Later, the idea of the so-called. anti-helicopter mines. Autonomous ammunition of this class must be located in a given area and monitor air targets. In the event of the appearance of an enemy aircraft, reaching at a low altitude, the mine must independently attack it. The idea of such anti-aircraft munitions appeared quite a long time ago, but there is still no information about any successful use of it. Moreover, the idea of anti-helicopter mines is not particularly popular with designers and military. Consider some types weapons This class created in recent years.
One of the most famous anti-helicopter mines are the development of the Bulgarian Institute of Metal Sciences (Sofia). The specialists of this organization created two anti-helicopter mines at once, differing from each other in various design features and characteristics.
The first Bulgarian anti-helicopter mine was designated AHM-200-1. This ammunition consists of several units mounted on a common stand. The basic tripod allows you to set the mine in the right place, as well as to orient it properly, determining the location of the sector, which will be followed by automation. A miniature low-power radar, acoustic sensor, warhead, electronics power systems and automation are installed on the stand, which is responsible for detecting the target and for undermining the warhead. The total weight of the mine is 90 kg.
Acoustic sensor and radar are designed to monitor a wide sector in front of a mine and search for targets. As follows from the available data, target detection is performed using a directional acoustic sensor. This system allows you to "hear" various objects at a distance of 500 meters. When a target appears in the area of responsibility of the acoustic sensor, a Doppler radar is activated, the duty of which is to monitor the sector of space, approximately equal to the zone of destruction of the warhead. Maximum radar target detection range - 150 meters. The command to undermine the warhead is given when the target approaches the mine at a distance of no more than 100 meters.
Warhead AHM-200-1 consists of two blocks. The main unit has a cylindrical shape and is located in the middle of the mine. The explosive charge of this block in the front part has a characteristic funnel lined with metal. Due to this, when a charge is detonated, a shock core is formed that can damage targets at ranges of up to several tens of meters. Additional unit of the warhead has a rectangular shape. Inside his casing 17 kg of TNT and ready-made fragments in the form of metal balls are placed.
AHM-200-1 anti-helicopter mine is able to work offline for up to 30 days. There is a system of non-recoverability: in case of an attempt to clear mines (disassembling or moving), the warhead is undermined.
Based on the experience gained during the development and testing of the AHM-200-1 mine, Bulgarian specialists have created a new anti-helicopter munition with higher performance. To improve the potential of mines in its design were applied some innovations that affected, first of all, the warhead.
Like the previous ammunition, the AHM-200-2 anti-helicopter mine is a set of blocks placed on a common support frame. In view of the different dimensions and shape of the warhead, the new mine relies not on three pillars, but on four. They are located cylindrical casing of the radar and acoustic system, as well as two rectangular blocks of the warhead. The principle of operation of the modernized mine has remained the same: an acoustic sensor and a radar monitor the situation, and when a target enters a defeat zone, the command is given to undermine the warhead. Information on the use of new electronic components is missing.
The warhead of the mine AHM-200-2, like the corresponding element of the previous ammunition, is divided into two blocks. An additional block is placed in the middle part of the mine, in the lower part is a large rectangular main one. An interesting innovation was the use of the main unit of the warhead of the original design. Instead of one large cumulative charge, it has several relatively small (according to some sources, there are 5 such charges), each of which forms its own shock core. This architecture of the main unit of the warhead, allegedly, increases the probability of hitting the target. An additional unit is equipped with 23,5 kg of trotyl and striking elements of a cubic form.
Mina AHM-200-2 has protection against attempts at neutralization and is able to stay in position for up to 30 days.
In a number of sources it is mentioned that Bulgarian experts worked on the 4AHM-100 complex, designed to protect relatively large areas from enemy low-flying helicopters. The current stage of this project is unknown: in open access there is only a general description of the system and a drawing showing its principle of operation. Perhaps the work stopped in the early stages.
The 4AHM-100 anti-helicopter mine complex consists of several modules. To destroy targets, as indicated in the name of the system, it is proposed to use four AHM-100 mines at once. These munitions are a smaller version of the AHM-200-1 and are intended to be mounted on horizontal surfaces. Four such mines should be placed in the correct area at the corners of an imaginary square. It was assumed that the mines will be placed horizontally, with a vertical axis of the sector of destruction. Between the mines it was proposed to install a hardware unit designed to detect targets. This unit should have included acoustic sensors and a doppler radar with a field of view of the required width.
The 4AHM-100 complex was supposed to work on the same principle as the previous Bulgarian anti-helicopter mines, but with the appropriate amendments to its architecture. Apparently, the possibility of multiple use of the hardware unit.
Hirtenberger HELKIR (Austria)
It is known that in the nineties the Austrian company Hirtenberger AG was engaged in the subject of anti-helicopter mines. As part of a program to develop control systems for mines of various types, Austrian company specialists created the HELKIR fuze, based on which anti-helicopter ammunition was soon developed.
