness of the Russian people, their unwillingness and inability to do anything come from one very recognizable source, which I would not advise you to rely on, but would advise you to quietly dig deeper into smart books, teach your story countries and lay down their own opinions, and not stupidly repeat after liberals of different stripes.

              PS. For general development, dig deeper into the internet, take an interest in what the USSR budget was made of, then compare it with modern Russia and, finally, with the countries of the West. Maybe something will shift in perception.
              1. Sour
                Sour April 22 2014 15: 14 New
                0
                Quote: Wheel
                work the same way we worked, and similar pieces of iron are made from them exactly at the same time,

                Why would any combine operator prefer the German "Claas" to any Russian combine?
                Why would any motorist prefer a foreign car to a Russian one?
                What are you writing nonsense? Who is it for?
                Are you normal or not?
                But how can rubbish produced by Russian machinery and equipment be compared with imports?
                Falsehood and patriotism are not the same thing.
                1. dmb
                  dmb April 22 2014 15: 41 New
                  0
                  Here I periodically read your comments and try to understand, and to which society should Russia strive for and how should it realize this aspiration?
                  1. Sour
                    Sour April 22 2014 15: 46 New
                    +1
                    Quote: dmb
                    and what society should Russia strive for

                    To the one in which the welfare and safety of citizens comes first.
                    Quote: dmb
                    how should this desire be realized

                    It is necessary to work, and not to look for the guilty. To each in his own place.
                    1. dmb
                      dmb April 22 2014 16: 18 New
                      +4
                      Well get off with general phrases is not new. So you simply do not have an answer to my questions. As for the safety of citizens, the socialism you criticized in this part exceeded any known society, if you reduce well-being to a burgundy jacket, Mercedes and a gold chain around your neck, then of course you have gone far ahead, but decent people have a slightly different concept of well-being. I dare to assure you that in that society the overwhelming majority of my friends and acquaintances worked extremely conscientiously, did not steal and believed that they work for their children. Moreover, they instilled in them the concept of honor, too. You apparently had it differently.
                      1. Sour
                        Sour April 22 2014 16: 42 New
                        -1
                        Quote: dmb
                        Well get off with general phrases is not new. So you simply do not have an answer to my questions.

                        Sorry, there is no place for a detailed program. This and you will not write anything except a couple of words.
                        Quote: dmb
                        Regarding the safety of citizens, the socialism you criticized in this part exceeded any society of the well-known

                        Why then did your socialism die? Again about the machinations of enemies say?
                        Again, the Stalinists have no other answer.
                        Quote: dmb
                        but decent people have a slightly different concept of well-being

                        I do not consider myself a less decent person than any other.
                        There is a marked desire in you to consider yourself worse off than anyone who has at least a ruble more.
                        This is a familiar song, characteristic of lazy, narrow-minded and envious people. It is good that the Stalinists are just that.
                      2. dmb
                        dmb April 22 2014 18: 23 New
                        +2
                        And this is familiar. Hanging labels instead of rebutting an opponent’s arguments is quite in the spirit of "creative businessmen." Of course, you consider yourself a decent person. And you can name the well-known domestic surnames of our time, which you refer to you as such decent people. At least then it will be clear to what extent your notions of decency correspond to generally accepted ones. In a decent society it is not customary to call a person a Stalinist without sufficient grounds; in a decent society it is not customary to call a person lazy, narrow-minded and envious if there is no reason for this. In your case, the only reason for this was our ideological incompatibility. And they could not answer Vfa's questions.
                      3. Sour
                        Sour April 22 2014 18: 39 New
                        0
                        Quote: dmb
                        But they could not answer Vfa’s questions.

                        He answered as best he could. Did it not suit you? It's not my problem.
                        And why did you suddenly decide that I owe you an interview?
                        Is that your self-esteem? You need to be more modest.
                        Quote: dmb
                        Labeling instead of refuting an opponent’s argument

                        I did not see the arguments. Not a single one. What should I refute?
                        Quote: dmb
                        Labeling

                        But I saw it. Who gave you the right to affirm or even assume that I have no concept of honor? And deduce me from among decent people? Did you take a lot on yourself? Were you raised like that? Well, all the worse.
                        Quote: dmb
                        And you can name the well-known domestic surnames of our time, which you attribute to you like decent people.

