Military Review

On the road to financial autonomy. Stalin's gold ruble

41
On the road to financial autonomy. Stalin's gold ruble

Representatives of the ruling class in Russia regularly say that there is no money. That investment is small, then they themselves invest capital in Western securities. However, under Stalin, Russia-USSR was able to solve the problem of financial independence and achieve unprecedented success in the economy. History Stalin's ruble shows that with a zealous host, a country like Russia can flourish without letting itself be robbed by internal and external parasites.


A brief history of the monetary system during the reign of Nicholas II

The monetary system that existed in the Russian Empire before World War I was formed thanks to the 1897 reform of the year (the Witte reform). The introduction of the gold ruble was in the interests of large capital, as well as foreign banks and monopolies, which exported their capital to Russia. In general, Witte fulfilled the wishes of the so-called. "Financial International", which was associated with a number of contacts. The reform was preceded by measures to strengthen the budget and the accumulation of gold reserves. The accumulation of gold went by increasing its production and forcing the export by reducing the domestic consumption of the population (“not enough to eat, but we will take out”).

As a result of monetary reform in Russia, the classical form of the monetary system with gold currency was established. However, despite the large gold reserves, the financial position of the Russian Empire was not stable. Russia had a large foreign debt.

Believing in the need for Western investment and the free circulation of the ruble, Nicholas II removed the protective barriers. Foreign capital really poured into Russia, but it (as in the modern Russian Federation) had a speculative character. Foreigners built enterprises for the extraction and processing of raw materials in Russia, the manufacturing sector grew rapidly in the empire. But most of the profits immediately exported abroad in the form of interest on loans and dividends from Western capital. For this, a freely convertible gold ruble was required. Gold flowed from the Russian Empire to Western banks. With the help of Witte, Western capital built a system such that most of the profits were in the hands of the “financial international”, as well as Russian bankers and large industrialists. At the same time, the Russian rich preferred to burn money abroad, to buy Western luxury items on them.

Having entered the First World War, Russia rather quickly exhausted its budget reserves. The government was forced to ban the exchange of credit tickets for gold and began to resort to the issue of paper banknotes in large amounts to cover military expenses. In 1914-1915 the money supply has more than doubled. However, the financial situation was still fairly stable. In some other warring powers, the situation was worse. Military orders and food purchases for the army even somewhat stimulated the national economy, and the Russian economy continued to grow. This delayed the fall in the value of the ruble. The confidence in the ruble has not yet been undermined. In 1916, the situation worsened somewhat, the depreciation of money began. The money supply continued to grow: from 2,4 billion rubles at the beginning of the war and 5,7 billion rubles at the beginning of 1916 to 10,8 billion to March 1 of 1917.

It should be noted that the depreciation of the ruble in 1914-1917. It was no longer due to the growth in consumer demand for a decreasing amount of goods, but because of the speculative component. In fact, a significant part of the industrial and financial circles of Russia during the war years tried to cash in on wartime and the difficulties of the country. In the price of goods increasingly laid thieves component. There was a terrible war, hundreds of thousands of sons of the Fatherland died, were injured, became cripples, froze and starved, fed lice, and at this time in the rear stole everything they could.

So, at state-owned (state-owned) factories, products cost 2-3 times less than at private ones. At the state-owned factory 122-mm shrapnel cost 15 rubles, and in private - 35 rubles. When the chief of the Main Artillery Directorate, General Alexey Manikovsky, tried to press the thieves, they complained to the tsar. Nicholas II summoned the general to himself and said that he was hampered by "the initiative of society in supplying the army." To this, Manikovsky responded that private owners already get 300% profits, and in some cases up to 1000%. Nikolai said this: "Well, let them make money, so long as they do not steal." Manikovsky noted that "this is worse than theft, it is open robbery." However, the emperor insisted on his own on the pretext that "no need to annoy the public."

This conversation is very indicative, it characterizes the degree of decomposition of the Russian empire and the weakness of imperial power. Nicholas, even during a war, does not want to toughen orders and restore order in the rear, fearing to “annoy the public.” As is well known, the public in this period, like most of the press, was formed by liberal, Masonic and Zionist circles. "The Fifth Column", which eventually destroyed the autocracy and the Russian Empire, staging the February Revolution.

It should be noted that the activities of Manikovsky, who became the head of the GAU in a crisis situation - during the period of the so-called "shell hunger", came up against serious resistance. The general proved himself to be an energetic leader who was able to establish ammunition production and by 1917 fully satisfy the needs of the front. Under Manikovsky, existing production facilities were expanded - weapons, artillery, shell, powder, and new ones are created. Manikovsky was an excellent manager. Possessed tremendous energy and exceptional abilities. His favorite saying was: “Procrastination of death is like!” The general was not afraid to take responsibility on himself, resolving matters with lightning speed. He attracted people with cordiality and directness. Manikovsky harshly criticized private producers focused on superprofits, they overstated prices and issued defective products. Private industrialists hated him and almost achieved the resignation of Manikovsky from the post of head of the GAU. In March 1916, the Minister of War agreed to transfer the general back to the post of commandant of the Kronstadt fortress. However, the possibility of disrupting the supply of ammunition to the army in the event Manikovsky left, forced the military leadership to leave the skilled manager at his post.

Manikovsky was able to put under his control private factories producing military products. Manikovsky himself believed that in peacetime, state-owned enterprises should serve as a price regulator and the vanguard of technical progress, and during the war - have a dominant position. After the revolution, Manikovsky went to serve in the Red Army, headed the Artillery Directorate, the Red Army Procurement Directorate. Thanks to Manikovsky, powerful artillery appeared in the Red Army and an army supply system for ammunition was organized. Unfortunately, he died in 1920 year.

The picture of general theft in bourgeois circles is well illustrated by the situation in the Urals, which was one of the oldest industrial centers of the empire. For comparison, during the years of the Great Patriotic War, the Urals became the most powerful center of the USSR, which made a huge contribution to the overall victory. So, if production per Ural worker in the first (peaceful) half year of 1941 was taken as 100%, then in the second half of 1941, production increased to 217,3%, and in the first half of 1942 year - to 329%.

