Among these awards there are quite exotic ones: “The Maltese Cross” and the Venezuelan “Order of Francisco de Miranda” with the star of illegal intelligence officer Joseph Grigulevich; the Cuban medal “XX years of Moncada” by a member of the famous “Cambridge Five” Kim Philby; the three highest orders of the Mongolian People's Republic, the commander of the Separate Motorized Rifle Special Purpose Brigade (OMSBON), Vyacheslav Gridnev, and the Yugoslavian Partisan Star in gold of Pavel Fitin, the head of foreign intelligence of the military period.
In the section of the exposition devoted to the activities of foreign intelligence during the Great Patriotic War, the attention of visitors was invariably attracted by numerous military medals to the "Partisan of the Patriotic War", which was especially respected by the population of our country during the war and post-war periods. What distinguished Chekists, gentlemen of these honorary awards?
AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PARTISAN MOVEMENT
It is well known that during the years of the Great Patriotic War a partisan movement was widely deployed in the temporarily occupied by the fascist invaders of Soviet territory. The partisan detachments and groups were joined by workers, collective farmers, representatives of the intelligentsia, communists, Komsomol members and non-partisans, as well as Soviet military personnel who left the encirclement or fled from enemy captivity.
18 July 1941 was adopted by the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) "On the organization of the struggle in the rear of the German-fascist troops", in which the party organizations and state security bodies were instructed to "create intolerable conditions for the German interventionists, disrupt all their activities, destroy the invaders and their helpers, to help create guerrilla groups, sabotage fighter groups ". The resolution emphasized that an important role in the organization of the partisan movement, combat squads and sabotage groups should be played by the state security bodies.
In accordance with this resolution, from the first days of the Great Patriotic War, a special group under the People's Commissar headed by Pavel Sudoplatov, the deputy chief of foreign intelligence, began to actively operate in the NKVD. She was engaged in the selection, organization, training and transfer to the rear of the enemy sabotage and reconnaissance units.
In connection with the expansion of guerrilla warfare in the occupied Soviet territory in January 1942, a special 4 control was formed as a part of the NKVD to supervise the front-line work of the state security agencies, and Pavel Sudoplatov was also appointed as head, who also remained deputy head of foreign intelligence . The backbone of the leadership of the new administration was the current employees of foreign intelligence. Lieutenant-General Sudoplatov later recalled: “When selecting security officers for the posts of commanders of partisan detachments, their past activities were primarily taken into account. First of all, they assigned people who had combat experience, who had to not only participate in the guerrilla war against the White Poles in the 1920s, but also fight in Spain. There was also a large group of security officers who fought in the Far East. ”
The 4 NKVD administration was also charged with organizing illegal residencies in major cities in the occupied territories, introducing agents into the occupying military and administrative bodies, creating residencies in areas under threat of capture, providing special forces and agents weapons, means of communication and documents.
During the war years, 2200 operative detachments and groups acted in the enemy's rear. Sabotage and reconnaissance units of the NKVD destroyed 230 thousand. Nazi soldiers and officers, undermined 2800 enemy trains with manpower and equipment, mined an important military, strategic and political information that was of great importance for the Soviet military command.
2 February 1943 of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR established a medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War" of two degrees, the position of which indicated: "Medal" Partisan of the Patriotic War "I and II degree awarded the guerrillas of the Patriotic War, commanding guerrilla guards and organizers of partisans and guerrillas who showed courage, resilience and courage in the partisan struggle for our Soviet homeland in the rear against the German fascist invaders. "
The I degree medal was awarded to partisans, the commanding personnel of the partisan detachments and the organizers of the partisan movement for special merits in organizing the partisan movement, for courage, heroism and outstanding success in the partisan struggle for the Soviet Motherland in the rear of the German fascist invaders. In turn, the guerrillas, the commanding personnel of the partisan detachments and the organizers of the partisan movement were awarded with the medal "Partisan of World War II" for personal battle difference in the implementation of orders and tasks of the command.