                        For example, I deeply respect our Minister of Defense, he personally encountered him back in the 90s, and heard a lot from others. This is offhand. I respect L.M. Roshal no less, I know firsthand about his work, in particular in the Caucasus.
                        And who is your respect, if not secret?
                        But they could not answer Vfa’s questions.

                        Why didn’t you answer the question - why did socialism die?
                      4. dmb
                        dmb April 22 2014 20: 02 New
                        +1
                        Well, firstly, my respected Roshal and business, the concepts are different. He treats people, but not loot mows. And with the minister it’s you to the point. Here it is just about the decency of the former secretary of the city committee and about the honor of this member of the CPSU. You can not continue further about his and your concept of honor. To this, unlike you, I will answer your question about socialism. I want to upset you. He is not dead. Moreover, he is getting closer and closer. Whether you like Marxism-Leninism or not, even the option you offer for the development of society cannot be refuted even by you with your inflated arrogance. This is actually what your attempt to evade the answer to my questions says. A temporary retreat, it is only temporary. It’s always difficult to go first, and the essence of a tradesman can be etched only by long and painstaking work, as your example testifies.
                      5. Sour
                        Sour April 22 2014 20: 12 New
                        0
                        And why do you dislike businessmen so much? However, you can not answer. I already know. Do not like the fact that money has more than yours? This is clear. Any supporter of socialism is always an envious redneck, ready to kill anyone who lives better than him.
                        Do not wait, gentlemen, comrades. Your socialism is dead. The people did away with him once and for all, as with a poisonous reptile.
                        And you would have to obey and repent for the ruin of the country, for its degradation under your power, for all the mockery of the people, for the impudence of commanders-komunyak, for their stupidity and swagger. No - the red-faced all try to teach decent people to the mind. As they were little people without honor and conscience, they remained. For which the people always hated you. And he hated not those who left the CPSU, but most of all those who did not quit. Under your shameful flag, there was only a rabble that could not find a place in normal life.
                      6. dmb
                        dmb April 22 2014 20: 58 New
                        +1
                        Well, you see how much anger there is in you and those like you. By the way, your hatred for the Soviet Power is very peculiar, well, like your idol. While the power was strong, you sang odes to it and did not at all give up the advantages that it gave. Neither free education, nor free medicine, nor free housing. I am more than sure that if tomorrow the current government in the interests of big business bankrupt you, you will be in the forefront of "fighters for socialism."
                      7. Starina_hank
                        Starina_hank April 22 2014 21: 10 New
                        0
                        In-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-oo-oo!
    2. Sour
      Sour April 22 2014 15: 51 New
      0
      Quote: Wheel
      For, in that ass by the standard of living there is both your laziness and your inability .., if you approach from your position.

      I think yes. Yes, I do not deny it.
      Each of us is involved in what has a place to be.
      Quote: Wheel
      Let me remind you that in 1988 the USSR was in 26th place, according to the UN report.

      I remember that time very well. Then the people lived worse than now. And I do not care about the UN report, I believe more in my impressions.
      I understand your desire to take the people by the collar and poke everyone into one trough and say: "Give me what your own party has poured." I understand that, there are still many of them. Just don't portray it as patriotism. This hatred for Russia and its people, the desire to crush it, humiliate it, and not patriotism.
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  • Sour
    Sour April 22 2014 11: 26 New
    0
    Surprising are those who consider the golden appeal a way to solve our economic problems.
    Firstly, our problems are not in the financial sphere. They are a consequence of the low labor productivity and low competitiveness of our products. Our economy primarily needs engineers, designers and technologists, not financiers.
    Secondly, the use of gold as a means of payment or the pegging of the ruble to gold (which is the same thing) will not strengthen the ruble at all. This is no better than pegging to the dollar or the euro or the yuan. Gold is now the same product as any other. Long gone are the days when gold only rose in price. Those who follow the world economy know how sharply gold prices can fall, and without any connection with the fall in other prices.
    Two and you can’t trade now for gold as money. Because little gold, relative to the current volumes of goods and services. For the golden appeal are those whose brains are stuck in the 19th - first half of the 20th centuries.
    1. Wheel
      Wheel April 22 2014 12: 09 New
      +2
      Quote: Sour
      Firstly, our problems are not in the financial sphere. They are a consequence of the low labor productivity and low competitiveness of our products.