We see a completely different picture in the Urals during the First World War. Until the spring-summer of 1915, when the Great Retreat of the Russian army began and an acute shortage of weapons (especially shells, barbed wire) was discovered, the Urals and its industry didn’t think much about it. Only in 1915, the need to urgently transfer factories to military production and increase steel production became acute. In the summer of 1915, a commission of General Mikhailovsky arrived in the Urals, which traveled around the factories and held meetings with the breeders. Breeders began to move, began to actively express their "patriotism."

Entrepreneurs have developed vigorous activities to modernize and expand production. We went purchasing new machines, built new factories. The number of workers has grown significantly. It would seem that the Urals should have experienced an increase in production. However, the opposite happened. Fell ore, smelting iron and steel. At the same time, entrepreneurs felt great, rolled like cheese in butter. The profits of joint-stock companies rose sharply. So, the Theological Society, which had about 1913 million gross profit in 4, received more than 1916 million rubles in 10,5 year; the profit of the Beloretsk society increased from 860 thousand rubles to 2 million 170 thousand rubles, etc. In general, the profit of Ural breeders for three years has tripled.

The Provisional Government

It is clear that with such a system, the government had no choice but to print more and more money. When the liberals in February 1917 seized power, the collapse of the economy and the financial crisis intensified. From March to October 1917, the money supply doubled and reached 1 in November 1917 of the year 20,4 billion rubles. This is due to a sharp decrease in the volume of production, a reduction in commodity output, and the ejection of money and peasant broths, which led to a strong depreciation of the ruble. The depreciation of money overtook the issue. Russia has entered a period of strong financial crisis and the collapse of the monetary system. By the time of the October Revolution, the paper ruble had depreciated to 10 pre-revolutionary kopecks. The Bolsheviks inherited a completely upset financial system.

The period of "war communism"

The Soviet government implemented a number of anti-crisis measures. Lenin put forward the idea of ​​not issuing money as one of the most important tasks of economic policy. Council of People's Commissars (SNK) took measures to reduce costs. When SNK established a "Special Committee to reduce public spending."

However, during the civil war and other difficulties of this period, it was not possible to eliminate the budget deficit. From November 1917 of the year to April 1918 of the year 18,7 billion rubles were issued. In the spring of 1918, active work was carried out on the preparation of monetary reform. Lenin paid great attention to this question and emphasized that all other reforms are doomed to failure, if there is no success in financial policy.

However, in view of the intensification of civil war and intervention, the financial reform, which implied a reduction in the money supply, could not be implemented. Military spending rose sharply, while budget revenues could not be increased due to increased economic chaos and the inability to collect taxes. The budget deficit, despite the introduction of an emergency revolutionary tax, has increased dramatically and continued to grow. In 1920, the budget deficit was more than one trillion rubles (87% of the budget expenditure). The only source of covering the budget deficit was the issue of money. The amount of money from mid-1918 of the year to the beginning of 1921 of the year increased almost 30 times - from 43,7 billion rubles on July 1 1918 of the year to 1,2 trillion rubles on 1 January of 1921.

Money quickly depreciated. So, in January 1920, the money supply increased by 15,7%, and prices increased by 27%; in February, the money supply was increased by 12,6% and prices by 23%; in March, the money supply increased by 16,2% and prices by 25%. The rapid depreciation of money was associated not only with the issue, but also a significant reduction in production and commodity mass. War, chaos and general devastation caused a reduction in production. The naturalization of the economy and the exchange (the surplus, the supply of food, the introduction of free services and goods, etc.), as well as the acceleration of the circulation of money, also had an effect. There was a “flight of money”, characteristic of a period of strong inflation. Certain goods have become a medium of exchange, crowding out money. In addition, the Soviet government did not even have a symbolic provision of money. The gold reserve of the Russian Empire was lost, exported abroad. The Soviet ruble was not credible due to the lack of gold reserves. Psychology is of great importance in financial policy. Financial experiments of the Bolsheviks played their negative role. The Bolsheviks tried to refuse money altogether and distribute goods for free.

The period of the NEP

Inflation during the civil war and intervention was not possible to stop. It was necessary to maintain and feed the state apparatus, the army, support the city and the workers, and there was almost no tax revenue. But as soon as the war ended, the Soviet government was able to change the situation.

One of the most important measures to improve monetary circulation was the organization of the State Bank in October 1921. The State Bank has become not only the main credit institution, but also the center for organizing money circulation and money circulation regulation. With the transition to the New Economic Policy, the value of money has increased. Everywhere was restored payment for goods and services. Most of the state-owned enterprises were transferred to cost accounting, that is, they stopped the free supply of raw materials and materials and reduced budget support. The card system of distribution of products among employees and workers was limited, and then eliminated; cash wages gradually replaced natural wages.

The XI Congress of the RCP (B.) Adopted a detailed program of financial policy. The transfer to the cost accounting of the majority of enterprises and organizations contributed to the growth of production and trade, reduced government spending and expanded sources of revenue for the budget. In 1922-1923 local budgets were organized and administrative expenses were reduced. In 1922, the first short-term bread loan was issued. Loan bonds were sold for money, and they could be repaid with money or bread. The bonds were accepted in payment of the natural tax, which replaced the surplus. These and other measures have somewhat stabilized the financial situation of Soviet Russia.

To reorganize currency circulation in 1921-1922 held two denominations of banknotes. Under the first denomination, one ruble of new money (banknotes of the 1922 model of the year) was equal to 10 thousand of banknotes of previous issues. For the second denomination (banknotes of the 1923 model of the year) to 1 million rubles of banknotes of all issues up to 1922 of the year or 100 thousand rubles of the 1922 model of the year.

However, it was not possible to radically change the situation. Money supply continued to grow at a rapid pace. From 1 July 1921 to 1 January 1923, it grew 850 times. The bad harvest and famine of the year 1921 also played a negative role. True, the growth of economic turnover contributed to the fact that the depreciation of money was slower than the growth of emissions. To create a stable currency, fundamental monetary reform and a serious expansion of production and trade were required.

