Military Review

Helicopter mines: automatics on the protection of troops

Creating an effective air defense is a complex, lengthy and expensive task. The desire to simplify and cheapen the construction of air defense led to the emergence of several original ideas. For example, in the seventies of the last century, US designers created the SIAM anti-aircraft missile system, designed for autonomous work. It was assumed that the modules of this complex will be installed in the desired area, after which the missiles will be able to independently monitor the airspace and, if necessary, hit the target without an operator command. The tests of the SIAM complex showed the viability of the original idea, but the work was stopped due to a lack of finances.

Later, the idea of ​​the so-called. anti-helicopter mines. Autonomous ammunition of this class must be located in a given area and monitor air targets. In the event of the appearance of an enemy aircraft, reaching at a low altitude, the mine must independently attack it. The idea of ​​such anti-aircraft munitions appeared quite a long time ago, but there is still no information about any successful use of it. Moreover, the idea of ​​anti-helicopter mines is not particularly popular with designers and military. Consider some types weapons This class created in recent years.

AHM-200-1 (Bulgaria)

One of the most famous anti-helicopter mines are the development of the Bulgarian Institute of Metal Sciences (Sofia). The specialists of this organization created two anti-helicopter mines at once, differing from each other in various design features and characteristics.

Helicopter mines: automatics on the protection of troops

The first Bulgarian anti-helicopter mine was designated AHM-200-1. This ammunition consists of several units mounted on a common stand. The basic tripod allows you to set the mine in the right place, as well as to orient it properly, determining the location of the sector, which will be followed by automation. A miniature low-power radar, acoustic sensor, warhead, electronics power systems and automation are installed on the stand, which is responsible for detecting the target and for undermining the warhead. The total weight of the mine is 90 kg.

Acoustic sensor and radar are designed to monitor a wide sector in front of a mine and search for targets. As follows from the available data, target detection is performed using a directional acoustic sensor. This system allows you to "hear" various objects at a distance of 500 meters. When a target appears in the area of ​​responsibility of the acoustic sensor, a Doppler radar is activated, the duty of which is to monitor the sector of space, approximately equal to the zone of destruction of the warhead. Maximum radar target detection range - 150 meters. The command to undermine the warhead is given when the target approaches the mine at a distance of no more than 100 meters.

Warhead AHM-200-1 consists of two blocks. The main unit has a cylindrical shape and is located in the middle of the mine. The explosive charge of this block in the front part has a characteristic funnel lined with metal. Due to this, when a charge is detonated, a shock core is formed that can damage targets at ranges of up to several tens of meters. Additional unit of the warhead has a rectangular shape. Inside his casing 17 kg of TNT and ready-made fragments in the form of metal balls are placed.

AHM-200-1 anti-helicopter mine is able to work offline for up to 30 days. There is a system of non-recoverability: in case of an attempt to clear mines (disassembling or moving), the warhead is undermined.

AHM-200-2 (Bulgaria)

Based on the experience gained during the development and testing of the AHM-200-1 mine, Bulgarian specialists have created a new anti-helicopter munition with higher performance. To improve the potential of mines in its design were applied some innovations that affected, first of all, the warhead.

Like the previous ammunition, the AHM-200-2 anti-helicopter mine is a set of blocks placed on a common support frame. In view of the different dimensions and shape of the warhead, the new mine relies not on three pillars, but on four. They are located cylindrical casing of the radar and acoustic system, as well as two rectangular blocks of the warhead. The principle of operation of the modernized mine has remained the same: an acoustic sensor and a radar monitor the situation, and when a target enters a defeat zone, the command is given to undermine the warhead. Information on the use of new electronic components is missing.

The warhead of the mine AHM-200-2, like the corresponding element of the previous ammunition, is divided into two blocks. An additional block is placed in the middle part of the mine, in the lower part is a large rectangular main one. An interesting innovation was the use of the main unit of the warhead of the original design. Instead of one large cumulative charge, it has several relatively small (according to some sources, there are 5 such charges), each of which forms its own shock core. This architecture of the main unit of the warhead, allegedly, increases the probability of hitting the target. An additional unit is equipped with 23,5 kg of trotyl and striking elements of a cubic form.

Mina AHM-200-2 has protection against attempts at neutralization and is able to stay in position for up to 30 days.

4AHM-100 (Bulgaria)

In a number of sources it is mentioned that Bulgarian experts worked on the 4AHM-100 complex, designed to protect relatively large areas from enemy low-flying helicopters. The current stage of this project is unknown: in open access there is only a general description of the system and a drawing showing its principle of operation. Perhaps the work stopped in the early stages.