      Low competitiveness, you say?
      Yes, turn on your head, finally, never (!) Our products, no matter what super-qualities they possess, will not be allowed into the EU and state markets, they will find a million and one more reason, introduce any requirements, harness the crowd of journalists to systematically dirty our products ( which, in fact, what happens to the remnants of our car and aircraft industry, will bribe officials, but will not allow it.
      Quote: Sour
      Our economy primarily needs engineers, designers and technologists, not financiers.

      Quote: Sour
      Our economy primarily needs engineers, designers and technologists, not financiers.

      Our economy needs a lot of things, but the main thing is a firm political will that we need our own industry.
      Quote: Sour
      Secondly, the use of gold as a means of payment or the pegging of the ruble to gold (which is the same thing) will not strengthen the ruble at all. This is no better than pegging to the dollar or the euro or the yuan. Gold is now the same product as any other. Long gone are the days when gold only rose in price. Those who follow the world economy know how sharply gold prices can fall, and without any connection with the fall in other prices.

      Linking currency to gold is not at all what the direct use of gold is. This time.
      Gold has always been a commodity, but a commodity with a fixed price (feel the difference). These are two.
      So because gold jumps, because it is not connected with anything, i.e. is the object of banal speculative operations for unsecured pieces of paper.

      Quote: Sour
      Two and you can’t trade now for gold as money. Because there is little gold, relative to the current volumes of goods and services.
      Eeee, did you think what you wrote?
      Reread several times, it may come ...
      Gold should be small so that it could play the role of a kind of equivalent, otherwise (gee-gee) worthless to him. laughing
      1. Sour
        Sour April 22 2014 12: 18 New
        0
        Quote: Wheel
        Have you thought what you wrote?

        Yes, you yourself thought at least some part of the body?
        I will not even answer this post due to its primeval illiteracy.
        Yes turn on your head finally

        I always have it on. Turn on your little head.
  • Sour
    Sour April 22 2014 12: 07 New
    0
    Here is a simple example. Since 2012, oil prices are approximately stable. And gold is getting cheaper, and has already fallen in price noticeably, despite the increase in its purchases by the central banks of Russia and China. Imagine that we would sell oil for the ruble, and even tied to gold. This means that our income from oil exports would fall, despite the fact that the supply and demand for oil did not change.
    And what is the benefit for Russia?
    Gold prices now depend on a number of large international financial groups. They can lift them and bring them down when they want. Though not for long, but tangibly. This is even easier to do than with oil prices.
    And you want to peg the ruble to gold? What for??? Sense where? To increase the dependence of our finances on foreign capital? Yes, she is already tall. And if not for this, then why?
    1. Wheel
      Wheel April 22 2014 13: 35 New
      0
      Quote: Sour
      Here is a simple example. Since 2012, oil prices are approximately stable. And gold is getting cheaper, and has already fallen in price noticeably, despite the increase in its purchases by the central banks of Russia and China. Imagine that we would sell oil for the ruble, and even tied to gold. This means that our income from oil exports would fall, despite the fact that the supply and demand for oil did not change.

      And you can not seem one simple truth?
      Haggle oil for gold, what does it cause automatically?
      Yeah, right! This causes demand for gold, and, as a result, the rise in the price of yellow metal from all currencies without collateral.
      No?
      Quote: Sour
      Gold prices now depend on a number of large international financial groups. They can lift them and bring them down when they want. Though not for long, but tangibly. This is even easier to do than with oil prices. And you want to peg the ruble to gold? What for??? Sense where? To increase the dependence of our finances on foreign capital? Yes, she is already tall. And if not for this, then why?