To be continued ...
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Articles from this series:
On the road to financial autonomy. Stalin's gold ruble
On the road to financial autonomy. Stalin's gold ruble. Part of 2
How Stalin freed the ruble from the dollar. Stalin's plan to create a common "non-dollar" market
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  1. Signaller
    Signaller April 21 2014 07: 07 New
    13
    Yes, the question is not what the ruble will be. Gold, silver, paper. The main thing is that he would be. And now there are no rubles. It was said that 80 billion currencies were exported from Russia. Where is she from???? We exchanged rubles for currency and exported. Where is the ruble ???? Clearly, the case is in the egg of the National Bank of Russia. And why it is not allowed back into circulation. ???? That's the problem. Type -specialy keep in a capsule ????? Yes, they can put into circulation through loans, but who will take them ????? None. And why the government does not invest ???? Yes, because the government does not need it. Make sure not to be pulled away, to let go where necessary. Fuss a lot, and personal fat-zero. A rare government official wants to work for the state, it can be seen with the naked eye. Until this tendency changes, everything will continue. Change of government-course, investment at the state level, as under Stalin in the 30s in the era of INDUSTRIALIZATION. And then it will be good. experience is there. Apparently -NO WHO NEEDS UNTIL.
    1. Sunjar
      Sunjar April 21 2014 08: 07 New
      12
      There are prerequisites for the creation of energy currency. In modern society, almost any type of activity goes through energy consumption (oil and gas are also energy sources). Energy - is a universal unit for the whole World. Kilowatts he and in Africa kilowatts. If you are engaged in the development of energy, then a kilowatt per hour should become cheaper, since its development with the use of new technologies will be easier to carry out in terms of efficiency.

      We have Eato now, notice again private offices, not replacing the old lines, not introducing new capacities, which during construction should first pay for themselves by raising the price of electricity, but then, on the contrary, drop to a lower level than before their construction, essentially without foundation increase electricity tariffs. Initially, Chubais and Co. argued that by giving energy companies privately, electricity prices should decrease, and the quality of services should increase, but in reality we got a bunch of speculators who do not build new communications, do not introduce new capacities, but raise prices. And in this, from my and not only from my side, the main claim to Putin. After all, it is he who signs the documents to increase electricity tariffs.
    2. 225chay
      225chay April 21 2014 08: 48 New
      +6
      Quote: Signaller
      Yes, the question is not what the ruble will be. Gold, silver, paper. The main thing is that he would be. And now there are no rubles. It was said that 80 billion currencies were exported from Russia. Where is she from???? We exchanged rubles for currency and exported. Where is the ruble ???? Clearly, the case is in the egg of the National Bank of Russia. And why it is not allowed back into circulation. ???? That's the problem. Type -specialy keep in a capsule ????? Yes, they can put into circulation through loans, but who will take them ????? None. And why the government does not invest ???? Yes, because the government does not need it. Make sure not to be pulled away, to let go where necessary. Fuss a lot, and personal fat-zero. A rare government official wants to work for the state, it can be seen with the naked eye. Until this tendency changes, everything will continue. Change of government-course, investment at the state level, as under Stalin in the 30s in the era of INDUSTRIALIZATION. And then it will be good. experience is there. Apparently -NO WHO NEEDS UNTIL.


      Financiers, bankers, almost without exception crooks and scammers
    3. pavel_SPB
      pavel_SPB April 21 2014 13: 32 New
      +2
      and all because the Central Bank is not state
    4. allexx83
      allexx83 April 21 2014 23: 21 New
      +2
      You highlighted the main problem that was imposed by Gaidar and K - the state does not have the right to engage in commercial activities (read investment). Yes, and does not want. But it should be invested in infrastructure, science, agriculture .. You are absolutely right - what is the point of having huge reserves if they do not work for the economy (in fact - even worse - they credit the economy of a potential adversary)
  2. Forward
    Forward April 21 2014 07: 14 New
    +2
    Sell ​​oil and gas for rubles and not for dollars! So the ruble will then become gold
    1. Ace in the sleeve
      Ace in the sleeve April 21 2014 10: 40 New
      +6
      It is not as easy to do as it seems. Even leaving aside all political issues, we need an appropriate financial system - exchanges, loans in rubles, currency exchange agreements with other countries, abandonment of the currency board, etc. In fact, if you transfer the sale of oil to rubles, its value will drop sharply. For the high price is held at the expense of futures on which dollar speculators constantly play. If you sell oil after the fact - without speculative markups, it will not be so rosy. Plus, some kind of internal protection of the ruble exchange rate from speculators is needed - in fact, the closure of access of foreign capital to the currency exchange in general. Otherwise, the same oil after dropping the ruble for a week will be generally sold cheaply.
      1. Forward
        Forward April 21 2014 12: 46 New
        +1
        This is not easy to do! Because in the case of a switch to national currencies in trade with at least China and India, the dollar will shake so much that it will hardly help anything. In addition, the conversation about switching to trade for national currencies is already taking place between China and Russia, and exchanges and futures are all issues to be resolved. But this is not the main thing - the main thing is that we drive the rat into a corner, or rather, we’ll start strangling it with such actions. And the one who prints dollars is much more than a rat. And here it’s worth it to think carefully how to do it right, since you yourself know what’s happening with a rat cornered
    2. CAMS
      CAMS April 21 2014 16: 02 New
      0
      from Russia with love
      At the center of the conflict is the state-private enterprise Alaska Gasline Development Corporation (AGDC), which has a $ 400 million budget funded by taxpayers.
      The company was originally set up to support a joint project between ExxonMobil and TransCanada to build a pipeline through Alaska to supply the continental states and export liquefied natural gas (LNG) to Asia. For the purpose of implementation, a memorandum of understanding was signed in January 2014 between the Alaska authorities and AGDC, ConocoPhillips, BP, ExxonMobil and TransCanada. They are supposed to jointly participate in the construction of a gas liquefaction plant and laying a pipeline to it from the oil and gas basin of the North Slope of Alaska.
      In September 2013, the Governor of Alaska, Sean Parnell, announced the composition of the board of directors of AGDC, which caused controversy.
      Meet Richard Rebainau
      Under Alaskan law, you must be a state citizen to participate in government commissions such as the AGDC. However, one of seven board members Richard Rebainau turned out to be a resident of Texas.
      Supervisors found that Rebeinau was from Texas, and on March 21, Democrats from the Alaska Senate wrote a letter to the governor calling for Rebinau to be fired due to contradiction with state law. However, only 4 out of 20 Alaska Senate members are Democrats, so in three weeks a law was passed stating that "AGDC board members do not need to be residents of the state."
      Democrat's lower house leader Christ Tuck was not at all happy about such a move: "The people of Alaska are tired of the transnational corporations appearing here and the fact that the government is pandering to them at the expense of the population."
      Transnational corporations as such are not so bad. But Rebeinau's former employer, ExxonMobil, works in Alaska with a "non-American" multinational corporation - Rosneft.
      In February 2013, ExxonMobil offered the Russian state oil and gas giant Rosneft to buy back 25 percent of the Point Thomson oil and gas development project.