The 4AHM-100 anti-helicopter mine complex consists of several modules. To destroy targets, as indicated in the name of the system, it is proposed to use four AHM-100 mines at once. These munitions are a smaller version of the AHM-200-1 and are intended to be mounted on horizontal surfaces. Four such mines should be placed in the correct area at the corners of an imaginary square. It was assumed that the mines will be placed horizontally, with a vertical axis of the sector of destruction. Between the mines it was proposed to install a hardware unit designed to detect targets. This unit should have included acoustic sensors and a doppler radar with a field of view of the required width.

The 4AHM-100 complex was supposed to work on the same principle as the previous Bulgarian anti-helicopter mines, but with the appropriate amendments to its architecture. Apparently, the possibility of multiple use of the hardware unit.

Hirtenberger HELKIR (Austria)

It is known that in the nineties the Austrian company Hirtenberger AG was engaged in the subject of anti-helicopter mines. As part of a program to develop control systems for mines of various types, Austrian company specialists created the HELKIR fuze, based on which anti-helicopter ammunition was soon developed.

Mina weighing about 43 kg was supposed to destroy low-flying aircraft and helicopters of the enemy. For autonomous work for a long time, the HELKIR system fuse received a combined situation tracking system. The composition of this fuse included an acoustic sensor and an infrared instrument. It was assumed that the speaker system will detect the target at a relatively large distance from the mine. The infrared system, installed coaxially with the warhead, was to monitor the sector of destruction of the latter. When a target appeared in the affected area, the automatics was supposed to undermine the warhead.

HELKIR anti-helicopter mine received a fragmentation warhead with an 20-kilogram explosive charge and a large number of striking elements. According to reports, at a distance of 50 meters, the striking elements had to pierce an armor plate with a thickness of up to 6 mm. At a distance of 150 meters, it was possible to break through an 2-mm steel plate. The maximum radius of dispersal of fragments reached 500 meters.

Built-in batteries allowed the HELKIR mine to work continuously for 120 days. After this period, the mine was to be transferred to a safe mode, allowing it to neutralize it. During the service life, according to available data, the mine should have been protected by a non-recovery system.

Mina PVM (Russia)

In 2012, the tests of the domestic PVM anti-helicopter mine ended. Unlike previous foreign developments, the new domestic ammunition has a more complex structure and higher combat characteristics. The design of the PVM mine allows it not to wait until the aircraft itself enters the affected area, but to attack any aircraft or helicopter that is at a sufficient distance.

The PVM anti-helicopter mine created in the FCP GKNIPAS can be divided into several parts. The basis of the design is a special support platform with a so-called. stabilizing petals. The latter are metal plates, movably mounted on the platform, and are intended for the correct installation of ammunition. When transporting the petals are in a vertical position and protect the design of mines from damage. On the main platform is mounted a swivel unit with a mounting system for the guidance equipment and the warhead. As follows from the available materials, the mechanics of PVM mines allow you to attack a target located anywhere in the upper hemisphere, and the sector of fire is limited only to landscape elements, plants or buildings.

There are two options for FDA mines, differing in the method of installation. The mine for manual installation has a square support platform with square stabilizing petals. Several acoustic sensors are mounted on the petals, intended for the initial detection of the target and an approximate determination of its location. FDA mine variant for automatic installation using ground or aviation The equipment is equipped with six stabilizing petals, and also has a different design for warhead mounts and acoustic sensors. Both versions of the mine weigh about 12 kg.

The principle of operation of the two variants of PVM mines is the same. The ammunition determines the presence of an air target for the noise it produces, and also calculates its approximate location, after which the automation turns the warhead and the infrared sensor in the desired direction. Next, the infrared system specifies the direction to the target and provides accurate guidance of the warhead. When the target is at a distance sufficient to attack, the cumulative warhead is undermined. An enemy helicopter or plane is hit by a high-speed strike core.

It was argued that the PVM anti-helicopter mine is capable of “hearing” enemy aircraft at a distance of up to one kilometer. A shock core moving at speeds up to 2,5 km / s can penetrate up to 100 mm of armor from a distance of 12 meters. The electronics of the mine goes into active mode in 15 seconds. Such characteristics make it possible to hit low-altitude aerial targets moving at a speed of no more than 100 m / s. Mina PVM can function for three months, after which the self-destruction device is activated. Also, a self-detonation is made when attempting to mine.

Progressive weapon or “project”?

Anti-helicopter mines are one of the most interesting types of weapons. However, so far they have not received much distribution and remain rather an overly bold “target”, rather than a full-fledged weapon for the ground forces. The main reason for this is the specificity of the application. In a modern war, the destruction of enemy low-flying aircraft (primarily strike aircraft) is the task of anti-aircraft missile and artillery systems. The structure of the armed forces allows the use of anti-aircraft equipment with great flexibility and to solve emerging problems. The place of anti-helicopter mines in the existing structure is a separate and complex issue.