      Where will these financial groups be when gold becomes a measure of value?
      Again, did not think?
      It's no secret that the lion's share of gold deals is purely virtual. Called financial fraud.
      All the same, try turning on your head, maybe it works? (no offense, nothing personal)
      1. Sour
        Sour April 22 2014 13: 45 New
        0
        Quote: Wheel
        Haggle oil for gold, what does it cause automatically?

        Now she is trading for dollars.
        Does this automatically cause a constant rise in the dollar? Yes nichrome like that! He hesitates just like everything else.
        Where did you get the idea that Russian oil trade determines all?
        Turn on the head, if possible (no offense, nothing personal).
        1. Wheel
          Wheel April 22 2014 15: 35 New
          0
          Quote: Sour
          Now it is trading for dollars. Does this automatically cause a constant increase in the dollar? Yes nichrome like that! He hesitates just like everything else. What makes you think that Russian oil trade determines everything? Turn on your head if it works (no offense, nothing personal).
          Do not confuse God's gift with fried eggs.
          These are slightly different things.
          “Green” cannot help but hesitate according to the rules of the game, established after the inability of the Piarasites to provide its real content (remember the kind word of deGol). It was then that money became a "commodity" and the largest amount of this "commodity" is produced by the Fed.
          Reflect on why there were overproduction crises in the world before the refusal of solid security, and after the time H they became financial.
          Yes, you are right, the Russian oil (+ plus gas) trade is not "everything", and it cannot be "everything" by definition.
          However, its volume is very palpable, and palpable so much that its conversion into another currency (not necessarily the ruble or yuan, you can trade it for Mongolian Tugriks in the end laughing ) will give the Yankees a quite tangible headache, right up to a stroke under some successful (or unsuccessful?) circumstances.
  • Sour
    Sour April 22 2014 12: 26 New
    -1
    never (!) our products, no matter what super-qualities they possess, will not be allowed into the EU and state markets, they will find a million and one more reason, introduce any requirements, harness the crowd of journalists so that they systematically dirty our products (which, in fact, happens with the remnants of our car and aircraft industry

    Damn, how dislocated the brains of pseudo-"patriots"!
    What are the "super qualities" of the products of our car industry?
    And why is it full of Chinese products in Europe, but ours is not, except for oil and gas? Or is China conspiring with them?
    1. Forward
      Forward April 22 2014 14: 15 New
      +2
      In Europe and America, our goods are few because the EU and America hate us and are afraid. This is the basis of deep political motives. This was the case for the previous millennium, and it will be so until they take possession of our natural resources and make us slaves to multinational corporations. That’s why they hinder our economic penetration to the West. And you see an ardent apologist for the dollar and, as a result, dollar slavery for our country! I don’t like this state of things.
      1. Sour
        Sour April 22 2014 14: 33 New
        +1
        I'm not a dollar apologist. I just think that giving up on it is more than premature and harmful. The share of the Russian economy in the world GDP is not so large as to switch over to calculations in rubles. It is only silly, snotty kids who believe that Russian oil exports are capable of "strangling all enemies." This is 45% of the budget for us, and for the world economy it is not even a drop in the ocean, but a tenth of a drop.
        It's just that you and I have different lines of thinking. I think how to do better for Russia. And you think how to spoil America. For me, this is not at all the same thing.
        Quote: Forward
        In Europe and America, our goods are few because the EU and America hate us and are afraid

        They and China are afraid, but try to find a non-Chinese air conditioning or printer in Europe. Or office furniture. Or plumbing. Have you been to Europe? Or just saw her in a dream?
        The lack of our products in the foreign market due to inability to work. There are no other reasons. Your paranoid ideas are ridiculous and inappropriate. If we make a good washing powder, then they buy it, I myself saw it in European stores. And if we make bad cars, then they don’t buy them. And we don’t do computers and mobile phones at all. That is the whole reason.
        1. Forward
          Forward April 22 2014 15: 05 New
          +1
          It was in Europe and in other very interesting places. But China, they are just not very much afraid of it because of its geopolitical location. Therefore, the Chinese breakthrough in the economy was due to the provision of largely Western technologies and developments. Because the State Department hoped to grow an enemy of Russia. It didn’t work out again, now they’re spawning. As for my amerophobia, you are very mistaken. In general, I see from your comments that you tend to draw fleeting conclusions, and they are usually erroneous. YOU what do you think I do not understand that transnational corporations and the people of America are different poles. It is only naive young men who can hope that if America falls apart, then corporations will disappear. They will immediately appear on the already prepared bridgeheads, say in Hong Kong or Malaysia, Or under our nose in Russia, they will pave roads, rebuild houses, personally offer you money and will continue to exploit the whole globe in their interests. Settle wars, destroy innocent people. To inspire you that you are the very golden billion who should live off everyone else. And you will agree with them because by supporting the dollar you support them behind the scenes. I don’t agree
        2. Wheel
          Wheel April 22 2014 15: 47 New
          +1
          Quote: Sour
          I am not an apologist for the dollar.