      This field accounts for a quarter of the proven reserves of the oil and gas basin of the Northern Slope of Alaska, located both on land and on the shelf.
      "The agreement signed today raises the already unprecedented partnership between Rosneft and ExxonMobil to a completely new level," said Igor Sechin, head of the company. - "Participation in the Point Thomson project will expand Rosneft's access to the latest technologies for developing gas condensate fields in harsh climatic conditions."
      It is very likely that Sechin will be included in the list of those who are subject to the US sanctions against Russia imposed for the annexation of Crimea. This is easier said than done, though, given the ties between American companies and Rosneft.
      Investigative journalist Steve Levin believes that oil companies are worried about possible measures against Sechin: "By starting to persecute Sechin, the United States will destroy the fruits of its own labors."
      Given all these hidden mechanisms, the confrontation between the US and Russia is like a James Bond story. It seems that it is not for nothing that one of the most famous series is called "From Russia with Love."
    3. Nick
      Nick April 21 2014 16: 11 New
      0
      Quote: Forward
      Sell ​​oil and gas for rubles and not for dollars! So the ruble will then become gold

      Just in addition to the petrodollar, the oil ruble will appear ...
      1. Forward
        Forward April 21 2014 16: 59 New
        0
        NOT except but instead! IMHO
  3. saag
    saag April 21 2014 07: 35 New
    0
    The golden ruble is harmful, this is a way of exporting gold abroad, for the state it will be a loss of reserve
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 April 21 2014 08: 10 New
      +9
      Quote: saag
      The golden ruble is harmful, this is a way of exporting gold abroad, for the state it will be a loss of reserve


      At comrade Stalin had a different opinion on this issue:

      "... On March 1, 1950, a Resolution of the Government of the USSR was published in Soviet newspapers with the following content:

      “In Western countries, the depreciation of currencies has occurred and continues, which has already led to the devaluation of European currencies. As for the United States, the continuous increase in prices for consumer goods and continued inflation on this basis, as repeatedly stated by senior officials of the US government, have also led to a significant decrease in the purchasing power of the dollar.
      In connection with the above circumstances, the purchasing power of the ruble has become higher than its official rate.

      In view of this, the Soviet government recognized the need to increase the official ruble exchange rate, and the calculation exchange rate of the ruble is not based on the dollar, but on a more stable gold basis, in accordance with the gold content of the ruble.

      On this basis, the Council of Ministers of the USSR decided:
      1. From the 1 of March 1950 of the year, stop determining the exchange rate of the ruble against foreign currencies based on the dollar and transfer to a more stable gold basis, in accordance with the gold content of the ruble.
      2. Set the gold content of the ruble to 0, 222168 grams of pure gold.
      3. Establish from the 1 of March 1950 of the year the purchase price of the State Bank for gold in 4 rubles 45 cents for 1 grams of pure gold.
      4. From March 1 of 1950 of the year, determine the exchange rate in relation to foreign currencies based on the gold content of the ruble established in paragraph 2:
      4 RUB for one American dollar instead of the existing 5 r. 30 cop.
      11 rub. 20 cop. for one British pound instead of the existing 14 r. 84 cop.

      To instruct the USSR State Bank to accordingly change the ruble exchange rate in relation to other foreign currencies.

      In case of further changes in the gold content of foreign currencies or changes in their rates, the USSR State Bank shall establish the ruble exchange rate in relation to foreign currencies taking into account these changes. ”

      Stalin encroached on the backstage "holy of holies" and its main puppet - the United States, on their base of parasitism - on the backstage "US dollar" ... "

      http://m3ra.ru/2009/11/09/brief-11/
      1. Sunjar
        Sunjar April 21 2014 08: 28 New
        +2
        But Khrushchev began to tear this case, and Brezhnev intensify tearing, and Gorbi in general has tarnished everything, but he is surprised that they are proposing to judge him.

        Stalin is a criminal dictator. But we will bomb (US EU) Syria.
      2. 225chay
        225chay April 21 2014 08: 50 New
        0
        Quote: Boris55
        4. From March 1 of 1950 of the year, determine the exchange rate in relation to foreign currencies based on the gold content of the ruble established in paragraph 2:
        4 RUB for one American dollar instead of the existing 5 r. 30 cop.
        11 rub. 20 cop. for one British pound instead of the existing 14 r. 84 cop.


        But there was a time when a dollar was worth 60 cents ...
        1. andj61
          andj61 April 21 2014 16: 31 New
          0
          After the reform of 1961, this amount decreased (denominated) by 10 times, that is, one dollar - 40 kopecks, 1 pound - 1p 12 kopecks.
      3. saag
        saag April 21 2014 09: 10 New
        -3
        You look less at Comrade Stalin; it’s incorrect to try on that economic system for the current
        1. Boris55
          Boris55 April 21 2014 09: 26 New
          +4
          Quote: saag
          You look less at Comrade Stalin; it’s incorrect to try on that economic system for the current

          Indeed, the economies it is not correct to compare. It is even more "incorrect", having once fallen under the green (91), continue to lie under it, regardless of the economic system.
          And with comrade Stalin has something to learn, take at least an annual price reduction ...

          The Tsar’s gold ruble was, although the economic systems at that time among developed countries were almost the same. Why don’t we have today !?
          1. saag
            saag April 21 2014 09: 30 New
            +1
            "price reduction", how will you reduce prices in the private capitalist system? This is not state pricing where the state price was the same for all territories, although there were price zones
            1. Boris55
              Boris55 April 21 2014 09: 54 New
              0
              Quote: saag
              "price reduction", how will you reduce prices in the private capitalist system?

