Military Review

Situational awareness: saving the lives of car crews

26

SAS module on board the machine. The Rheinmetall system can have automatic target recognition.



The ballistic threats, mines and roadside bombs that Western troops encountered during their recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan led to the adoption of machines and weapon systems that allow personnel to remain safe inside the armored capsule. On the one hand, this guarantees better protection, and on the other, it worsens the situational awareness (the quality of the complex perception of heterogeneous information in a single space-time volume) of the crew. Something similar was already experienced by soldiers from motorized infantry units.

The need to maintain or improve the level of situational awareness becomes even more important as the number of tasks performed in urban environments increases, where infantry need to understand the situation before the ramp or stern doors are opened. In this regard, many companies have developed optical-electronic systems that allow crews to obtain the maximum amount of visual information while being protected by armor. Other sensory components may also be added, such as shot detection systems, which not only warn personnel that their vehicle is under the gun, but also inform them of the direction and distance from which the shot occurred. Basically, situational awareness systems are trying to give the crews what they could see and hear if they kept their heads out of the car, with the added advantage that advanced sensors can give.


Selex Galileo Road Marshall sensor layout, including driver's 50 ° night field


Situational awareness: saving the lives of car crews

The British Army Mastiff, equipped with the Selex Galileo Road Marshall system. The company delivered over 1200 systems to the British Ministry of Defense


Optoelectronic systems at 360 °

The circular view is the first parameter of a good vehicle review system, which itself depends on the network, which collects data and sends it to the processor, which in turn provides an image to the crew members' screens. Most of the ubiquitous decisions are based on a multitude of sensors placed around the car or around the chassis if the car has a turret. 360 ° single all-round sensors are also available on the market, they can be cheaper and easier to install. The problem is that quite often the elements of the machine block the view, while single-touch systems do not have redundancy.

Selex Galileo has developed an integrated situational awareness kit for a vehicle called Road Marshall, which includes a family of hardware ranging from near-field awareness in the environment to RSTA (recconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition) intelligence. The system is based on a multifunctional display, which is not only a display, but also provides power to all connected systems and provides communication.

The standard model has a 10,4-inch display with a resolution of 1024x768 pixels, although the option with an integrated computer with Windows XP is also available for third-party applications. These displays have Picture in Picture mode, which is not available for smaller 8,4 inch crew displays. All sensors are connected to a single quick-change unit. For short-range surveillance applications, Selex Galileo uses its Driver Night Vision System modules, which are an uncooled thermal imager with a 52 ° x 38 ° field of view operating in the 8 - 12 micron range. They can be supplemented with day / night cameras with a field of view of 90 ° x 75 ° and sensitivity from 0,009 to 100 lux. The configurations can vary: from the driver's seat with one heat chamber and one screen to a system with a full circular 360 ° coating; This system is capable of handling up to 16 cameras. Each screen is independent, the soldiers can call the desired image from one of the cameras. The company delivered over 1200 systems to the British Ministry of Defense. All Mastiff protected vehicles are equipped with a 360 ° overview system and have three screens: at the driver, commander and landing party.

At DSEI 2013, Selex Galileo presented its new dual-channel digital thermal / color camera DNVS-4 with two fields of view, respectively 52 ° x 39 ° and 62 ° x 46,5 °. The output signal is in color video format (either Def Stan 00-82 or GigE Vision). A window cleaning module may be added to the camera. It is available either as a high-performance color day / night camera or as a monochrome low-light camera. While the previous analog version is currently in service in Australasia, Europe and the Middle East, including Saudi Arabia, where it is installed on the BMP, an order from an unnamed European NATO member has already been received for the newest digital version. The Selex Galileo Road Marshall system was integrated with sound detection tools for firing positions: Britain chose Raytheon BBN Boomerang III, and other customers chose the O1dB Metravib Pilar system.

Over the past few years, Thales UK has supplied the UK with 100 analog situational awareness systems, but a fully digital SI system was introduced at the beginning of 2011. Known as ILSA (Integrated Local Situational Awareness), the system includes a digital network with an open architecture, as well as optical-electronic sensors and displays. However, the system can accept any sensor or display that is compatible with the new British design standards Def Stan 00-82 Digital Video Distribution and Def Stan 23-09 Generic Vehicle Architecture (GVA). The first contract was immediately obtained from Force Protection Europe, under which Thales UK is responsible for the entire Foxhound electronic architecture (armored vehicle under the Ocelot trademark, chosen as part of the British requirements for a light protected patrol car).