          It seems that you cheat ... hi
          Quote: Sour
          I just think that giving up on it is more than premature and harmful. The share of the Russian economy in the world GDP is not so large as to switch over to calculations in rubles. It is only silly, snotty kids who believe that Russian oil exports are capable of "strangling all enemies." This is 45% of the budget for us, and for the world economy it is not even a drop in the ocean, but a tenth of a drop. It's just that we have different directions of thinking. I think how to do it better for Russia. And you think how to screw up America. For me, they are not the same thing at all.

          So right away and "how to make it better for Russia" and for this to remain dependent on cut green paper?
          I honestly do not care deeply about what will happen to America.
          It’s just that she falls into the explosion of her most laid mine.
          Well, no luck, put ourselves on your way ...
          As for the insignificant share, which is already there, but this tiny fraction causes cold sweat overseas with the mere thought that it will not be controlled by them.
          Speaking of birds ...
          The shares of Iraq, Libya and Iran are also scanty, however, only intentions to leave the dollar zone caused the rout of two and the isolation of the third state.
          1. Sour
            Sour April 22 2014 16: 36 New
            0
            Quote: Wheel
            I honestly do not care deeply about what will happen to America.

            Obviously, you are in a daze.
            If Russia was the main thing for you, there would not be such an obsession with anti-Americanism. Many confuse him with patriotism, including you.
            And again - I'm not an apologist for the dollar. My income is in rubles. I just look at things soberly, unlike the Stalinists living in the world of fairy tales.
            Yes, I believe that it is not profitable for Russia to sell its exports for rubles. But precisely because it is unprofitable for Russia, not for America.
            In addition to the growth of the raw material orientation of the economy, this will not do anything. Because it will increase the ruble exchange rate and strangle non-oil industries.
            Ah, well, yes, the Stalinists have a recipe for this - to isolate the Russian economy from the world one. For some reason, it seems to them that everyone will agree to ride their "hedgehogs".
    2. Wheel
      Wheel April 22 2014 15: 00 New
      +1
      Quote: Sour
      Damn, how dislocated the brains of the pseudo-"patriots"! These are the "super qualities" of the products of our car industry? And why is there a lot of Chinese products in Europe, while ours is not, except for oil and gas? Or is China in cahoots with them?

      And what do you dislike about our auto industry?
      The second ten years have gone, as I ride a domestic hedgehog and he never failed. He regularly delivers me from point A to point B and back at the minimum cost of his maintenance, and it does not matter where this point B is located.
      As for Chinese goods in Europe and the States, everything is simple there.
      Unas, however, the "civilized" world has a post-industrial society, the production is brought to where (?), Rightly (!), To China.
      The "developed" ones missed the mark here (as well as with Russian gas and oil), did not notice how they became dependent on the "underdeveloped" China.
      From the outset, China was assigned the role of a supplier of goods in the "metropolis", which was reflected in trade agreements with the latter, which China uses in full. You didn't know that ????
      1. Sour
        Sour April 22 2014 15: 22 New
        0
        Quote: Wheel
        And what do you dislike about our auto industry?
        The second ten years have gone, as I ride a domestic hedgehog and he never failed.