              Are you anything about the state. donations heard?
              Have you heard anything about a price increase of not more than 25% -50% of the price at the manufacturer’s warehouse before the buyer?

              1. saag
                saag April 21 2014 10: 11 New
                +1
                Quote: Boris55
                Are you anything about the state. donations heard?

                Does the state have so much money to subsidize all the added value to the entire range of goods and services?
                1. Boris55
                  Boris55 April 21 2014 10: 17 New
                  -1
                  Quote: saag
                  ... subsidize all added value ...

                  wassat hi
          2. Setrac
            Setrac April 21 2014 23: 03 New
            -1
            Quote: Boris55
            The Tsar’s gold ruble was, although the economic systems at that time among developed countries were almost the same. Why don’t we have today !?

            How good that you yourself remembered this. That is, you know that in tsarist Russia there was (not for long) a golden ruble, but you do not know how it all ended. Before campaigning for a gold ruble, ask about the "tsarist" results. I will say this - it all ended very badly for Russia.
        2. pavel_SPB
          pavel_SPB April 21 2014 13: 35 New
          +1
          Stalin, although he would raise the country ... but not crap
      4. Setrac
        Setrac April 21 2014 22: 57 New
        0
        Quote: Boris55
        At comrade Stalin had a different opinion on this issue:

        Comrade Stalin had an iron curtain, the saga is right, this step will lead to the export of gold from the country, and Russia has already gone through this. Subjectively, it will seem that the standard of living is growing, but this will continue until the gold runs out, which will happen very quickly.
        Even the Americans refused this.
        1. sled beach
          sled beach April 22 2014 09: 40 New
          0
          Amerzov’s crisis lasts from the 40s to this day and they continue to exist only through the capture of markets, wars, and the looting of weak states.
    2. cozy
      cozy April 21 2014 11: 20 New
      +3
      The golden ruble is not harmful. So that gold is not exported abroad, several things can be done:
      1. A complete ban (as we love) on the export of gold and other precious metals. You want to export the earned / stolen goods abroad, exchange gold for a dollar / yen / tugrik / bag of oats and export it.
      2. partial ban (restriction) on export. You can export, but by paying a fee of 0 to 100% (how the legislators' imagination works). :)
      3. lack of prohibitions. Why be afraid? That all the gold will be exported in the form of speculative capital, and the gold and foreign currency reserves of the central bank will be spent on the purchase of tights and stews? So you can also sell our best-selling raw materials abroad for gold, which will increase the country's gold reserves. Moreover, you can generally indicate that the sale is not for Australian or American gold, but for Russian (bullion with our brands). And sell these bullion in a trihoroda.

      According to paragraph 1, Sterligov told how this can be realized using his exchanges (or what did he call them to us?). In each country, open a stock exchange (or agency). Do you want to sell a wagon of grain for gold. There is a buyer in England and the price suits you. An Englishman brings gold to an agency in England, and you receive the same amount of gold in Russia and send the grain. Then you want to buy equipment for gold in Germany for gold. Find a supplier, agree on a price, deposit the amount in gold to an agency in Russia, and the German receives this amount in German gold at his agency and sends you the equipment. Something like that.
      1. Sour
        Sour April 21 2014 18: 15 New
        -1
        Quote: cozy
        . a complete ban (as we love) on the export of gold and other precious metals.

        You are breaking through the open door. Gold and so from Russia is not very exported. Only banks have the right to export it (and not all, but those licensed by the Central Bank for operations with precious metals, there are only a dozen of them), as well as organizations producing precious metals. If banks prohibit this, then it will virtually destroy the competitiveness of Russian banks. Do you happen to be an agent of US influence if you come up with such ideas? laughing
      2. Setrac
        Setrac April 21 2014 23: 16 New
        0
        Quote: cozy
        1. A complete ban (as we love) on the export of gold and other precious metals. You want to export the earned / stolen goods abroad, exchange gold for a dollar / yen / tugrik / bag of oats and export it.

        Where is the conversion here, this is the current situation with an ordinary wooden ruble.
        Quote: cozy
        3. lack of prohibitions. Why be afraid? That all the gold will be exported in the form of speculative capital, and the gold and foreign currency reserves of the central bank will be spent on the purchase of tights and stews? So you can also sell our best-selling raw materials abroad for gold, which will increase the country's gold reserves.

        Nobody will buy anything from you for gold, you dream.
  4. mamont5
    mamont5 April 21 2014 07: 51 New
    +7
    "The general showed himself to be an energetic leader, who was able to organize the production of ammunition and by 1917 fully satisfy the needs of the front. Under Manikovsky, existing production facilities were expanded - weapons, artillery, shells, gunpowder, and new ones were created. Manikovsky was an excellent manager. He had tremendous energy and his favorite saying was: "Delay is like death!" The general was not afraid to take responsibility upon himself, he decided matters at lightning speed. "

