Military Review

Hyacinth-S - 152-mm self-propelled gun

The cessation of work in the USSR on the creation of almost all types of artillery armament at the end of the 50-s led to the lag of domestic artillery from the United States and other NATO countries in a number of areas, and primarily in the field of self-propelled, heavy and long-range guns. History proved the mistake of the Soviet military strategists: despite the successful development of tactical and operational-tactical missiles, the role of long-range cannon artillery in local wars did not decrease, but increased. So, at the end of 50 - the beginning of 60 - our advisers in China were in an uncomfortable position. The Kuomintangs installed batteries of American long-range guns on islands in the Taiwan Strait and opened fire on mainland China. There was nothing for the Chinese to answer. The most long-range Soviet-made X-NUMX-mm M-130 guns did not reach the Kuomintang batteries. Fortunately, one of our experts found an ingenious way out - to heat the charges and wait for a fair wind. They waited, heated and got, to the great surprise of the Americans. The USSR’s 46-mm 107-152 “Hyacinth” 2-mm self-propelled gun, the development of which began in the hard-ware of Perm Machine-Building Plant (PMZ) in December 5, became a somewhat belated response of the USSR to the American M1968.

From the very beginning, the work was carried out in two directions: the towed and self-propelled versions of the gun, the “Hyacinth-B” and the “Hyacinth-S”, were created. GRAU (Main Missile and Artillery Directorate) assigned the 2А36 and 2А37 indices to these guns, respectively. Both versions had identical ballistics, and ammunition for them was developed specifically. Interchangeable with “Hyacinth” shots of other 152-mm guns in the Soviet Army was not.

SKB PMZ designed the artillery unit, the Sverdlovsk Transport Engineering Plant (SZTM) - the chassis, and the Scientific-Research Machine-Building Institute (NII) - ammunition. In September, 1969 of the year, the projects of CAU “Hyacinth” in the open (tower) and turret versions were submitted to the RAA, however, they accepted the first one. In June, the 1970 of the year resolution of the CM No. 427-151 authorized full-scale work on the ACS “Hyacinth”. In March and April, two experimental 1971-mm guns “Hyacinths” (ballistic installations) were made 152, but due to the lack of shells not provided by the Institute, they had to carry out firing from September 1971 to March 1972. Originally, the CAU planned to arm the 7,62-mm PKT machine gun, but in August 1971 decided to remove it. However, he later appeared again. By April, 1972, the projects of the “Hyacinth” were finalized and finalized in self-propelled and towed versions with separate-cartridge loading guns. An alternative variant of the Hyacinthe-BK ACS with the 2A43 cannon-loading gun was also developed. However, finally adopted separately-sleeve. Hyacinths were launched into mass production in the 1976 year, and they immediately began to enter into service with artillery brigades and divisions.

The barrel of the 2А37 cannon consists of a monoblock pipe, a breech and a muzzle brake. The multi-caliber slit muzzle brake is screwed onto the tube. Semi-automatic shutter - horizontal wedge rolling type. The hydraulic recoil brake is grooved, equipped with a pneumatic knurler, whose cylinders roll back along with the barrel. The longest pullback length is 950 mm, and the shortest is 730 mm. The electric motorized rammer collects in two stages: first the projectile, and then the sleeve. The gun has a sector lifting and turning mechanisms and a pneumatic pushing balancing mechanism.

The rotating part of the gun is a machine mounted on the center pin of the chassis. The horizontal angle of the gun is 30 °, in the vertical plane it is from -2,5 ° to 58 °. The gun is equipped with a light shield covering the gunner and some of the mechanisms from bullets, small fragments and the action of a muzzle gas wave when firing. It is a structure stamped from sheet steel, mounted on the left cheek of the upper machine. The gun’s sighting devices include a D726-45 mechanical sight with a PG-1M gun mount and an optical OP4M-91A sight. The chassis “Hyacinth” is created on the same base as the chassis of the ACS 2С3 “Acacia”. Ammunition is also located inside the case, but the projectiles and charges from the machine are delivered manually. When firing, the ACS is stabilized by means of a folding base plate-coulter placed outside the aft of the hull. For this reason, shooting on the move is fundamentally impossible. The transfer time of the car from the traveling to the combat position is no more than four minutes.