        It's your problems. And I drive a foreign car, the third in a row. Previously traveled to domestic. And my driving experience is 28 years old. I am a trained auto mechanic. Now retired, but I head the driver training and transportation company. I have no domestic cars, and not by chance. I leave it to you, ride your hedgehogs. I do not think that you understand cars better than me. This is my bread, I ate it full. I also commanded in the army. And I know the price of the domestic auto industry.
        From the outset, China was assigned the role of a supplier of goods in the "metropolis", which was reflected in trade agreements with the latter, which China uses in full. You didn't know that ????

        I knew and know a lot of things. With China, they did not miss, it is part of the world economy. Russia also appears to it, and this is the main reason why their "sanctions" do not work as before. The paranoid desire to revive a closed economy is not patriotism, not concern for the welfare of the country. This is a stupid desire of a fanatic to destroy everything, so that in the end everything, as he drove on "hedgehogs".
        1. Wheel
          Wheel April 22 2014 17: 27 New
          +1
          Quote: Sour
          It's your problems. And I drive a foreign car, the third in a row. Previously traveled to domestic. And my driving experience is 28 years old. I am a trained auto mechanic.

          And my driving experience is 38 years old and I always repair my cars myself, regardless of their manufacturer, if any.
          A radio physics engineer, it so happened that I had to deal with things not directly related to my education. But I’m not offended, I’m even proud that what I was doing still stands guard over my Homeland.
          Quote: Sour
          Now retired, but I head the driver training and transportation company. I have no domestic cars, and not by chance. I leave it to you, ride your hedgehogs.
          Do not think it is harmful! hi
          You are simply selfishly interested in having the opportunity to buy a foreign car, now it’s clear.
          Do not be afraid, foreigners will not get anywhere from Russia even when transferring Russian trade to any other currency.
          Quote: Sour
          I knew and know a lot of things. With China, they did not miss, it is part of the world economy. Russia also appears to it, and this is the main reason why their "sanctions" do not work as before. The paranoid desire to revive a closed economy is not patriotism, not concern for the welfare of the country. This is a stupid desire of a fanatic to destroy everything, so that in the end everything, as he drove on "hedgehogs".

          You have a paranoid desire to attribute your guesses to others.
          Someone calls for puppets within their borders?
          Russia at the moment is simply not capable of this, and it is not necessary, by and large.
          The West can no longer lower the iron curtain; pipelines interfere. laughing
          I will tell you a secret: the sanctions did not work against the USSR before, although for a different reason.
          1. Sour
            Sour April 22 2014 17: 40 New
            -1
            Quote: Wheel
            Someone calls for puppets within their borders?

            That is what the gentlemen of the Stalinists are doing.
            Quote: Wheel
            You are simply selfishly interested in having the opportunity to buy a foreign car, now it’s clear

            Do you see something bad in a person’s desire to have a good car? Is it for you a hide? Ndaaa ... amusing people - the Stalinists.
        2. Wheel
          Wheel April 22 2014 17: 28 New
          0
          Attention!
          And now the most interesting, for a snack.
          The dessert is called. laughing
          Quote: Sour
          It is necessary to work, and not to look for the guilty. To each in his own place.

          Sorry for some pathos ... hi
          Well, yes, you are "working" ...
          But just for whom?
          To Russia, for whose well-being you care so much or for yourself, beloved?
          By purchasing an imported thing you feed the country in which it is produced and do not allow to produce an analogue at home.
          It is a pity that you lived up to retirement age and were infected with the consumerism virus.
          With people like you, it will be very difficult for Russia to restore its industry, because for you a "Zaporozhets" released under the Toyota brand will be the last revelation and you will be boiling water from it ... Hmm.
          You, and people like you, are by and large guilty of the economic collapse of our country.
          You, and people like you, will do everything so that your comfort does not suffer the slightest damage.
          You drive a foreign car, providing jobs over the hill, transport foreign goods, again on foreign cars.
          What are you doing for Russia?
          Do you help to pour money there that came for oil and gas, defense products, from atomic scientists and for our grain?
          With what I congratulate you!
          It might be better to go there yourself, huh?

          For sim, I have the honor to take my leave, you are no longer interesting to me.
          1. Sour
            Sour April 22 2014 17: 43 New
            -1
            Quote: Wheel
            By purchasing an imported thing you feed the country in which it is produced and do not allow to produce an analogue at home.