One of the newest products of Selex Galileo is a dual channel thermal / color camera DNVS-4.



Thales VEM-2 RHS is an ILSA thermal imaging sensor, available with different fields of view


Thus, at the start of 2011, about 200 systems were ordered. ILSA guarantees a minimum delay and consists of two types of sensors, thermal cameras VEM-2 (W) and color / monochrome cameras, both small in size and weighing less than 2,5 kg. Thermal cameras run in the 8 - 12 micron range, have a horizontal field of view of 40 °, 50 ° and 90 ° and are based on a detector with a matrix of 640 x 480 pixels. The cameras have a horizontal field of view 78 ° or 96 ° and can operate in low light mode up to 0,1 lux with 480 resolution lines in color mode and 600 lines in monochrome mode, the sensor ensures human recognition in 100 meters. The images are sent to the central node, which distributes them to various displays “on demand”, thus allowing the driver, commander and gunner and the landing party to see the corresponding images on their screens. The ILSA system can accept other types of digital and analog sensors, for example, existing sights, remotely controlled combat modules, and acoustic detection systems, although the company has not yet been asked to integrate them. ILSA was also selected for Scout SV, so the system is supplied to General Dynamics UK for the demonstration phase, after which it will be manufactured from 400 to 600 machines. The configuration of the kit resembles the configuration adopted for the Foxhound machine. Sensors are mounted around the chassis, one of the two landing screens is located on the aft bulkhead so that the soldiers have a clear view of the situation behind the vehicle. Thales UK is ready to incorporate new features into its ILSA, such as automatic target detection.

She situational awareness system SAS (Situational Awareness System) from Rheinmetall has 360 ° coverage and in its basic configuration includes two modules, each consisting of three 60 ° cameras (that is, the total 180 °) and a video processing unit. The system can be adapted for all types of combat vehicles and expands to 4 modules (day and infrared optics). Single images from modules are stitched together in a processing unit to a virtual panoramic image on 360 °. The observer can select any area from the panoramic view by simply touching the monitor. In the same way, you can select the view from the four windows; they are all shown at the top of the monitor. The enhanced version provides swap functionality to support counter-attack measures. It is also possible to apply an automatic target recognition and tracking system; The intended targets within the viewed video stream are determined and automatically tracked, their data is retrieved and cyclically reported. The SAS system is mass-produced; it was installed in the Lance tower, supplied by Rheinmetall in the Spanish Marines. She also passes tests on various chassis around the world.


The first order for the Rheinmetall SAS system was an order for the Spanish marines, where the system is integrated into the Lance tower installed on Piranha machines



Zeiss Mini Sight application scheme for medium armored vehicle


The STA system (See-Through Armor) from the Israeli company Elbit Systems provides a seamless 360 ° view of the external environment of the machine and allows you to enlarge selected areas of the image. The system can support high-resolution day / night sensors from 4 to 12, providing vertical angles of -20 ° / + 30 °. Day sensors come in the form of Gigabit Ethernet standard cameras (common name for data transfer technologies in a local network with 1 Gbps speed), available with different resolutions (640 x 480, 782 x 582 or 720 x 1280). Thermal imagers based on uncooled bolometric sensors with 384 x 288 or 640 x 480 resolution are available for night conditions. Updating the day and night channels is usually estimated at 25 frames per second with a two-frame delay, although maximum 100 frames / s are achievable with day sensors. Captured images are processed by STA algorithms, which allows you to combine them into a single panoramic image 360 °. Then the image is available on up to three screens, where the operator sees the front panoramic view, selects the area of ​​interest, which he can enlarge while leaving, for example, the upper part of the screen for the rear panoramic view in order to maintain full awareness. An STA can be integrated with other sensors, such as combat control systems, warning systems, and fire control systems.

Carl Zeiss Optronics recently developed a small, stabilized Mini Sight System (MSS) platform that can accept an uncooled thermal imager and / or CCD camera, as well as an optional laser range finder. For MSS, height 250 mm and diameter 180 mm; The azimuth optics rotates 360 °, and the elevation angle is from -30 ° to + 80 °. The two-axis stabilization ensures that the target remains in the MSS field of view, the maximum angular velocity is 1,8 rad / s, whereas the stabilization error is less than 300 millrad. MSS is distinguished by motion detection algorithms, which reduces the load on the crew, especially in urban environments. On the BMP, two to three MSS are installed to cover 360 °. The mass and size of the system allows you to install the system on light armored vehicles of all types.