    And he got his way. By 1916, the industry of the Russian Empire finally rocked and produced so many weapons and military equipment that these reserves ended the world war and fought the entire civil war. Enough for the post-war support of the army.
  5. mig31
    mig31 April 21 2014 07: 52 New
    +4
    To sell soft gold, black gold for GOLD, then the gold ruble will appear ...
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I April 21 2014 08: 42 New
    13
    What are these "shamanic" spells: "oil", "gas", "golden ruble" !? Is this what we are talking about? Read the article once again: isn't the situation described there extremely reminiscent of corruption in present-day Russia? Even reluctance to cite "parallels" —they are there through every word! Nicholas I turned out to be too "kind"? And I lost count of how many times Putin, the State Duma, United Russia promised an "uncompromising" fight against corruption, "but things are still there." how many billions to steal in order to finally "attract attention" ?! Or maybe I recall the "humor" of M. Zadornov: "All because of the" bucks "- did not share." There is no "promised" reusable spacecraft; lag behind in "hypersound"; problems with GLONASS; "Bulava" does not normally "fly" - let's continue to count the stolen billions? A man who stole a bag of mixed feed from a farmer can be imprisoned for 3 years, and who stole billions only under house arrest in a private mansion? Yes, let them sell anything for rubles, dollars, euros, yuan, tugriks, cowrie shells to the Russian people, the country will not get better: they will plunder!
  8. Farvil
    Farvil April 21 2014 08: 58 New
    -1
    The control system must be changed radically. Vladyka Putin sits and decides all the questions of who to pick his nose in the nose of and who to wipe his ass, the state apparatus must work without looking back to the top.
    1. Starina_hank
      Starina_hank April 22 2014 20: 13 New
      0
      The fish rots from the head, and the state management system must be built and adjusted: the FSB must fight the enemies of the state internal and external, the police must protect citizens and maintain order, if necessary, doctors can heal the people, teachers teach, etc. and state people should manage this, each at their own level! This is elementary! And when at the head of the state there is a person who has never done anything with his own hands, he did not even command a company, what kind of a.ah.h.r.e. is the head of state with him? Who wants and ..... cheat, as he wants and steals. State system DOES NOT WORK !!
  9. ken
    ken April 21 2014 09: 08 New
    +7
    The basis of the economy is developed industry and agriculture. And of course, a single payment currency in the country and a tight binding of the money supply to manufactured products. Remember the USSR ....
  10. Sadikoff
    Sadikoff April 21 2014 09: 17 New
    +6
    "" In the environment of Anatoly Borisovich Chubais, as it turned out today, staff members of the US CIA worked as advisers. "
    ..Only in 1992, at the invitation of Chubais, more than 200 foreign consultants arrived in Russia, among whom there were CIA staff ... whose services were openly and officially paid for by the specially created “Russian Privatization Center” led by a certain Maxim Boyko. This man, under the age of 16, lived in the United States under the name Shamberg, has Israeli citizenship, his father taught at a specialized university of the US CIA.

    Through Chubais, Boyko-Schamberg received unlimited access to information, including secret, top secret and special importance, about defense plants and production technologies, design bureaus, testing ranges and laboratories with legal right to make decisions on their property, and, therefore, on their fate ... "
    In many ways, the political “vitality” of Chubais on our dominant Olympus is explained by the fact that the Americans still provide him with their patronage. But our authorities have been afraid for a long time to quarrel with the United States.
    Of all this, the conclusion suggests itself that at that meeting of the almighty club a decision was made to overthrow Vladimir Putin through protests of the so-called “swamp opposition”. And Chubais, apparently, became the curator of this project.

    In any case, a few months after the meeting of the Bilderberg Club, in the fall of 2012, Anatoly Chubais gave an interview to Itogi magazine, in which he expressed confidence that opposition activity in Russia would increase, and sooner or later at least half a million people would come to opposition rallies.

    “The fact that the last time on the march was not one hundred thousand, but thirty, does not mean attenuation. Bullshit it! There will be another ten rallies, which will be attended by three thousand people, and then suddenly half a million will gather, ”Chubais said.
    http://www.posprikaz.ru/2013/04/tajnoe-mirovoe-pravitelstvo-brosilo-vyzov-putinu
    -2 /
    Chubais is certainly not the most important, but he is just an indicator. As soon as this miracle disappears from the political arena, this will mean the exit of the Russian Federation from under the influence of the West. It is not necessary for the authorities to ascribe to it, they are doing what they can, but inside it there are agents of influence who at all levels do what they can- guessing the country by stuffing their pockets without investing in the real economy of the Russian Federation. sabotage, the creation of obviously ineffective projects. Gold, hammer, this is the second time everything is decided by the cadres. Chubais retired, absentee, ambassadors in Zimbabwe, and at least to the states. Only withdraw them from state strategic structures.
    1. Forward
      Forward April 21 2014 13: 03 New
      +3
      That you still modestly responded. and only about Chubais !!! In the Yeltsin government, I worked, if I’m not mistaken, about 1100 employees of the American special services posing as economists, diplomats, specialists in the field of law, culture and so on. Entire floors in the ministries were occupied under them. Ask yourself how it was possible within 5-7 years to completely destroy the economy and culture of the people of a huge powerful state. And here is the answer for you! Now here again, then, with blood, you have to restore all this.
  11. qwert
    qwert April 21 2014 09: 34 New
    +3
    The Chubais should not be allowed to disappear. We must give it to the people. No security. On the square. Moreover, you can on the square in any city. He will be greeted everywhere with "cordiality".
    And further. It is completely incomprehensible what Nicholas II was thinking at all. He, besides his family and the maid of honor, thought about the country, about politics, about the people ???
    1. non_inc
      non_inc April 21 2014 11: 08 New
      +1
      Well, they’re taking a picture with an iPhone, so what?
    2. kocclissi
      kocclissi April 21 2014 20: 02 New
      0
      As Zadornov used to say: Chubais, he stole and Chuba!
    3. sub307
      sub307 April 21 2014 20: 25 New
      0
      Something, there is .... Well, the people can not "give", but really figure it out (to judge by his deeds) is quite worth it. Not as with Serdyukov "sorted out".
    4. The comment was deleted.
  12. Voenruk
    Voenruk April 21 2014 13: 30 New
    +2
    However, the emperor insisted on his own under the pretext that "there is no need to irritate the public." Something familiar) "No need to rock the boat")
  13. larisa gurina
    larisa gurina April 21 2014 13: 34 New
    +1
    Quote: Signaller
    Yes, the question is not what the ruble will be. Gold, silver, paper. The main thing is that he would be. And now there are no rubles. It was said that 80 billion currencies were exported from Russia. Where is she from???? We exchanged rubles for currency and exported. Where is the ruble ???? Clearly, the case is in the egg of the National Bank of Russia. And why it is not allowed back into circulation. ???? That's the problem. Type -specialy keep in a capsule ????? Yes, they can put into circulation through loans, but who will take them ????? None. And why the government does not invest ???? Yes, because the government does not need it. Make sure not to be pulled away, to let go where necessary. Fuss a lot, and personal fat-zero. A rare government official wants to work for the state, it can be seen with the naked eye. Until this tendency changes, everything will continue. Change of government-course, investment at the state level, as under Stalin in the 30s in the era of INDUSTRIALIZATION. And then it will be good. experience is there. Apparently -NO WHO NEEDS UNTIL.