Judging by the fact that anti-helicopter mines have so far not been widely distributed, and the types of such ammunition can be literally counted on the fingers, the military of developed countries do not see the point in the procurement and use of such weapons. Anti-helicopter mines as a means of air defense of a given area will duplicate anti-aircraft missile and artillery systems (and do this with a noticeable loss in efficiency). The use of such ammunition as a tool for sabotage against enemy airfields is also associated with significant difficulties. It turns out that anti-helicopter mines can fully realize their potential only when used by partisan formations. Naturally, the armies of developed countries do not need such weapons.

In the end, one of the most interesting types of weapons, despite all its positive qualities, is also one of the most useless from the point of view of practical use. Probably in the future there will be new types of anti-helicopter mines, but now we can already predict the prospects for these developments. They are unlikely to be widely distributed. Moreover, even the beginning of the mass production of such mines can be considered unlikely.

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  1. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I April 18 2014 08: 30
    The article is interesting! I "heard" about Bulgarian PVMs, but I could not find details; And here they are: the details! But one can argue about the complete futility of PVM. Often military bases are protected by minefields, for example: anti-personnel. Why not also use PVM? After all, there are many cases described of how dashing sabotage groups on helicopters made unexpected raids on military bases and stole (destroyed) secret super-weapons. SAM is problematic to locate if the location of such bases is not "advertised." Another case: protection of military (important industrial) facilities, television centers, power plants from low-flying cruise missiles (yes, yes, in this If the PVM needs to be finalized). It seems that television centers, power plants are "peaceful", but remember Yugoslavia. By the way, about Yugoslavia, as well as Iraq, Libya. Where did the air defenses of these countries end up as a result of the absolute superiority of NATO aviation? It was then that some of the military "felt sad" about both "guerrilla" tactics and anti-aircraft missile "mines" type SIAM. I think that air defense systems of type SIAM will be more effective than the PVM described in this article.
    1. user
      user April 18 2014 10: 07
      The article is very interesting, but the conclusions are directly opposite. It is impossible to cover all objects with air defense, especially after its processing by the enemy.
      The practical value of mines of this kind is simply unlimited. Ask any officer who at least once encountered an air raid.
      1. StolzSS
        StolzSS April 18 2014 17: 48
        You are right the most valuable means of war with skillful use of course. In the mountains or among the hills in the north, it’s generally irreplaceable. Plus, they can suddenly block enemy airdrome dispersal airfields. Well, and as a means of psychological pressure on enemy pilots, they are just a godsend, if in doubt, see the statistics of nervous disorders in military personnel affected by the landmine war ...
    2. AAF
      AAF April 26 2014 08: 16
      One day, his helicopter will be returning to the base - damaged or with damaged equipment ... FDA will not recognize him ...
      And in the area may be a civilian helicopter. Or the allied technique ...
  2. igordok
    igordok April 18 2014 09: 01
    By analogy with tanks. If there are anti-tank mines - created anti-helicopter mines. If there are anti-tank barriers and ditches, you should create anti-helicopter barriers and anti-helicopter ditches. soldier smile
  3. air wolf
    air wolf April 18 2014 09: 03
    The topic is good, I remember how in Chechnya perfumes used homemade products against our helicopters.
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet April 18 2014 14: 29
      Well, yes, a piece of tin from a can, with a stream of air from the screw, closed the electric detonator circuit.
  4. sv68
    sv68 April 18 2014 09: 51
    I don’t agree with the conclusions of the author — there is a concept of necessity — if this type of ammunition in the working version has an efficiency higher than, say, 60 percent, it goes into a series with constant refinement in order to increase the efficiency coefficient
  5. Tektor
    Tektor April 18 2014 11: 09
    And if you create a mine capable of shooting down low-flying (up to 150 m) targets at a speed of up to 300 m / s, then no tomahawk will fly by ...
  6. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat April 18 2014 11: 22
    The disadvantages of the so-called "anti-flying" mines are: short range, poor effectiveness against armored targets, relative high cost and, most importantly, insufficient height of action, limited to 300-500 meters for the best samples. Currently, the first place is not even the fight against helicopters, which are quite expensive weapons of warfare and cannot be used in large quantities, but the fight against drones. It is the massive use of drones that is a threat in the conduct of modern military operations. And they fly at altitudes ranging from 1500 to 10000 meters. It is necessary to create automated means of combating unmanned aerial vehicles, which should include: small-sized, poorly detectable, quickly installed and camouflaged under the terrain of the station for automatic detection of drones, tracking them and guidance of autonomous missile modules. The missile modules themselves should be fully autonomous, controlled by control stations, small containers, also disguised as an external environment and containing missiles capable of destroying drones at low and high altitudes. Moreover, there should be several types of such containers - cheaper for the destruction of small-sized drones and more expensive for the destruction of large, strike vehicles. All of them should be controlled by several control stations duplicating each other.
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 April 18 2014 16: 01
      The producer of all this luxury will go bankrupt without saturating 10% of potentially threatened areas with all this luxury. In addition, hundreds of thousands of missile units designed to attack air targets - but this is just a celebration! From jamming fish to jamming competitors, a whole expanse - I do not want to take it. In addition, the data processing units ... or it should be supercomputers, or I would not recommend going to the area of ​​their work with cell phones for example. And even more so - to drive a car.
      Hunting for drones should be conducted so that only drones are hit, so that the hunter was completely impossible or extremely difficult to steal or break, so that, in turn, it was difficult to detect ...
      In general, it seems more effective, offhand, this option is a flying hunter. The analogue of Google spies. Wings with solar panels, a simple computer (in the air to distinguish a drone from everything else, non-drone, ten times easier) and a simple warhead, firing, for example, balls from bearings. The drone can be armored a hundred times, but the screws ...
      In general, the answer should be several times cheaper than the attack. As an anti-ship missile, it is immeasurably cheaper than an aircraft carrier.
    2. neri73-r
      neri73-r April 18 2014 16: 09
      poor performance against armored targets

