Military Review

Who, how and why did the country's most important defense enterprises collapsed

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Who, how and why did the country's most important defense enterprises collapsed

Despite all his “talents”, Oleg Bochkarev (left) is still a member of the Military-Industrial Commission under the Government of the Russian Federation.

The domestic military-industrial complex was at the epicenter of a serious scandal. The reason for this is the court proceedings around the South Ural OJSC “Elektromashina”, the former director general of which has now turned out to be the person involved in the criminal case. The situation is further complicated by the fact that the former head of Electromashins today is also a member of the Military Industrial Commission under the Government of the Russian Federation, and the enterprise itself is part of the state holding Rostekhnologii.

History The current trial began as early as 2003, when Electromashina OJSC was headed by Oleg Bochkarev. Then 14 promissory notes of the enterprise for the total amount of 2,2 million rubles were acquired by Spetstekhnologiya LLC, which, having presented a demand for their payment, was unexpectedly refused. For several years, the bill holder, as well as the sole founder and director of Spetstekhnologiya LLC, Sergey Mogilevtsev, tried to get the money due to him through the courts.

Corruption reached the MIC

However, despite the positive decisions of the courts, it was clearly not in a hurry to pay bills in the Electromashina. Moreover, in 2006, Aleksei Kocheshkov, head of security at Electromashins, turned out to be “magically” in the manual of “Special Technology”. Later on forged documents, changes were made to the constituent documents of the company. “I did not give in to the share in Spetstekhnologiya LLC, I did not transfer the authority of the manager to anyone, therefore, the shares belonging to me were transferred illegally, changes were made to the Register on the basis of illegal documents,” points out in a statement sent to 2006 at ATC The North-Western District of Moscow, the true owner of the company is Sergey Mogilevtsev. However, the sluggishness of the domestic judicial system, unfortunately, played into the hands of fraudsters. Being at the head of Spetstekhnologii, Aleksey Kocheshkov signed with the General Director of Elektromashiny Oleg Bochkarev an agreement on the execution of a judicial act on payment of bills and accepted Sberbank bills of 15 from Bochkarev worth 20 million rubles. Bills "Electromashiny", because of which initially there was a conflict, Kocheshkova was not. The actions of the intruders today have already become the subject of criminal proceedings, and Sergey Mogilevtsev in the courts has finally managed to secure the restoration of his rights to the company that was illegally taken from him. The problem, however, is that the owner of “Special Technology” never found the money either for Sberbank bills or for Elektromashina bills.

This story could not have received a wide public resonance - today’s raider seizures of enterprises in Russia will not surprise anyone. Moreover, in this case, although the courts and criminal proceedings took a long time, the fraudsters still managed to stop. This trial revealed a much more serious problem - corruption in the entire domestic military-industrial complex. We emphasize that Oleg Bochkarev, the general director of Electromashina, actually headed the enterprise, 49% of which is owned by the state. And today he is a member of the government's Military-Industrial Commission. Meanwhile, as we believe, the rich experience of Oleg Bochkarev in the defense industry today should have been the subject of study by law enforcement agencies rather than the reason for such a significant increase in “in service”.

"Literate Director" was in no hurry to develop the enterprise

Career takeoff of a young manager Oleg Bochkarev occurred in 1998 year with his election to the position of general director of OJSC Electromashina. Employees of the enterprise had high hopes for the arrival of the new director - and indeed, in those years, the marketing department in which Bochkarev had previously worked was truly an advanced enterprise structure. “The efforts of the marketing department were aimed at expanding the market both domestically and abroad. The funds received for the previously shipped products made it possible to equalize the situation with wage arrears, taxes, etc. The plant workers had hope that the young, competent and enterprising Oleg Bochkarev would be able to unite the team, will focus on the development of production and stabilization of the economic situation "- so described their expectations from the arrival of the new leadership of the employees of Electromashina.

However, in our opinion, the “young, competent and enterprising” director did not hurry to develop the enterprise entrusted to him, concentrating on concentrating as much of his assets as possible in his personal property. This was arranged on a large scale: the newly-baked manager announced that a large military-industrial holding would be created on the basis of OAO Elektromashina. In fact, this process, in fact, turned into a withdrawal of assets from the enterprise.