    good yes everything is so ... as long as there is one continuous talking room. there is no fat - there is no real business.
  14. Free wind
    Free wind April 21 2014 13: 51 New
    +1
    How much do you think the same fucking mistral is worth in gold equivalent? Buying for gold, we can stay without pants. A modern destroyer costs gold how much it weighs. Try to sell it for gold, to the same Venezuela, where they will take so much gold?
  15. Bosk
    Bosk April 21 2014 14: 37 New
    0
    How much money did our oligarchs grab "on this" No need to annoy the public "in the 90s? Of course, Khodorkovsky was imprisoned, but this is just one person from a very large heap ...
  16. Bene valete
    Bene valete April 21 2014 17: 32 New
    -2
    Quote: ken
    The basis of the economy is developed industry and agriculture. And of course, a single payment currency in the country and a tight binding of the money supply to manufactured products. Remember the USSR ....

    Sorry, do you understand what you are writing? Only the defense industry and the raw materials were developed! And the rest is so on the residual principle with the most severe deficit in everything ...
    The Americans lowered oil prices and all the window dressing burst! This is obvious! How many fairy tales are born every day, just ridiculous ...)))
    A lunch in the canteen for the ruble is not an indicator! Half of the country is still without their homes and even WWII Veterans are 95 years old!
    1. storog.cccp
      storog.cccp April 22 2014 08: 22 New
      +1
      And you yourself understand what you write - "lunch for a ruble, not an indicator", firstly, not for a ruble, but cheaper, and secondly, compare the average per capita consumption of meat, milk, etc. in the USSR and now. With an alleged total deficit, then the consumption of food was greater than now with full windows. In addition to cheap lunches, there was also a symbolic payment for a communal apartment, in excess of cheap railway travel, etc.
      P.S. If the pace of housing construction were to be maintained, as in the USSR, then now there would be 1.5 apartments per family.
  17. Bene valete
    Bene valete April 21 2014 17: 42 New
    -1
    Quote: Sadykoff
    "" In the environment of Anatoly Borisovich Chubais, as it turned out today, staff members of the US CIA worked as advisers. "
    ..Only in 1992, at the invitation of Chubais, more than 200 foreign consultants arrived in Russia, among whom there were CIA staff ... whose services were openly and officially paid for by the specially created “Russian Privatization Center” led by a certain Maxim Boyko. This man, under the age of 16, lived in the United States under the name Shamberg, has Israeli citizenship, his father taught at a specialized university of the US CIA.

    Through Chubais, Boyko-Schamberg received unlimited access to information, including secret, top secret and special importance, about defense plants and production technologies, design bureaus, testing ranges and laboratories with legal right to make decisions on their property, and, therefore, on their fate ... "
    In many ways, the political “vitality” of Chubais on our dominant Olympus is explained by the fact that the Americans still provide him with their patronage. But our authorities have been afraid for a long time to quarrel with the United States.
    Of all this, the conclusion suggests itself that at that meeting of the almighty club a decision was made to overthrow Vladimir Putin through protests of the so-called “swamp opposition”. And Chubais, apparently, became the curator of this project.

    In any case, a few months after the meeting of the Bilderberg Club, in the fall of 2012, Anatoly Chubais gave an interview to Itogi magazine, in which he expressed confidence that opposition activity in Russia would increase, and sooner or later at least half a million people would come to opposition rallies.

    “The fact that the last time on the march was not one hundred thousand, but thirty, does not mean attenuation. Bullshit it! There will be another ten rallies, which will be attended by three thousand people, and then suddenly half a million will gather, ”Chubais said.
    http://www.posprikaz.ru/2013/04/tajnoe-mirovoe-pravitelstvo-brosilo-vyzov-putinu

    -2 /
    Chubais is certainly not the most important, but he is just an indicator. As soon as this miracle disappears from the political arena, this will mean the exit of the Russian Federation from under the influence of the West. It is not necessary for the authorities to ascribe to it, they are doing what they can, but inside it there are agents of influence who at all levels do what they can- guessing the country by stuffing their pockets without investing in the real economy of the Russian Federation. sabotage, the creation of obviously ineffective projects. Gold, hammer, this is the second time everything is decided by the cadres. Chubais retired, absentee, ambassadors in Zimbabwe, and at least to the states. Only withdraw them from state strategic structures.