Developed by Carl Zeiss Optronics, the MiniSight is a stabilized platform that can accept various types of sensors.



The panoramic version of the CST “Citadel” camera family includes two cameras that give a single field of view 170 °


Copenhagen Sensor Technology (CST) is developing a complete family of situational awareness cameras to be shown at Eurosatory 2012. They are known as Citadel and are specifically designed for installation on military platforms: from light armored and reconnaissance vehicles to tanks. They are designed so that they have virtually no image delay; they can be used as an aid to the driver, providing him with an expanded front and rear view, as well as a circular view for the commander and the landing. Based on the latest generation of color CCD cameras, this high-resolution system gives you a clear picture in different conditions, from bright sunlight to low-light scenes thanks to the extended night mode. Fully hardened and low profile these cameras can operate in the temperature range from -40 ° C to + 70 ° C. The Citadel camera system comes in two basic configurations. The panoramic configuration consists of two cameras in strong metal cases. These cameras form two streams of video data that are “stitched” together into one video stream with a horizontal field of view of 170 °. The wide-angle configuration uses one wide-angle field of view with factory adjustment of the horizontal field of view from 47 ° to 112 ° depending on the specific model. Coordination is performed through a connector type MIL 38999, which allows for a simple connection with on-board video processors and monitors. These cameras can be easily integrated into retrofitted systems, and for the digital world of newly developed machines, CST offers Citadel camera models with a Gigabit Ethernet digital interface that provides high-speed video streams in accordance with either the GigE Vision standard or Def.Stan 00-82 standard. The company works closely with major European manufacturers of military vehicles and system integrators; several field trials are planned or ongoing.



The latest success of the O1dB Metraviv Pilar speaker system took place on the upgraded machines 4x4 VAB TOP of the French contingent in Afghanistan



The 01dB Metravib Pilar manual display shows the sector from which the threat emanates.


Acoustic systems for determining the shot

While most of these systems are based on acoustic sensors, one of the newest developments is based on completely different principles, on infrared focal plane technology. Known as Flash (Fast as Light Assessment of Snipers and Hostile fire), the system is produced by Hawaiian company Oceanit. An infrared sensor is a microcircuit that operates at a frequency of more than 10000 frames per second, can “see” a shot when a bullet leaves the barrel and can report at a frequency of 1 / 10 seconds the location of the shot and the type of weapons, recognizing rifle, RPG, etc. Flash is a circular camera with a fisheye lens. According to Oceanit, the Flash system has a detection range of over a kilometer with a detection probability of more than 99% and a false response rate of less than 0,1%. These characteristics are obtained by using algorithms that allow us to distinguish a flash from an instrument and a flash reflected from a shiny surface. Flash technology is used to develop the HFDS (Hostile Fire Detection System) for the US Army, which can be installed on vehicles and helicopters. Unfortunately, very little information has been given on this development.

Raytheon BBN Technologies Boomerang III is undoubtedly one of the most widely used acoustic detection systems. At different levels deployed over 10000 such systems. The last contract from the US Army was issued in October 2011 of the year and includes both new systems and spare parts. It operates at speeds up to 95 km / h and guarantees detection over 95% of supersonic projectiles passing within a radius of 30 meters from the microphone mast. The accuracy in azimuth and elevation is more than 2,5 °, and the error in range is ± 10%, the results are shown for one and a half seconds. BBN does not disclose its customers, but the UK, at least, is one of them, the system is integrated into situational awareness systems installed on most of the machines in Afghanistan.



Rheinmetall’s sniper detection system has gone through the entire development phase and is now ready for mass production.