The medal of the I degree was made of silver 925 of the test, the medal of the II degree - of brass. On the obverse side of the medal there is a chest profile image of Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin. On the edge of the medal, a ribbon is minted, on the folds of which in the lower part are the letters “USSR”, and in the middle of them there is a five-pointed asterisk with a sickle and a hammer. On the same ribbon, the inscription “To the Partisan of the Patriotic War” is inscribed in the upper part of the medal, and the inscription “For our Soviet Homeland” is stamped on the reverse side of the medal. Ribbon to the medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War" silk moire light green color. In the middle of the ribbon of the medal I degree is a red stripe; medals of the II degree - a blue strip. The author of the picture of the medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War" was the famous Soviet artist Nikolai Moskalev.
In total, more than 56 thousand people were awarded the 1st degree award to the Partisan Patriotic War medal for participation in the partisan movement, and more than 71 thousand people received the second degree medal. Among them were many representatives of foreign intelligence. Here are just a few examples.
From the first days of the Great Patriotic War, a prominent Soviet intelligence officer, Zoya Ivanovna Voskresenskaya-Rybkina, was assigned to the Special Group of General Sudoplatov. She became one of the creators of the first partisan detachment, which initially included only four officers, who were selected and instructed by Zoya Ivanovna herself.
The commander of the detachment was appointed Nikifor Z. Kalyada - a professional soldier who fought with the Germans during the First World War. A former partisan in Ukraine, he was 1920's deputy army commander in the Far East. Leonid Vasilievich Gromov, the former chief of a geological expedition on Wrangel Island, was appointed chief of staff of a non-existent detachment. The group also included: as a mechanic specialist - Samuil Abramovich Vilman, who before the war was the head of illegal residency in Mongolia under the "roof" of the owner of a private auto repair shop, and Lieutenant Konstantin Pavlovich Molchanov - gunsmith specialist.
The task of the Kalyada group included the creation of a partisan detachment from local residents of the Velsky, Prechistensky and Baturinsky districts of the Smolensk region.
8 July 1941, a group that was officially called the Partisan Detachment No. 1 in the Center, drove to a northern forest in the direction of Moscow – Smolensk – Vitebsk.
Soon there were already more than a hundred people in the detachment, mostly from ten districts of the Smolensk region. In the forest, Nikifor Zakharovich released his beard, for which the partisans called him "Batya". From the history of the Great Patriotic War, the legendary guerrilla unit “Bati” is well known, which already in 1941 – 1942 practically restored Soviet power in the Smolensk – Vitebsk – Orsh triangle.
The leaders of the partisan detachment Nikifor Kalyada, Leonid Gromov, Samuil Vilman and Konstantin Molchanov were among the first to be awarded the Medal “Partisan of the Patriotic War” I degree.
FOR FAITH AND FATHERLAND
Zoya Voskresenskaya-Rybkina, who later also became a holder of the medal “Partisan of the Patriotic War” I degree, was involved in the creation and transfer to the rear of the enemy and one of the first reconnaissance groups, acting, by the way, under unusual, church cover. Here is how she recalled this in her memoirs:
“I learned that Bishop Vasily addressed the military registration and enlistment office, Vasily Mikhailovich Ratmirov, in the world, with a request to send him to the front in order to“ serve the Fatherland and protect the Orthodox church from fascist adversaries. ”
I invited the bishop to my apartment. Interviewed for several hours. Vasily Mikhailovich said that he 54 year. Immediately after the start of the war he was appointed bishop of Zhytomyr. But Zhytomyr was soon occupied by the German occupiers, and then he was appointed bishop in Kalinin. He rushed to the front and therefore turned to the military enlistment office.
I asked him if he would agree to take under his guardianship two scouts who would not prevent him from fulfilling the duty of the archpastor, and he would “cover” them with his dignity. Vasily Mikhailovich asked in detail what they would do and would not desecrate the temple of God by bloodshed. I assured him that these people would keep secret observations of the enemy, military objects, the movement of military units, and identify spies sent to our rear.
- If this is a serious matter, I am ready to serve the Fatherland.
- As someone you can "cover" them?
- As my assistants. But for this they need to thoroughly prepare.
We agreed that I would report to the management and meet the next day.
The head of the group appointed Lieutenant-Colonel Vasily Mikhailovich Ivanov, a foreign intelligence officer (the operational pseudonym — Vasko). The second member of the group was Lieutenant Ivan Ivanovich Mikheyev (the operational pseudonym is “Mikhas”), an 22-year-old graduate of an aviation school who was the commander of one of the units of the NKVD fighter battalion since the beginning of the war.