Initially, the regular ammunition was a 39 kg VO80,8 shot with a high-explosive fragmentation projectile OF-29 (46 kg) filled with 6,73 kg of high-explosive A-IX-2 and having a B-429 impact head fuse. Depending on the target, the shooting could have been one of the four types of charges used. Later, the 2C5 developed a ZVOF86 shot with an extra-range RP-59 projectile, which can be fired at a distance of up to 30 km. According to information from the Western press, the Hyacinth ammunition includes a shot with low-power 0,1-2 kT nuclear ammunition. Today in Russia several new 152-mm shells are being developed. Among them, 3-0-13 cluster projectile with fragmentation combat elements, cluster projectiles with self-targeting combat elements equipped with target sensors, directing projectiles of active and passive radio interference.

The 2A37 cannon is designed for counter-battery warfare, the destruction of long-term firing points and field structures, to suppress rear areas and command posts, to combat heavy self-propelled artillery and tanks the enemy. Sights provide firing from closed positions and direct fire. Self-propelled guns can be operated in various weather and climatic conditions.

Currently, self-propelled gun 2C5 is obsolete. Nevertheless, the “Hyacinth”, so far, is the most long-range domestic weapon and is second only to the 203-mm self-propelled gun 2-7 “Peony”.


caliber, mm 152
crew (crew), person 5
maximum range, m to 30 000
rate of fire, shots per minute 5-6
initial velocity of the projectile, m / s 942
elevation / declination angles, degrees -2 ... + 57
horizontal guidance angles, degrees -15 ... + 15
weight, t 28.2
full length, m 8.95 (with gun)
width full, m 3.25
height, m ​​2.6
tracked undercarriage
no reservation
engine, type, name, power (hp) 4-stroke diesel B-59, 382 kW
maximum speed, km / h 60
power reserve, km 500

Source: Encyclopedia of armored vehicles: Tracked combat vehicles
According to the materials of the site of OJSC "Motovilikha plants"
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  1. Mikhado
    Mikhado 8 June 2013 09: 08
    That is, it turns out that "Msta" is less long-range? It turns out rather strange - a more advanced machine with a progressive tower layout was inferior to the outdated monitors.
    Probably, the matter is in size, in powerful recoil. Thanks to the article, it never even crossed my mind to compare, I believed that "Msta" is better in everything ...
    1. Drummer
      Drummer 8 June 2013 10: 31
      I think this is due to the maximum permissible elevation angle and the length of the rollback (the gun is in the tower, in contrast to 2s5).
      1. bask
        bask 8 June 2013 10: 55
        Currently, the 2C5 self-propelled gun is obsolete. Nevertheless, “Hyacinth”, so far, the most long-range domestic gun and

        What is it, morally obsolete ,,? He didn’t eat at long range in the Russian army.
        Ammunition is out of date, YES.
        But not the self-propelled guns ,, Geocind ,,. Excellent GSh, with MTO in the nose, highly walkable, with a carrying capacity of 15 tons.
        It is necessary to produce new ammunition, or switch from the 2A36 gun to the 2A65 howitzer.
        1. Aleks tv
          Aleks tv 8 June 2013 17: 08
          Quote: bask
          What is it, morally obsolete ,,? He didn’t eat at long range in the Russian army.

          Quote: bask
          We need to make new ammunition,


          Quote: Mikhado
          believed that "Msta" is better in everything ...

          Hyacinth is a kind of "scalpel" of artillery. We can say that this is a long-range sniper weapon. The 2S19 seems to have a different purpose.