Another well-known system is Pilar Mk-IIw from the French company 01dB Metravib, more than 1000 of these systems were sold to 20 countries in various configurations. Two types are available: a separate system and integrated with the combat module. The system is able to detect any 5,56 - 20 mm ammunition, single or shot out, with or without a silencer, as well as an RPG or mortar shell. The reaction time is two seconds, the accuracy in azimuth is ± 2 ° when the vehicle is stationary and ± 5 ° in motion, the accuracy in elevation ± 5 °. The accuracy of determining the distance varies from ± 10% to ± 20%, the detection range is about 1500 m. The system consists of a set of microphones, an interface and a data acquisition module, a filter for determining offensive fire, a display unit (usually a computer with increased reliability) running on the software securing shotguard, and patch cables. The man-machine interface includes two modes: offensive fire in an urban area and all types of shots in an open area. In the integrated version, Pilar Mk-IIw can direct the combat module directly to a detected threat or can provide data on the location of the threat to the battle management system, which allows the transfer of information about the threat along the command chain. This decision was taken by Norway and Singapore. Among the most recent contracts, 01dB Metravib received an order for 80 kits under the Slate designation for the French army for installation on VAB 4x4 vehicles equipped with a Kongsberg M151 Protector combat module. The systems are fully integrated, the tower turns either instantly or with a delay in order to occupy a more advantageous tactical position with the machine. The systems were delivered at the end of 2011, and were immediately sent to Afghanistan.

Rheinmetall Defense has also developed an acoustic sensor for ASLS (Acoustic Sniper Locating System) vehicles, consisting of eight microphones and a computer system that provides automatic detection with an angular accuracy of less than 2 ° in the parking lot and 5 ° in motion. Range accuracy is ± 10%, and the maximum range by 20% exceeds the range of the weapon firing at the vehicle. The built-in orientation sensor provides compensation for the movement of the machine, allowing you to keep the direction on the shooting relative to the direction on the display. The system also provides vertical angles (all data is updated every one and a half second), and the coverage angles are in azimuth 360 ° and in elevation 180 °. Wireless data transmission between the sensor, control unit and display ensures seamless system installation. In addition, when operating as a separate solution, the ASLS can be interfaced with the SAS system from Rheinmetall, as well as with a remotely controlled combat module for its automatic rotation in the direction of the threat. The system is ready for production, prototypes are available that are installed on various machines and towers that are being tested in tenders around the world.

Thales UK’s Vmass (Vehicle Mounted Acoustic Sensor System) speaker system provides 360 ° coverage using three microphones installed at different points in the car and allows you to simultaneously track multiple sources. The accuracy of the system in azimuth is less than 2 ° and in the vertical direction less than 4 °. Its detection range of small arms is equal to the actual range of the weapon itself. The Vmass system is capable of detecting mortar fire at ranges over 5 km, the main battle tank over 10 km and a helicopter over 7 km.

Materials used:
Armada International 3 / 2013
www.rheinmetall-defence.com
www.selexgalileo.com
www.cassidian.com
www.01db-metravib.com
Author:
26 comments
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  1. Alexey Prikazchikov
    Alexey Prikazchikov April 14 2014 09: 47 New
    +4
    I look at all this and sob the hunt. We do not just have something like this in the sun, but in the development, too, most likely.
    1. abc_alex
      abc_alex April 14 2014 11: 05 New
      -2
      Our army does not perform police functions. And all these systems are the result of precisely such operations. I believe that a machine hung with such electronics is not suitable for a classic combined arms battle. These are all machines for punitive and police actions.

      We need to look for this not in the Armed Forces, but rather in the Internal Affairs Ministry.
      1. Professor
        Professor April 14 2014 12: 49 New
        +5
        Quote: abc_alex
        Our army does not perform police functions. And all these systems are the result of precisely such operations.

        Remind about the North Caucasus?
      2. tchoni
        tchoni April 14 2014 13: 37 New
        +3
        why?
        Well, I’m wondering what’s good, because it’s certainly not suitable for combined arms combat.
        The most important thing about many good things is:
        About tanks, for example, they say they are slow-moving and costly;
        About assault rifles (self-loading rifles) - they say they shoot a lot and inaccurately - there are no ammunition;
        About planes - they say fragile and not kosher - but they are battleships uhh.
        About radio communication - the identity of the canoe - I’m unnecessary, it’s convenient for wiretapping, than flags and wires do not suit you, etc. etc.
        "I had one like that, I made all the wings. I wanted to fly - so I put him on a barrel of gunpowder - let him fly!"
    2. cosmos111
      cosmos111 April 14 2014 11: 30 New
      +2
      Quote: Alexey Prikazchikov
      I look at all this and sob the hunt.