Vladyka Vasily taught worship at my apartment every day: prayers, ceremonies, and vestments. The group formed a friendly, successful. On August 18, 1941, she was sent to the front-line Kalinin. They began the service in the Intercession Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, but on October 14, the enemy aviation bombed this church, and the bishop and his assistants moved to the city cathedral. "
Soon the Germans occupied Kalinin. Vladyka Vasily addressed the burgomaster with a request to take him and his assistants for food allowances. Through a translator, Vladyka explained to the local Führer that he was imprisoned under Soviet rule and was serving a sentence in the North. He stressed that his main concern is the spiritual life of the flock, he is extremely concerned about it, his high spiritual dignity obliges him to do so.
The rumor about Vladyka Vasily, zealously concerned about his parishioners, quickly spread in the city. People reached for the cathedral. And young, stately and beautiful assistants of the lord, distinguished by their modesty and strictness of morals, quickly won the sympathy of the locals.
The intelligence team promptly carried out the tasks of the Center. The scouts established contacts with the population, identified accomplices of the invaders, collected materials on the size and location of German headquarters, warehouses and bases with military assets, and kept records of the arriving enemy units. The collected information was immediately transferred to the Center through the radio operator, cipherteader Lyubov Bazhanova, who had been abandoned to them with a parachute (the operational pseudonym “Martha”).
The results of the reconnaissance group were convincing. In addition to the encrypted radio reports transmitted to the Center, Vasko and Mikhas identified two residencies and more than thirty agents left behind by the Gestapo in the rear of the Soviet troops, and made a detailed description of the caches of weapons.
The patriotic achievement of Bishop Vasily Ratmirov was highly appreciated. For the fact that he showed courage and did not abandon his flock at a difficult time, by the decision of the Synod he was given the rank of archbishop. Later, at the direction of Patriarch Alexy, Vladyka Vasily was appointed Archbishop of Smolensk. Vasily Mikhailovich received a gold watch from the Soviet intelligence service as a token of gratitude. "Vasko", "Mikhas" and "Martha" were awarded the Order "Badge of Honor". All group members were also awarded medals "Partisan of the Patriotic War" I degree.
Special Purpose Falcons
In October 1942, State Security Major Kirill Orlovsky, was sent to the rear of the enemy at the head of the reconnaissance and sabotage group, which eventually turned into a large partisan special purpose unit "Falcons" operating in Belarus in the area of Belovezhskaya Pushcha. The detachment participated in many battles with the Nazi invaders, conducted in the rear of the Germans a number of successful sabotage to destroy military-industrial facilities and large military echelons of the enemy. In the city of Baranavichy, partisans of the Falcons detachment under the leadership of Orlovsky eliminated several prominent Hitler military officials and captured important military documents.
In one of the fights in February 1943, Orlovsky was seriously wounded in his right arm and seriously wounded. However, he continued to lead the combat operation until he brought the partisans to a safe place. A partisan surgeon performed an operation on the commander: his right arm was amputated. There were no painkillers, the only tool was a handsaw. But Orlovsky bravely suffered an operation, and three months later he radioed to Moscow: “He recovered. He began to command the detachment. " However, the Center insisted on his return to Moscow, but Orlovsky only agreed with the third call, at the end of 1943.
By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from 20, September 1943 of the year, Kirill Orlovsky was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union for exemplary performance of the combat missions of the command in the rear of the German fascist troops and the courage and courage displayed. The military achievements of Kirill Prokofievich in the Great Patriotic War were also marked by three Orders of Lenin, the Order of the Red Banner, and other military awards, including the medal “Partisan of the Patriotic War” I degree.
From the very first days of the Great Patriotic War, the employee of the Soviet foreign intelligence agency Spaniard Africa de Las Heras, who was in Moscow after completing her work abroad, began to seek to be sent to the front. In May, 1942 of the year she graduated from the accelerated courses of radio operators at the 4-th control of the NKVD and was sent to the formed "Victors" reconnaissance and sabotage detachment under the command of Dmitry Medvedev.
On the night of 16 June 1942, the group, which included the radio operator Africa, was parachuted near the Thick Forest station in Western Ukraine. For Africa, active combat work began in the rear of the enemy, which she later recalled: “Three radio operators came out of the camp to communicate with Moscow. We walked in different directions kilometers 15 – 20, accompanied by fighters. Work began all at the same time on different waves. One of us was carrying a real program, and the other two - to disorient the enemy, because we were constantly harassed by German direction finders. The task of our group of radio operators was to maintain constant communication with the Center. In the Medvedev detachment, the connection with Moscow was never interrupted. ”
It should be noted that the future Hero of the Soviet Union, the celebrated illegal intelligence agent Nikolai Kuznetsov, also fought in the “Winners” unit. De Las Heras transmitted to the Center his extremely important information.
Later, the commander of the detachment of the Hero of the Soviet Union D.N. Medvedev talked about the work of his radio operators behind enemy lines: “We guarded the radio operators and radio equipment like the apple of an eye. During the transitions, two submachine gunners were attached to each radio operator for personal protection, which also helped carry the equipment. ”
More than once Africa had to participate in the combat operations of the “Winners” detachment, to show courage and bravery in carrying out command assignments. Her reputation is firmly established one of the best radio operators. The certificate that Africa was given upon returning to Moscow, in particular, stated: “Being the assistant platoon commander, de las Heras showed herself as a skilled commander and a good radio operator. Her radio equipment was always in exemplary condition, and she demanded the same from her subordinates. ”
For the performance of combat missions and active participation in the partisan movement during the war years, Africa de Las Heras was awarded the Order of the Red Star, as well as medals "For Courage" and "Partisan of the Patriotic War" I degree.
3 July 1941 was sent from Moscow to Mogilyov an operational reconnaissance and sabotage group of six security officers headed by state security captain Vasily Ivanovich Pudin. The group was given the task: to prepare for the transition to an illegal situation in the event of the capture of the city by the Germans. Only got to Mogilev, the situation at the front is much more complicated. Hitler's troops bypassed the city from the north and the south, captured Smolensk, approached Elne, threatened Vyazma. Soviet troops who defended Mogilev were surrounded. The difficult situation forced Pudin's group to take part in defensive battles.
The besieged city lost its connection with the mainland. At the disposal of the defenders of Mogilev was only a small portable radio station task force Pudin. Fourteen days the scouts informed Moscow about the course of the defense. And when it was finally impossible to continue resistance, the surrounded garrison on the night of 26 on 27 in July, 1941, went on a breakthrough in order to break into the forests and start a guerrilla war. Group Pudin was in the ranks of the troops storming the enemy ring.
Vasily Ivanovich was wounded at the village of Tishovka, his left foot was torn off. Waking up only in the morning, he then crawled in the direction of the houses. Local resident Shura Ananyeva hid him in the barn. For five days she and her mother took care of the wounded. On the sixth day, when gangrene began at the scout, Shura drove Pudin on a horse he had taken to Mogilev hospital. In one of the corridors of the crowded hospital, he lay for five long months, posing as a driver, Vasily Popov (according to legend).
The Nazis did not leave the wounded man alone, conducted night interrogations, trying to find out if the patient was lying. And only by the end of the fifth month Pudin managed to convince the Nazis of the truth of his biography legend.
At the end of December 1941, when health allowed the intelligence officer to move independently on crutches, he was discharged from the hospital and allowed to live under police surveillance in the village of Krasnopol'e, not far from Mogilev. There he was sheltered by a local teacher, Mikhail Volchkov. Pudin began to shoemaker. At the same time he looked at the people around him, studied the situation. Step by step, the scout created an underground battle group.
The first fighter of his group, teacher Mikhail Volchkov, was killed at the hands of a traitor; his savior Shura Ananyev, who had been taken to Germany, was languishing somewhere far in German captivity. Gradually, however, reliable assistants began to appear in Pudin. Active actions began: the mines laid by them were torn, enemy vehicles burned, German soldiers and officers were destroyed.
In August 1942, Pudin was able to establish contact with Osman Kasaev’s partisan detachment. By that time, there were already 22 people in his reconnaissance and sabotage group. It consisted of two girls who worked as translators for the Germans, railway workers, employees of the commandant's office. Then contact was established with the landing group from the mainland, which had a walkie-talkie. Valuable information collected by the Pudin group was transmitted to Moscow.