    In Zimbabwe, it is necessary to withdraw all of Moscow and St. Petersburg, i.e., to use your language, to withdraw countries parasitic to all financial flows, and to direct cash flows to all of Russia and, moreover, evenly to all real producing ones)))
    1. Starina_hank
      Starina_hank April 22 2014 20: 18 New
      0
      Yes, not in Zimbabwe, but in Russia and deeper!
  18. 52
    52 April 21 2014 18: 30 New
    0
    A. Samsonov, I have a question. Is this not an accidental re-reading of Yu. Mukhin’s thoughts?
  19. Neo1982
    Neo1982 April 21 2014 18: 30 New
    0
    Fedorov about the Central Bank
  20. Sour
    Sour April 21 2014 18: 39 New
    -1
    The number of people who believe in simple ways to solve difficult questions is surprising. One seems that everything can be solved by purely monetary methods. Like, change something in monetary circulation, and everything will work out right away. Here we begin to sell oil for rubles, and heal.
    Others believe that you just need to shoot someone, and everything will be fine. Just not to be mistaken with the candidacy for execution.
    In fact, you need to grab hold of key sectors of the economy that could stretch Russia. This is now the only possible way. And do not wait for quick results.
  21. ENESEI
    ENESEI April 21 2014 19: 10 New
    +2
    In the book of authors Aksenova S. V. And Zhilkina A. V. “COINS AND BANKNOTES OF RUSSIA AND THE USSR” such interesting data are given:
    “In the period from 1888 to 1892. The post of Minister of Finance was held by I. A. Vyshnegradsky, who set the task of substantially increasing the gold reserve. How did the Russian government want to quickly increase Russia's gold reserves?
    There were many ways. One of them was global trade.
    grain market. In the years before World War I, Russia was one
    from its largest suppliers. I. A. Vyshnegradsky, setting himself
    and before the whole state an almost impossible task, once put it
    like this: “We’ll not eat it ourselves, but we will take it out.” And in fact, grain from Russia
    sold even in lean years.
    But at the same time, the effect of the export of grain on such a huge scale is often
    greatly reduced due to the fact that the world market was not taken into account
    the market. In particular, bread was sold abroad in the fall, when its prices
    were minimal. Naturally, this brought the national economy
    countries are very big losses. In addition, a global agrarian crisis erupted,
    causing a fall in prices for agricultural products. Profits were falling
    the country lived under the threat of hunger ... No wonder foreign trade policy Vyshne-
    Gradsky is sometimes called "hungry exports", because in a number of regions
    there were no significant stocks of bread left at all, and that’s already
    in the event of a crop failure, it could really lead to mass hunger. By the way
    at the same bargain prices was export of sugar, cotton and a number of other
    merchandise also encouraged by the financial department.
    Foreign loans of Russia during these years
    were huge. They were inherently bonded because they were given under
    huge interest. In 1889-1891 Minister of Finance concluded five
    loans totaling 425,1 million gold rubles. At the same time because of the huge
    percent of Russia's debts grew even more. So, for 1887-1892. interior
    and Russia's foreign debt grew from 6,5 to 7,5 billion rubles.
    Interestingly, the protectionist course of the autocracy aroused great concern,
    for example, in Germany, as it was the main trading
    partner of Russia. The German government was also dissatisfied with the refusal
    Russian government from negotiations on a political union.
    In this regard, in 1887, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck began to conduct a number of
    measures against bonds of Russian loans. They are mostly
    were placed on the German stock market. State credit
    institutions were directly forbidden to issue loans against Russian bail
    valuable papers. They were not just declared unreliable, but moreover, in German
    false information was circulated to the press that the Russian treasury,
    supposedly completely bankrupt. After that, naturally, in Berlin
    the stock market immediately began the rapid sale of Russian securities in bulk
    quantity, which led to a drop in their value. So Bismarck wanted
    put pressure on Russia, prevent the creation of the Russian gold reserve. But Vyshnegradsky found a way out! He turned to the French
    bankers, they created a syndicate for buying up the Russian market in the Berlin
    papers. German holders suffered from their sale at bargain prices
    huge losses, and the French, by contrast, earned large sums. Now
    Russia got rid of credit dependence on Germany, but fell into financial bondage to the French Rothschlds.
  22. ENESEI
    ENESEI April 21 2014 20: 08 New
    0
    The war with Japan became a serious test for the national currency of RUSSIA
    (1904-1905) and the ensuing stormy revolutionary events.
    Military action caused a large increase in government spending. All
    more often the government resorted to loans, thereby increasing the state
    debt. So, for example, in 1905, public debt grew by 842,7 million
    rubles, and the amount of outstanding credit tickets - by 448,5 million
    rubles.
    On December 14, 1905, S.Yu. spoke at a meeting of the Finance Committee. Witte as President of the Council of Ministers. He understood that further
    issuing credit cards for treasury needs may lead to suspension
    their exchange for gold. But to prevent this, the government
    was going to get a new foreign loan.
    On December 17, a representative of the Finance Committee Kokovtsov left for Paris.
    He carried Witte’s letters of recommendation to the French Minister of Finance Rouvier,
    to the Paris and London Rothschilds and just in case to the German
    Chancellor Byulov. Upon arrival in Paris, it turned out that the mood of the bankers
    was pessimistic. The tsarist government was not believed. December 27th only
    1905, thanks to the intervention of the President of the French Republic,
    An agreement was reached on an advance payment of 100 million rubles. Also financial
    several tens of millions of marks were provided by a banker
    Mendelssohn's house in Berlin. So the Franco-German bankers came
    to the aid of tsarism.
    After the turbulent events of 1905, the government needed 700-800 million rubles.
    to cover their extraordinary expenses. S. Yu. Witte constantly sought to obtain
    money abroad. Hopes for a big overseas loan are still
    were the main line of government.
    On the eve of the convocation of the First State Duma in 1906, Witte managed to achieve
    foreign capitalists have a loan of 750 million rubles in gold, which with full
    the basis can be called a loan to suppress the revolution. "
    Due to inept financial policies and huge expenses, by 1914 the tsarist government was only forced to pay more than 210 million gold rubles annually to the financial tycoons of France and England! What did it mean at that moment in time? So the construction of the modern at the time of the Bronzer cost 30 million gold rubles! And this meant that in the year RUSSIA lost due to interest payments a whole modern fleet in the amount of 7 ships!
  23. uzer 13
    uzer 13 April 21 2014 20: 48 New
    0
    Somewhere there was such information that Vietnam allowed the free circulation of gold as a means of payment, so there are no financial crises and defaults.
    Why not take a closer look at the experiences of Vietnamese comrades?
    Yes, I would also like to know where the gold reserve of the Russian empire all the same went, and is it possible to get it back in some way?
    1. Sour
      Sour April 21 2014 21: 23 New
      -1
      Golden appeal - a return to the Middle Ages. You do not really bargain for gold, because it is not enough.
      In general, the main problems of our economy are low labor productivity and not the highest quality products. They cannot be solved by monetary methods. Financial problems are derivatives. They are not the disease itself, but only a symptom.
      PS I have not heard about the gold circulation in Vietnam.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. siberalt
        siberalt April 22 2014 00: 39 New
        0
        Imagine a gold ruble of modern size. Pull no less than a hundred bucks. And what will happen to the bucks? Coins from precious metals are real money.
  24. jamalena
    jamalena April 22 2014 01: 19 New
    +2
    - and now it's time to remember the Leader. How many slops poured upon the great Stalin, the damned liberals, and now that, with time, everything has been sorted out, all the people will have to blush for these Judas.
  25. sled beach
    sled beach April 22 2014 10: 35 New
    -1
    Nevertheless, it’s nice that they shot the tsar’s family completely and completely deserve it. It is alarming that the Orthodox brought the holy great martyrs Nicholas II to the pantheon. This mrz, which almost destroyed the state and plunged the people into civilian life. The Bolsheviks who had seized all the power were left a virtually dead state with all the consequences.