Thus, from 2002 to 2004, the general director Oleg Bochkarev, with the approval of the board of directors, decided to establish four subsidiary companies: LLC Resurs-S, SBO-ZEM, ElTrans and Optech-Ural. It is interesting to note that, for example, SBO-ZEM LLC, originally created as an 100 percent subsidiary of Electromashins, turned out to be an independent structure - as of 2007, Electromash owns only 5% of this company. And this is despite the fact that, by decision of the general director, SBO-ZEM transferred all the accounting records of Electromashina OJSC, that is, in fact, the defense company devoted all its financial activities to outsourcing to an outside organization. The role of the newly-made ElTrans, which was given all the design and technological documentation under the Electromashins agreement with JSC Russian Railways, turned out to be very strange. Thus, "ElTrans" actually turned into an unnecessary intermediary between "Electromashina" and Russian Railways.

At the same time, in 2002, the process of uniting FSUE SKB Rotor to Electromashina takes place. The fact is that in violation of the law on the combination of posts in the state and commercial enterprise in October 2000, Oleg Bochkarev becomes the acting director of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise. Almost his first order in the new position is the signing of the order, according to which the design department of Electromashina OJSC is transferred to the Rotor Design Bureau together with all the developments, documentation and equipment. The question of the basis on which the intellectual property of the joint stock company was transferred to FSUE without any formal legal registration remains open. As we believe, Bochkarev himself did not seem to care much about the observance of “unnecessary” legal formalities. Here is just one example: in December 2000, the “Rotor” receives budget funds for research work. But this money in the “Rotor” was never seen: the received 1,322 million rubles are transferred to the “Electromachine”, which needed to pay off the debt to the tax inspectorate and the bank.

Things disappeared right from under the nose of the investigators

In March, 2003, the professional activity of Oleg Bochkarev, became interested in the Prosecutor General’s Office, rendering an idea of ​​the inadmissibility of combining the posts of the head of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise and a commercial enterprise. The sad irony is that the prosecutor’s office’s presentation Oleg Bochkarev used to complete the creation of his holding: FSUE SKB “Rotor” was reorganized into NPO Elektromashina. The result of such “manipulations” was the fact that the state was effectively excluded from direct management of its own defense assets. If earlier Electromashina OJSC was managed directly by the Agency for Conventional Arms together with the Federal Agency for State Property Management, after the creation of the holding the chain looked like this: Agency for Conventional Arms - NPO Electromashina - OJSC Electromashina are subsidiaries. We believe that Oleg Bochkarev could be the beneficiary of such “metamorphoses”, who in the period from 2004 to 2007 managed to increase his share in the authorized capital of Electromashina OJSC from 5,9 to 17,58%, of which 5,9% belong to his wife. Note that the share of other owners at the same time remained unchanged - that is, in fact, was eroded in favor of Bochkarev.

In our opinion, such schemes could never be implemented without Bochkarev not supporting the other shareholders of the company, as well as the board of directors. Therefore, from 2001 to 2004, the employees of OJSC Electromashina actively bought up shares in favor of the general director of the company. And it is possible to call this “buying up” rather arbitrarily - in order to get additional shares, different methods were used.

In October 2001, the maintenance of the register of shareholders of "Electromashina" was transferred to the head office of the company "Panorama" in Moscow. In our opinion, the Panorama’s Chelyabinsk representative office did not suit the main shareholder, since at that time any owner could easily make one or another transaction with his shares. The calculation was correct: one could hardly expect that the ordinary employees of the plant or its veterans would go to the capital to make any transactions on the shares. For this purpose, a transfer agent was chosen from people close to him in the enterprise, so there was no need to talk about the secrecy of transactions.

The methods of psychological and even physical influence were applied to especially intractable shareholders. For example, as Andrei Popov wrote in his statement to the prosecutor’s office, Oleg Bochkarev, a shareholder and former employee of the company, together with his “partner” Viktor Lyapustin, better known as a criminal authority named Lyap, was threatened with physical violence, if he did not sell a block of shares, moment belonging to his closest relative. The fact that “businessmen” were not joking, Andrei Popov learned a few months later, when patrol officers detained a car with three young people, in which a gunshot was found weapon and photo of Popov. On this fact a criminal case was opened. But here's the bad luck: the material evidence in the case somehow disappeared from under the noses of the investigators. “1 March, 2005, two unknown men knocked at the door of my apartment. One of them said that they represent the interests of Muscovites, and demanded that I sell them 10% of shares of Electromashina OJSC. At my request to name the people in whose interests they make such an offer to me, life threats were made to me, as well as to my family members, if I did not sell the shares. The second one took a revolver from his jacket pocket, poked them in my chest and said that the threat is so real that I cannot even guess, ”- an excerpt from a statement to the prosecutor’s office of another shareholder of the company, Oleg Mayorov.