          This is a type of weapon that does not often make sense to change, but of course to upgrade.
          Upgrade and improve the data transmission system for shooting in modern warfare pancake combat rapid response fire on the detected important targets of the enemy and reduce the time of deployment-folding from the marching order to the combat order for the purpose of their own safety (counter-battery warfare is now the most dangerous, and this weapon is not at all designed even for fragmentation protection of crews).
          Correct the gunners if something is not right.

          Respect for such weapons.

          I remember even in school, the teacher of the tactics department said: be afraid, fuel oil, Hyacinth is in the hands of the enemy, if they put it directly, it hits the tank accurately and with a simple blank or it breaks off the tower ...
      2. sanya0974
        sanya0974 8 June 2013 22: 22
        it’s not a rollback and elevation angle, but shells. Mst shoots with standard Russian shells (the same as acacia (speed for 800m \ s) and hyacinth only for its own (does not fit other systems) at a speed of 945m \ s, from Because of this, there is a difference in range, although the barrel length is almost the same.
    2. bashir141
      bashir141 8 June 2013 19: 23
      MSTA howitzer, hyacinth gun. Comparison incorrect
    3. rjhgec55v
      rjhgec55v 1 July 2013 12: 32
      it indicates the range when firing conventional shells, the MSTA can even be beaten for 50 km but only special. shells ..
  2. Ram chandra
    Ram chandra 8 June 2013 09: 52
    Studied at 2A36 at the military department. Kazakhstan.
    1. Drummer
      Drummer 8 June 2013 10: 42
      Did you have a self-propelled one or a Hyacinth-B?
    2. Jipo
      Jipo 8 June 2013 13: 11
      In Karaganda, they stood at the military department. There were tales that shot from them with nuclear shells. I don’t know, really.
  3. MAG
    MAG 8 June 2013 10: 09
    In the museum of the Motovilikhinsky Plant stands without a base plate.
    SERGEYTSIKALUIK 8 June 2013 10: 16

    The German PzH 2000 self-propelled gun is capable of firing three shells in nine seconds or ten in 56 seconds at a range of up to 30 km. The howitzer holds a world record - at a firing range in South Africa, she fired 56 km with a V-LAP (active-rocket projectile with improved aerodynamics). Rate of fire 11 shots per minute. It is made since 2005.
    1. Drummer
      Drummer 8 June 2013 10: 40
      With ammunition, everything is much worse - they simply do not exist, neither modern nor promising. The actual transition of brigade / division artillery to a caliber of 152 mm creates new problems in the form of a shortage of even ordinary 152 mm shells (Shirokorad wrote about this).
    2. 77bor1973
      77bor1973 8 June 2013 17: 01
      PzH2000 and "Hyacinth-S" are completely different art systems, besides, the PzH 2000 has a large dispersion of shells, and shells with a gas generator even more so. And "Hyacinth" can also beat a nuclear weapon.
    3. rjhgec55v
      rjhgec55v 1 July 2013 12: 37
      =)) watch less promotional films.
      1. Pzh 2000 range of 30 km is achieved only special. shells. conventional range of not more than 20 km.
      2. only manual loading is possible, that is, during combat use, the deployment and firing speed will immediately decrease ..
    4. Herosw
      Herosw April 27 2021 12: 17
      In what MSTA-S, has a rate of fire - 8-10 rds / min., Range of AR OFS - 30 km. Those. full analogue. Coalition-SV has a rate of fire of 16 rounds / min. and where are we lagging behind?
  5. runway
    runway 8 June 2013 10: 45
    70s cannon. The gun designers successfully coped with the task. For its time, it was an advanced technique capable of fulfilling the tasks of reliably suppressing (destroying) enemy targets.
    The German PzH 2000 howitzer is a good weapon, but I prefer to be critical of all the results it has announced. without the right advertisement, a gun (elephant), you cannot sell.
    Of course, a fully mechanized and computerized weapon, and even with excellent paired reconnaissance of targets, has significant advantages as long as everything works laughing
    1. Drummer
      Drummer 8 June 2013 11: 10
      You can’t shoot a lot from the Genocide without reconnaissance either, but something is not visible in the troops that are suitable for the range of UAVs and modern artillery radars.
      1. runway
        runway 9 June 2013 11: 20
        From the genocide you invented, even with intelligence, you’ll never get anywhere laughing
  6. Volkhov
    Volkhov 8 June 2013 13: 52
    DPRK coxans shoot up to 70 km 170 mm cal., T-54 chassis and make them from the mid 70's - that is, the Korean design brain surpasses the Soviet one. This is a big philosophical problem - a brain deficit in the country.
  7. Russ69
    Russ69 8 June 2013 17: 35
    However, "Hyacinth-S" will now be re-stored from storage bases and transferred to the troops in the Far East. This year 24 pcs. have already passed and in the past I do not remember how many.
    Apparently close to China, it is better to have something that can fire nuclear war.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 11 June 2013 13: 38
      Unless it’s only yrenrenbaton. Conventional ammunition 152mm shortage.
  8. Alexander D.
    Alexander D. 8 June 2013 19: 21
    In addition to the caliber, it is also necessary to take into account the modernization potential - is it possible to install a modern digital LMS on this installation (which, by the way, is not in a hurry to implement even on Msta-S). The mobility of the installation is also taken into account - the time of bringing to the combat position from the marching position and vice versa (this should also include the time during which the battery of such vehicles will be able to get to the desired position from the train). Well, for a snack - to keep in peacetime an installation of 5 crew members fool .
  9. Seraph
    Seraph 8 June 2013 22: 02
    Charismatic whip. A real man's weapon. The best Soviet "flower".
  10. Fofan
    Fofan 9 June 2013 15: 02
    Quote: 77bor1973
    PzH2000 and "Hyacinth-S" are completely different art systems, besides, the PzH 2000 has a large dispersion of shells, and shells with a gas generator even more so. And "Hyacinth" can also beat a nuclear weapon.

    Agaga, only for solving such problems we use tornadoes. and your Pezu’s cost of the installation itself is several times higher and the shot costs like a rocket to a hurricane.
  11. shtabs
    shtabs 12 June 2013 19: 45
    in Afghanistan they called Genocide .. soldier
  12. Hauptam
    Hauptam 20 June 2013 23: 42
    I personally saw a shot from 2C5 at a target (IS2 tank) from a distance of 800m (shot under a tower) As a result, the tower was torn off by 15 meters from the shoulder strap and dropped nearby. Power is terrible and accuracy.
  13. y1ivan8
    y1ivan8 1 July 2013 22: 18
    Still, I’ll say about the range, although I would have disappeared for this information. The figure is 75 kilometers, 40 ballistics, 35 on the draft. I don’t smoke and don’t drink and the roof has not leaked. Since childhood I like equipment and weapons, so I had enough knowledge of the military on the fly. Once the officer was mistaken in the calculations, so the shells flew far beyond the range of 40 kilometers long! A lot of wood fell! Ammunition was far from one kiloton and far from only nuclear, the assortment was rich. I think in VO they are not in vain directing. These results of the last century have not been surpassed by anyone yet!
  14. Denis fj
    Denis fj 25 August 2014 13: 48
    And they did the right thing to leave this glorious howitzer in service.
  15. czes
    czes April 2 2021 12: 13
    It is necessary to upgrade the OMS to a digital and convenient for calculation semiautomatic device for supplying BP. A small problem and quite lifting costs, but the effect will be WOOH! Set the task of reducing deployment and phasing out, taking into account modern counter-battery warfare.
  16. Herosw
    Herosw April 27 2021 12: 07
    What nonsense how can it become obsolete if there are no analogues and unforeseen.