            Do you drink natural tea, that is, imported? Or carrot from your garden?
            Do you wear t-shirts and hebe shirts? Cotton in Russia is not growing. Why are you so skinny, my dear? Wear linen, it is Russian. Or lavsan. And then you do not let the domestic manufacturer turn around.

            Quote: Wheel
            It might be better to go there yourself, huh?

            Get it down in North Korea, a pen in the ass.
            Without komunyak here the air will be cleaner.
            1. Starina_hank
              Starina_hank April 22 2014 21: 22 New
              0
              Carrot, however, will be more useful than a store!
          2. Sour
            Sour April 22 2014 17: 58 New
            -2
            If you do not have money for a good car, then this does not mean that you are a patriot. This may well mean that you simply do not have money. Giving out need for virtue is purely tramp. The physical engineer is not up to the bossy mentality.
            And I have never said that Russia needs to be developed all industry.
            1. Starina_hank
              Starina_hank April 22 2014 21: 24 New
              0
              Of course, everything is not necessary, it is necessary to develop the most profitable oil and gas!
  • atos_kin
    atos_kin April 22 2014 13: 22 New
    +1
    Our main economic problem is the absence of the head of the scale of Stalin I.V. A plus article, I look forward to continuing.
  • Cossacks
    Cossacks April 22 2014 13: 23 New
    +2
    An excellent article and I think the key point is “a solid ruble was needed to restore the economy.” What does Comrade Naebulina think about this?
    1. Wheel
      Wheel April 22 2014 15: 48 New
      +2
      Quote: Cossacks
      What does Comrade Naebulin think of this?

      They will think what they say!
  • Boris55
    Boris55 April 22 2014 13: 54 New
    0
    Already, Medvedev has openly called for trading for rubles ... So it’s not long to wait ...

    1. alex = 111
      alex = 111 April 22 2014 16: 46 New
      +4
      Medvedev-a comic character, just against his background, Putin looks better.
      1. nikcris
        nikcris April 22 2014 17: 56 New
        +1
        I remember Medvedev in one place - I forgot in another. He refers to Bretton Wood TODAY lol Let it go a hundred bucks change for three ounces of gold,. Photographer, ...
        1. Boris55
          Boris55 April 22 2014 19: 27 New
          0
          Quote: nikcris
          Let it go a hundred bucks change for three ounces of gold,


          US President Nixon in the 1971 year unlinked the US dollar to gold after DeGol fitted a ship with green paper and demanded to give it in gold.
          After which unrest in France began, students DeGol resigned, and died a year later ...
          In the fight against green, Kennedy, Hussein, Gaddafi were also killed ...

  • jekasimf
    jekasimf April 22 2014 14: 59 New
    +2
    By the way, in the USSR there was one more positive experience, albeit with a political connotation, but nonetheless:
    Judicial Election
    The election of judges, the principle of socialist justice, the essence of which lies in the fact that judges of all levels of the judicial system and assessors are elected. The CPSU program is considering V. s. as one of the democratic foundations of justice. V.'s principle of page.
    Show in full .. legislatively enshrined in the Constitution of the USSR, in the constitutions of the Union and Autonomous Republics, in the Fundamentals of legislation on the judicial system of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Union and Autonomous Republics 1958. In the USSR, the principle of V. s. fully implemented: judges and lay judges of all courts (from the people's court to the Supreme Court of the USSR) are elected by the population or the respective Soviets of working people's deputies.

    The judges of the main link of the Soviet judicial system - the district (city) people's court - are elected by the citizens of this district (city) on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a term of 5 years, people's assessors - at general meetings of workers, office workers and peasants their place of work or residence, military personnel - in military units for a period of 2 years. Regional, provincial, city courts, courts of autonomous regions and national districts are elected by the respective Councils of Workers' Deputies for 5 years. The Supreme Court of the USSR, the Supreme Courts of the Union and Autonomous Republics are elected respectively by the Supreme Council of the USSR, Supreme Councils of the Union and Autonomous Republics for 5 years. The chairmen, vice-chairmen and members of the military tribunals are elected by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for 5 years. People's assessors of military courts are elected by open vote at general meetings of military personnel of a military unit (institution) on 2 of the year.