      The issue is debatable, all the same, the strike core, yes, the range is not great, but the helicopter is not a tank, you can’t reserve it like that! Yes, and book mostly and not all, but the most important nodes, a helicopter!
  7. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata April 18 2014 11: 26
    I think the problem of FDA is the potential use of them by all sorts of souls.
  8. Gagarin
    Gagarin April 18 2014 12: 38
    The idea is great, I think it would have come at the very time to the troops of Saddam Hussein.
    Cheaper and harder to detect and neutralize than anti-aircraft calculation (naturally in the case of Iraq)
  9. e_krendel
    e_krendel April 18 2014 12: 53
    Quote: Monster_Fat
    but the fight with drones.

    And what prevents automatic installations based on Igla MANPADS from doing? She has a friend or foe identification system ...
  10. kav669
    kav669 April 18 2014 12: 58
    something in the army did not see such weapons? and so the topic is interesting
  11. KOMA
    KOMA April 18 2014 14: 51
    The mine has no "friend or foe" responder, the probability of destroying its own turntables is colossal!
  12. andj61
    andj61 April 18 2014 15: 26
    Quote: Asan Ata
    I think the problem of FDA is the potential use of them by all sorts of souls.

    Quote: Gagarin
    The idea is great, I think it would have come at the very time to the troops of Saddam Hussein.
    Cheaper and harder to detect and neutralize than anti-aircraft calculation (naturally in the case of Iraq)

    I fully support it. PVMs are both necessary and potentially dangerous. In addition, after the enemy's impact, the air defense systems can be "thinned out" if not destroyed, and here there is no, but protection.
  13. e_krendel
    e_krendel April 18 2014 16: 31
    Quote: Mikhail3
    and a simple combat unit, firing, for example, balls from bearings. The drone can be armored a hundred times, but the screws ...

    It is not easy for a moving hunter to get into a moving target, but getting into the propeller blade is even more unlikely, because the blade is narrow, and the ball is most likely to fly through the screw disk than hit the blade.
  14. kocclissi
    kocclissi April 18 2014 18: 04
    It would be nice for these mines to provide for the possibility of combining them with other air defense systems, into a "defensive complex". Or as a "flock" in a network.
  15. Alex 1977
    Alex 1977 April 18 2014 20: 12
    Given the US "vertical reach" doctrine, it is not surprising that the massive introduction of these weapons is being slowed down in every possible way.
    In fact, the mass introduction of such mines is a very big problem for the air mobility of NE and ILC.
    The same Bulgarian mink overlaps a circle of one hundred meters. One to four mines and a clearing are completely inaccessible for landing.
    On certain theater of operations, helicopter landing can be almost completely eliminated.
    It is clear that this is not a panacea, that such mines are in little demand in the desert-desert area.
    But in a wooded and mountainous area, where the number of potential landing sites is limited, this is an extremely useful thing.
    Plus, mining directions for potential attack helicopter approaches that try to fly low. Overlapping dead zones of air defense ... Yes, a sea of ​​dirty tricks can come up with such a thing.
  16. svyach74
    svyach74 25 May 2014 14: 00
    Interestingly, I have not heard of this before, but I agree that the system, at least not perfect, can really react to anything, like a "signal" to a cat. winked
  17. Zcar123
    Zcar123 24 August 2014 18: 28
    Even during the Afghan war, Dushmans (CIA) successfully fought with our turntables with the help of simple mines.
    A thin flexible steel plate moved freely inside the steel hoop. When the pinwheel passed over the mine, the air flow pressed the plate to the hoop, warhead undermining occurred. Thus the turntables were squeezed to heights of more than 30-50 meters, and there the stingers .....