Widespread repression was applied to trade unionists

Unfortunately, far from all the employees of “Electromashins”, who have become disagreeable to the main owner, the story of creating a new “holding” ended successfully. In 2001, an independent trade union was created: although the organization received support in the team, only 29 people decided to join it. This is not surprising: the administration of the company resorted to truly repressive measures against employees who openly expressed their disagreement with the policy of the new leadership. Employees without explanation of reasons, wages were cut, illegal tapping of office phones was conducted. And often the security officers were even attached to the company's employees, who literally controlled their every step. As a result, over the 2001 year more than 60 people were forced to leave the company. The second wave of layoffs occurred in the 2002 – 2003 years, when employees who worked in aggregate production were massively fired.

In April, 2002, the general director of Electromachines, Sergey Chembeliev, submits an application to the prosecutor's office of the Chelyabinsk region asking Oleg Bochkarev to be held accountable for violating his constitutional rights expressed in wiretapping and business meetings. In the course of the investigation, the facts indicated in Chembelev’s statement were confirmed: the investigators established that the acquisition and installation of special listening equipment at the enterprise was carried out at the direction of the Director General Oleg Bochkarev. True, the prosecutor’s office subsequently tried more than once to close the case for lack of corpus delicti, but in 2003, the Prosecutor General’s Office ruled that the criminal case was closed without merit. But even this did not prevent Bochkarev from getting out of the water once again: after an additional investigation, the Chelyabinsk prosecutors thought that the evidence of involvement in the case of the general director of Electromashyn was not enough, and the investigation was terminated. It seems that the question of how Oleg Bochkarev, who was hanging by a thread from criminal prosecution every time, managed to avoid responsibility, turns out to be rhetorical. Especially when you consider that for many years the vice-governor of the Chelyabinsk region, Valentin Buravlev, was the chairman of the board of directors of Electromashyn.

But Sergei Chembeliev case of "tapping" cost life. In 2002, he was attacked at the entrance of his own house. As a result, Sergey Chembelev suffered a serious head injury, and died several months later. Needless to say that no investigation into this fact has been carried out.

Why should the general director destroy his own business?

Well, what about the business of Electromashina itself - an enterprise working for the domestic defense industry? For the sake of what, in fact, turned the dubious schemes for the organization of the "holding", collapsed the team, not even caring about the observance of the Criminal Code? In 2001, OJSC Electromashina was supposed to conclude a contract with the United Arab Emirates for the supply of an automated weapons control system Kulgan, which it developed in 1999 – 2001. This system was to be installed on the Scorpion infantry fighting vehicles, which the UAE bought from the UK. But the signing of the contract did not take place. The thing is that through local media and on the Internet spread information about the imminent signing of the contract. At the same time, it was mentioned that the 10 has thousands of Scorpion combat vehicles in the UAE, which will be modernized by Electromashina OJSC. The disclosure of confidential information could not fail to attract the attention of British intelligence, as a result of which the British authorities managed to find leverage over the UAE, persuading not to sign a contract with the Russians. And indeed, how can a company be considered a reliable partner, a representative of which not only disclosed information constituting a commercial secret, but also did not hesitate to significantly exaggerate its own “merits”: the Scorpion 10 thousand armored vehicles mentioned above were not It could be in principle, since by that moment the UK had produced all 2600 of such machines. The key question, however, is why did Oleg Bochkarev need to destroy his own business? The very control over which he was trying so hard to get. According to unofficial information, the Kalgan system still reached the customers - only the supplier was not the Elektromashina OJSC, but a certain Dutch company. The appearance of such information could be attributed to the machinations of embittered competitors if a similar fate did not suffer another development of Electromashina OJSC - air conditioning for the BMP-3. The design documentation for this device was seized by customs officers at Koltsovo Airport from a close partner of Bochkarev, an employee of the UAE Ministry of Defense, Sergey Kharin. On this fact, the UFSB in the Chelyabinsk region opened a criminal case, which even about a miracle! - came to court. But the “most humane in the world” Mr. Kharin justified.

However, Oleg Bochkarev did not limit himself to the developments of OJSC "Electromashina". In February 2002, FSB officers in the Chelyabinsk region found two new tank engine GTD-1000T. The management of “Electromashina” could not provide documents for this “find” - these engines are not produced or repaired by the enterprise. During the investigation, it was found that the owner of the engines is the Main Armored Directorate - a division of the Ministry of Defense. It is paradoxical, but true: upon learning about the find, the employees of the said department did not react to it. On the other hand, a mysterious scheme was found in the warehouse of Electromashina. It describes in detail the procedure for settlements with all participants in the "deal" for the sale of tank engines. However, for some reason, Oleg Bochkarev was never charged. The official version is due to the absence of the injured party.
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