Soon the liaison from Pentin arrived from the Center, after which the activities of his group became significantly more active. Vasily Ivanovich himself moved into the partisan detachment, from where he led his fighters. Interacting with the partisan detachments of the Mogilev region, the Pudin group inflicted tangible blows on the enemy’s communications, directing Soviet aircraft to its important objects. For collecting valuable information about the enemy, Pudin was awarded the Order of Lenin.
However, the health of Vasily Ivanovich deteriorated, the crippled leg did not give rest. 17 July 1943, the scout flew to the mainland, where he had a difficult operation. For almost a year, Pudin was treated at the hospital. Then he worked in senior positions in the central apparatus of foreign intelligence. After the end of World War II, he worked as deputy chief of one of the foreign intelligence directorates. Repeatedly traveled abroad to perform special tasks. In 1952, for health reasons he had to retire. He wrote several books about the activities of Soviet intelligence.
Vasily Pudin was awarded two Orders of Lenin, two Orders of the Red Banner, Orders of the Patriotic War of I degree and the Red Star, many medals, including the Medal "To Partisan of the Patriotic War" I degree.
FROM SPAIN TO MANCHURIA
A man of surprising fate and great courage was called Stanislav Alekseevich Vaupshasov by his comrades and colleagues. Out of almost 40 years spent serving in the Soviet Army and state security agencies, he spent 22 years in the trenches, underground, in the woods, in hikes and battles.
In the 1920 year, Vaupshasov graduated from the Red Commanders' Courses in Smolensk and was directly involved in the combat work of "active intelligence". So at that time the partisan resistance was called, organized by the Intelligence Directorate of the Red Army in the western regions of Ukraine and Belarus, who ceded to Poland as a result of the Soviet-Polish war. Especially purposefully and successfully "active intelligence" was carried out in the Polesye, Vileika and Novogrudok voivodeships of Western Belarus.
Soon followed a two-year study in Moscow at the School of the commanding staff of the Red Army and service in Minsk. In 1930, Vaupshasov was transferred to work in state security agencies and seconded to the Plenipotentiary Representative of the OGPU in the BSSR.
From November 1937 of the year to March, 1939 of Vaupshas was in a special assignment in Spain as a senior adviser at the headquarters of the 14 of the Republican Army Partisan Corps. He personally carried out reconnaissance missions in the rear of the Franco forces. During the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939 – 1940, he participated in the formation of reconnaissance and sabotage groups, and also directly participated in battles with the White Finns.
Since September 1941, Vaupshasov has participated in the battle of Moscow as a battalion commander of the Special Motorized Rifle Brigade. At the end of 1941, he was instructed to form a special squad “Local” for operations in the enemy's rear in the vicinity of Minsk. In addition to military operations - the destruction of enemy garrisons, trains with troops and equipment, the destruction of railways, bridges - the task of Vaupshasov was to maintain contact with partisan detachments and underground groups operating in the territory of Belarus, coordinating their interaction and conducting intelligence.
For more than two years, Vaupshasov headed one of the largest partisan units operating in the Pukhovichsky, Gressky and Rudensky districts of Belarus. Great was the contribution of his fighters to the common cause of victory. Over the 28 months of war, behind enemy lines, they undermined 187 echelons with manpower, military equipment and ammunition. In battles and as a result of sabotage, the detachment of Vaupshasov destroyed over 14 thousands of German soldiers and officers. 57 large sabotage has been committed, of which 42 is in Minsk. Vaupshasov participated personally in the most important operations.
15 July 1944, the Vaupshasov detachment joined the Red Army units, and on the next day, July 16, a partisan parade took place in Minsk in which he took part.
For the skillful leadership of combat operations to defeat the enemy, the heroism shown in the performance of special tasks in the rear of the enemy Stanislav Vaupshasov 5 November 1944 was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
After the liberation of Belarus, Vaupshasov worked for some time in Moscow, in the central intelligence apparatus. Then he was sent to the Far East. During the war with Japan, he participated in combat operations, and with the advent of peace he led a team to clean up the rear of liberated Manchuria. Since December, 1946 was the head of the intelligence unit of the MGB of the Lithuanian SSR.
Motherland highly appreciated the merits of an outstanding intelligence officer. He was awarded four orders of Lenin, orders of the Red Banner, Labor Red Banner, World War I and II degree, many medals, including the medal "Partisan of World War I" degree.