Mina weighing about 43 kg was supposed to destroy low-flying aircraft and helicopters of the enemy. For autonomous work for a long time, the HELKIR system fuse received a combined situation tracking system. The composition of this fuse included an acoustic sensor and an infrared instrument. It was assumed that the speaker system will detect the target at a relatively large distance from the mine. The infrared system, installed coaxially with the warhead, was to monitor the sector of destruction of the latter. When a target appeared in the affected area, the automatics was supposed to undermine the warhead.
HELKIR anti-helicopter mine received a fragmentation warhead with an 20-kilogram explosive charge and a large number of striking elements. According to reports, at a distance of 50 meters, the striking elements had to pierce an armor plate with a thickness of up to 6 mm. At a distance of 150 meters, it was possible to break through an 2-mm steel plate. The maximum radius of dispersal of fragments reached 500 meters.
Built-in batteries allowed the HELKIR mine to work continuously for 120 days. After this period, the mine was to be transferred to a safe mode, allowing it to neutralize it. During the service life, according to available data, the mine should have been protected by a non-recovery system.
Mina PVM (Russia)
In 2012, the tests of the domestic PVM anti-helicopter mine ended. Unlike previous foreign developments, the new domestic ammunition has a more complex structure and higher combat characteristics. The design of the PVM mine allows it not to wait until the aircraft itself enters the affected area, but to attack any aircraft or helicopter that is at a sufficient distance.
The PVM anti-helicopter mine created in the FCP GKNIPAS can be divided into several parts. The basis of the design is a special support platform with a so-called. stabilizing petals. The latter are metal plates, movably mounted on the platform, and are intended for the correct installation of ammunition. When transporting the petals are in a vertical position and protect the design of mines from damage. On the main platform is mounted a swivel unit with a mounting system for the guidance equipment and the warhead. As follows from the available materials, the mechanics of PVM mines allow you to attack a target located anywhere in the upper hemisphere, and the sector of fire is limited only to landscape elements, plants or buildings.
There are two options for FDA mines, differing in the method of installation. The mine for manual installation has a square support platform with square stabilizing petals. Several acoustic sensors are mounted on the petals, intended for the initial detection of the target and an approximate determination of its location. FDA mine variant for automatic installation using ground or aviation The equipment is equipped with six stabilizing petals, and also has a different design for warhead mounts and acoustic sensors. Both versions of the mine weigh about 12 kg.
The principle of operation of the two variants of PVM mines is the same. The ammunition determines the presence of an air target for the noise it produces, and also calculates its approximate location, after which the automation turns the warhead and the infrared sensor in the desired direction. Next, the infrared system specifies the direction to the target and provides accurate guidance of the warhead. When the target is at a distance sufficient to attack, the cumulative warhead is undermined. An enemy helicopter or plane is hit by a high-speed strike core.
It was argued that the PVM anti-helicopter mine is capable of “hearing” enemy aircraft at a distance of up to one kilometer. A shock core moving at speeds up to 2,5 km / s can penetrate up to 100 mm of armor from a distance of 12 meters. The electronics of the mine goes into active mode in 15 seconds. Such characteristics make it possible to hit low-altitude aerial targets moving at a speed of no more than 100 m / s. Mina PVM can function for three months, after which the self-destruction device is activated. Also, a self-detonation is made when attempting to mine.
Progressive weapon or “project”?
Anti-helicopter mines are one of the most interesting types of weapons. However, so far they have not received much distribution and remain rather an overly bold “target”, rather than a full-fledged weapon for the ground forces. The main reason for this is the specificity of the application. In a modern war, the destruction of enemy low-flying aircraft (primarily strike aircraft) is the task of anti-aircraft missile and artillery systems. The structure of the armed forces allows the use of anti-aircraft equipment with great flexibility and to solve emerging problems. The place of anti-helicopter mines in the existing structure is a separate and complex issue.
Judging by the fact that anti-helicopter mines have so far not been widely distributed, and the types of such ammunition can be literally counted on the fingers, the military of developed countries do not see the point in the procurement and use of such weapons. Anti-helicopter mines as a means of air defense of a given area will duplicate anti-aircraft missile and artillery systems (and do this with a noticeable loss in efficiency). The use of such ammunition as a tool for sabotage against enemy airfields is also associated with significant difficulties. It turns out that anti-helicopter mines can fully realize their potential only when used by partisan formations. Naturally, the armies of developed countries do not need such weapons.
In the end, one of the most interesting types of weapons, despite all its positive qualities, is also one of the most useless from the point of view of practical use. Probably in the future there will be new types of anti-helicopter mines, but now we can already predict the prospects for these developments. They are unlikely to be widely distributed. Moreover, even the beginning of the mass production of such mines can be considered unlikely.
On the materials of the sites: