Military Review

Self-propelled "Carnation"

2С1 entered the artillery divisions of motorized rifle regiments equipped with infantry fighting vehicles. Destination "Carnations" - the destruction and suppression of manpower and fire weapons of infantry, the destruction of field type fortifications, making passages in minefields and wire obstacles, the fight against artillery, mortars and armored vehicles of the enemy.

The usual portable ammunition - 35 high-explosive fragmentation and five cumulative projectiles. Ammunition of separate loading - a projectile and a sleeve with a charge. A wide range of projectiles has been developed: lighting, agitation, electronic countermeasures, chemical, smoke, with special arrow-shaped attack elements, cumulative, high-explosive fragmentation ...

In 1967, an attempt was made to create on the basis of the D-32 for the "Carnation" howitzers with a caprule loading - the D-16 and the D-16М. But the series did not go. The layout of the 2C1 "Carnations" is basically the same as the 152-mm ACS 2C3 "Acacia". In front of the case is the driver's cabin and engine compartment, and the rear - fighting compartment. The tower accommodates three more crew members: gunner, loader and commander. The turret is rotated by electric or manual drive 360 degrees.

Caterpillars at ACS are rubber-metal, have a width of 400 mm, but can be replaced with wider ones (670 mm) for increased cross-country ability in snow and marshy areas. Basic skating rinks - with an individual torsion suspension. The first and seventh wheels, in addition to the torsion bars, also have hydraulic shock absorbers. The case is sealed. The drive wheels, located in the front of the hull, have removable toothed rims, which facilitates their replacement with excessive wear. The crawler tensioning mechanism is located inside the case. Adjusting the tension of the tracks is also carried out from inside the machine. By rewinding the tracks, the ACS floats at a speed of 4.5 km / h and is able to overcome water obstacles 300 m wide at a wave height of up to 150 mm and a flow velocity of no more than 0.6 m / s. Between the hub and the outer ring with a rubber bandage of each roller two disks are welded, forming an internal air chamber, which increases the buoyancy of the machine. At the same time on board the installation should be no more than 30 shots. “Carnation” is transportable by air, that is, it can be transported by An-12, Il-76, An-124 aircraft. To reduce the height of the ACS, the support rollers from the second to the seventh can be lifted and secured with the help of special devices during transportation.

Self-propelled "Carnation"

The body of the machine is welded from steel plates, the maximum thickness of which reaches 20 mm. Such a reservation provides protection against small-arms fire. weapons and fragments of shells and mines of small caliber. Self-propelled gun “holds” 7.62-mm rifle bullet B-32 from a distance of 300 m. In the walls of both sides of the hull there are three fuel tanks with a total capacity of 550 liters arranged in series between each other. The engine of the 2C1 is a V-shaped eight-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine YMZ-238В of the Yaroslavl Motor Plant. The gearbox has 11 front speeds and two rear. The on-board ammunition is located as follows: 16 shells in a vertical position along the side walls of the hull and 24 - along the side and rear walls of the tower. To facilitate the loading of the howitzers, an electromechanical-type discharging mechanism has been applied. When firing projectiles stored on the ground, they are fed into the fighting compartment using a transport device through a large rear door.

Aiming of the gun is carried out using the PG-2 sight and the OP5-37 optical sight. The howitzer barrel has vertical guidance angles from -3 to + 70 degrees. Shooting with a cumulative rotating projectile BP-1 is a special charge F-8 weighing 3,1 kg; initial speed 740 m / s; range tabular 2000 m. The armor penetration along the normal is 180 mm; at an angle 60 ° - 150 mm, at an angle 30 ° - 80 mm; armor penetration does not depend on distance. When firing a high-explosive projectile, the maximum range is 15300 m. When using an active-projectile, this figure increases to 21900 m. The minimum firing range is 4 070 m. Howitzer rate is not very high. When firing projectiles from the ground - 4-5 rounds per minute, onboard ammunition - 1-2.

The howitzer barrel consists of a monoblock pipe, a breech, a coupling, an ejection device and a two-chamber muzzle brake. Shutter vertical wedge with mechanical semi-automatic (copy) type. The lifting mechanism sector with the manual drive. Brake cylinders recoil and nakatnika secured in the breech and rolled back with the barrel. The balancing of the barrel is made by a pneumatic balancing mechanism of the pushing type.

2С1 "Gvozdika" at one time entered service with all the armies of the Warsaw Pact countries (except Romania). After the unification of Germany, 374 2C1 received the Bundeswehr. "Gvozdika" is in service with the armies of the CIS and today, including in the Belarusian army. Recently, in order to improve the installation for it was developed by a laser-guided projectile Kitolov-2. This projectile can, with a high degree of probability, hit fixed and moving targets.

Serial production of 122-mm self-propelled howitzer 2C1 continues. This type of machine is in service with the ground forces of Algeria, Angola, Bulgaria, Hungary, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, Poland, Russia, Syria, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Ethiopia and the former Yugoslavia.

Shooting Modes:
- fire rate of sight when shooting direct fire, rds / min. 4-5
- rate of fire when shooting from closed positions:
- when submitting shots from the ground without repacking the charges, shots / min. 4-5,
- when using shots from an ammunition and at different angles of elevation, rpm 1,5-2

Source: Encyclopedia of armored vehicles: Tracked combat vehicles
Lieutenant Colonel Nikolai Kachuk, Army magazine No. 3 2001
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  1. Splin
    Splin 25 May 2013 08: 21
    In Ukraine, until the end of the year, the 122-mm caliber will remain only with the Airborne Forces. Goodbye my "Carnation"!
    1. OTAKE
      OTAKE 7 June 2013 16: 58
      and correctly it is already outdated.
      1. rjhgec55v
        rjhgec55v 1 July 2013 12: 28
        what is obsolete ????
  2. Professor
    Professor 25 May 2013 08: 47
    It would be interesting to learn about the experience of combat use.
    1. bask
      bask 25 May 2013 12: 01
      Quote: Professor
      It would be interesting to learn about combat experience.

      Lopatova is not on the site.
      He just, in the second Chechen, commanded .... self-propelled guns.
      Visit, tell, probably.
    2. Lopatov
      Lopatov 26 May 2013 18: 24
      I have never encountered her. By the time I entered the school, they were considered obsolete, and therefore they were not even given to us on a trial basis, only to marines and VBO-shniks.
      On the most, this is the same D-30. Accurate, reliable. A solid regimental-level howitzer. But we have a ubiquitous transition to 152, so they are cut into "Hosts" for the battalion level.
      I know that in the First there were cases of evacuation of the wounded on them, even in the chronicle it flickered. Aft sunroof contributed.
  3. gych
    gych 25 May 2013 09: 20
    Quote: Splin
    In Ukraine, until the end of the year, the 122-mm caliber will remain only with the Airborne Forces. Goodbye my "Carnation"!
    Yes, we (in Ukraine) finally have nothing to do with the transition to the contract army! If only the KMB left! The duty of a man to defend his homeland! And the article is so-so. I wonder what modifications exist at the moment? In what conflicts was applied? Knowing our brothers for Russians this flower was for Czechs like a wreath on their graves! isn’t it? I heard that the Russian Armed Forces also rejected 122mm howitzers in favor of unification, really?
    1. Akim
      Akim 25 May 2013 09: 48
      Quote: gych
      Yes, we (in Ukraine) finally have nothing left over with the transition to a contract army!

      I would not say that. In Ukraine, most units in the autumn of last year had 50-60% of contractors, and the fleet 90%. In general, training a fighter in one year is real, but not practical. Half a year retracts, and another six months to prepare for the demobilization. I would return a 2-year term as in the SA, but this is impossible, So it is better than contract soldiers. Moreover, there is even a certain competition, and not how they used to sign with anyone. And I had to suffer with him for 5 years (if he is the second).
      PS In Ukraine, there are enough "Akats" (from the reserve), especially since experimental work was carried out to modernize it (the barrel was extended to 39 calories, etc.) It is unprofitable to modernize the 122-mm caliber.
  4. fenix57
    fenix57 25 May 2013 10: 34
    "Carnation", "Hyacinth", "Acacia"
    , "Peony" - what a beautiful bouquet, what tender names, the soul sings. Until you see that these names are "carried to the masses." good
  5. Explore
    Explore 25 May 2013 11: 26
    As far as I know, the artillery divisions of SMEs began to transfer 80 mm to the hummingbird back in the 152s.
    Until recently, I thought that the Guazdiki were a thing of the past, but it turns out they still remained in some parts (for example, the 201st Military Base in the Tajikistan River).
  6. 1c-inform-city
    1c-inform-city 25 May 2013 12: 03
    The most interesting thing is that she really swims. During my service in the exercises in Prudby (they took place in the spring), the division commander ordered to wash the cars in order to see who went AWOL in the morning. So we adapted, the Karpovka River flowed nearby and the guys swam in the self-propelled village for pervachkoy. And the car is clean and there is moonshine.
    1. svp67
      svp67 25 May 2013 12: 06
      Quote: 1c-inform-city
      The most interesting thing is that she really swims.

      Why shouldn’t she swim if her base is MTLB-U ...
  7. Drwerdi
    Drwerdi 25 May 2013 13: 49
    Floats if it is new, we had ancient devices that were 20 years old (year of manufacture 70-73). If it was often transported by rail, on the platform there are 2 self-propelled guns almost back to back, fasteners break down, and with a sharp nose into the stern. We, all self-propelled guns had bent rear aft sheets and hatches, there were cracks, you can stick your hand through. The largest vehicle at the landfill is to scoop up tons of dirt from a self-propelled gun.
  8. not good
    not good 25 May 2013 14: 08
    Such simple and reliable machines cannot be disposed of, they must be preserved and stored for a long time, somewhere far from the borders, just in case. China does not even utilize the T-34.
  9. MAG
    MAG 25 May 2013 16: 28
    They came to us at the outpost, day and night, they were hollowing at the beginning, could not fall asleep, and then I got used to when they left for as long as I could not fall asleep that quietly, although there was a 120 mortar, there was no such roar from it. I climbed to the artillerymen - "let me shoot", which was sent to where Makar did not drive calves))) but then the officer left and gave the magic lever to press-POWER)))))
  10. ed65b
    ed65b 25 May 2013 17: 20
    Interestingly in the Bundeswehr they are not sawed?
  11. datur
    datur 25 May 2013 19: 08
    It’s interesting in the Bundeswehr they didn’t saw them? —Yes, they probably gave it to someone !!!!!
  12. Sonik
    Sonik 27 May 2013 00: 33
    HERE WORKS Like Carnation, although acacia may)
    1. Splin
      Splin 27 May 2013 06: 24
      Quote: Sonik
      Carnation, although it may be acacia)

      This is Acacia. The view from the commanding place near the "Carnation" is completely different. In addition, a swinging PKT above the commander's cupola is visible above the camera. The 2C1 doesn't have it. And the barrel is thicker and therefore goes beyond the body (with a smaller barrel length in calibers).
  13. ty60
    ty60 24 June 2013 23: 27
    Acacia. I spent 2 years in it
  14. GOgaRu
    GOgaRu 29 January 2015 19: 19
    Why ours cannot make the top of the armor roughened, such as the Americans or the Israelis. In a hurry, you can do so ... fall that will not seem enough. Especially when it is wet.