    Soviet law does not know any restrictive qualifications for the election of judges or lay assessors, except for the age: every citizen of the USSR who has reached the age of 25 years by election day can be elected a judge and lay assessor. Any adult citizen who is in active military service may be elected people's assessor of the military tribunals.
    Present Russia before, as from Vladivostok to Moscow ..... squid. wassat
    1. Sour
      Sour April 22 2014 17: 22 New
      +1
      Courts of all levels in the USSR were headed by professional lawyers. We can only speak about their election conditionally. Party bodies nominated, there has never been an alternative candidate. Formally, anyone could become a judge. But only formally. In fact, for this it was necessary to have a legal education. And necessarily - membership in the CPSU, there were no non-partisan judges in the USSR.
      Judges of the military tribunals were appointed quite officially. There was not even a fictitious election.
      People's assessors are people from the people. They didn’t decide anything, they just nodded, people called them “shakers”. Moreover, they were only in the courts of first instance. Only professional judges worked in the higher courts.
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  • Free wind
    Free wind April 22 2014 18: 04 New
    0
    And let's talk about performance. We take the United States, Hollywood, profits from film producers more than a hundred billion dollars. We take Russia, our cinema. Losses are billions of dollars. Official data from hundreds of films. Series, cartoons, only 7 !!!! Seven films were more or less profitable !!!! How many hundreds of dollars minus for every Russian? further microelectronics, last year from Apple. 62 billion dollars in profit. Arrived ! And not commodity circulation. We have a total of 270 million dollars in losses. Well, the number of fucking hard workers, officials, prosecutors, judges, policemen, this generally goes beyond all reasonable limits. Workers and peasants are employed by us at 150 percent. What the current barjas demand from the workers, the Negroes would probably be horrified. But the cars are bad, it is primarily moronic designers and engineers who can not construct a beautiful car. Why do drivers, takar and welder redesign almost every car?
  • Metlik
    Metlik April 22 2014 19: 13 New
    0
    Providing the ruble with gold content is unlikely to succeed. We don’t have much gold. You can equate it to oil - but its prices on the world market fluctuate greatly. There is one product that is abundant in the Russian Federation and is in increasing demand in the world. Electricity If the ruble is equal to one kilowatt, many will find it reliable to store capital in rubles.
    1. Sour
      Sour April 22 2014 19: 40 New
      0
      Quote: Metlik
      If the ruble is equal to one kilowatt

      Perhaps you wanted to say "kilowatt-hour"?
      In kilowatts, power is measured, not energy.
      Quote: Metlik
      There is one product that is abundant in the Russian Federation and is in increasing demand in the world. Electricity

      Electricity tariffs are different everywhere. Even within the same country, they can differ many times. For example, in the USA they range from 12 to 50 cents per kWh.
      1. Metlik
        Metlik April 23 2014 01: 06 New
        0
        Quote: Sour
        Electricity tariffs are different everywhere.

        If I want to get gas for myself 20 kilometers from the pipe, I will have to pay for it. This does not mean that they will sell me some special, expensive gas. The cost of energy without supply is the same.
    2. Wheel
      Wheel April 22 2014 20: 58 New
      0
      Let's carefully read the article ...
      The Soviet chervonets was equated to a 10-ruble gold coin of the Russian Empire weighing 7,74 g. The chervonets was 25% provided with gold, other precious metals, as well as foreign currency; 75% of it was provided with short-term state obligations and goods.
      Those. 100% provision of gold currency is not necessary.
      Other assets are quite suitable for collateral.
      First of all, for Russia it is oil and gas.
      Price fluctuations are now primarily the result of virtual speculation in an unsecured currency, that's all. Supply and demand are not here.
  • yurcello
    yurcello April 26 2014 12: 20 New
    0
    Interesting article)

    P.S. A certain Sour, using the term "Stalinist" as a curse - smiles), excuse me, but you, Sour, write a lot of frank delirium, in my humble opinion :)