      Alexey is similar !!!!!
      if such systems were in Chechnya in the 1 and 2 and now in S.Kavkze, how many THOUSANDS of soldiers' lives could be saved !!!
      Quote: abc_alex
      us the army does not perform police functions.

      then in the VV, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, although for the army, such systems are vital !!!
    3. Val_y
      Val_y April 14 2014 12: 45 New
      -3
      Come on, and the Shroud system, eh? Then the "Arena" system, then "Drozd". soldier
      1. tchoni
        tchoni April 14 2014 13: 40 New
        +2
        Gentlemen, do not confuse cold with soft. The systems you named serve to neutralize threats in an automatic mode, and have little effect on increasing situational awareness. The same Arena will intercept subsonic ammunition, but will not give you a bit of information about where the shot was fired from, which broke your triplex.
    4. uwzek
      uwzek April 14 2014 17: 22 New
      +1
      And what do you think "Armata" drives (and it already drives, and the T-95 was rolling 15 years ago) when its crew is in an armored capsule below the level of the tower?
      1. tchoni
        tchoni April 14 2014 20: 58 New
        +1
        on Armata there are more questions than answers - all at the level of conjecture. But if there is a similar system for informing the crew about the external situation + equipment for determining the direction of the shot (preferably at least in the TBTR and MBT versions) - this is a set-off!
      2. cosmos111
        cosmos111 April 14 2014 21: 12 New
        +1
        Quote: uwzek
        And what do you think "Armata" drives (and it already drives, and the T-95 was rolling 15 years ago) when its crew is in an armored capsule below the level of the tower


        this is the main question ????
        if not having EQUIPMENT and domestic firms, this equipment is producing !!!! ((((
        to make for the uninhabited tower of the MBT module-integrated perception of heterogeneous information in a single spatio-temporal volume by the crew ???))))
        not who, from foreign firms, will not sell such systems to us, but there are NO their developments ((((
  2. svp67
    svp67 April 14 2014 12: 00 New
    +1
    Such systems are LIFELY necessary, the only thing that I would advise designers is that external cameras need to be made the most simple, quick-changeable and protected or with devices for combating dirt and dust, and the entire more or less important part should be hidden under armor ...
  3. Gray 43
    Gray 43 April 14 2014 12: 08 New
    +1
    It is necessary for the Russian military-industrial complex to take a closer look at such developments, I am sure that industrialists will be able to do better and cheaper than Russian weapons have always been famous for
  4. Walking
    Walking April 14 2014 13: 24 New
    0
    The systems, of course, seem to be good, but the question is how they will behave in a real battle, not against yesterday's shepherds, but against well-trained fighters.
  5. tchoni
    tchoni April 14 2014 13: 46 New
    0
    A test for lovers of such things. Take any toy - a simulator with a first-person view (any - mean any, although in a tank simulator this is more visual, but not important). Put the first-person view (from the cockpit), turn off the tactical map and tips and try to complete a mission of medium difficulty. Look at the result. Then you try to do the same by changing views depending on the situation and using a tactical map. Then compare the effectiveness.
  6. kocclissi
    kocclissi April 14 2014 16: 53 New
    0
    How not to get infected during anything during sexual intercourse: Put on a condom, wrap it with tape, wire, then pour concrete on it! And most importantly, no sexual intercourse ........
  7. wanderer_032
    wanderer_032 April 14 2014 17: 15 New
    +1
    Very necessary devices for armored vehicles.
    Money probably stands like the car itself. We will not see them soon on our armor, and therefore we train our ears and eyes.
    1. uwzek
      uwzek April 14 2014 17: 33 New
      0
      These devices are MUCH cheaper than a tank. By the way, for use in tank biathlon competitions (if there are any), a limited series of T-72B3 with rear-view cameras (there is still a number of lotions) is available ...
  8. 52
    52 April 14 2014 17: 50 New
    +1
    Quote: tchoni
    why?
    Well, I’m wondering what’s good, because it’s certainly not suitable for combined arms combat.
    The most important thing about many good things is:
    About tanks, for example, they say they are slow-moving and costly;
    About assault rifles (self-loading rifles) - they say they shoot a lot and inaccurately - there are no ammunition;
    About planes - they say fragile and not kosher - but they are battleships uhh.
    About radio communication - the identity of the canoe - I’m unnecessary, it’s convenient for wiretapping, than flags and wires do not suit you, etc. etc.
    "I had one like that, I made all the wings. I wanted to fly - so I put him on a barrel of gunpowder - let him fly!"

    But this is a real direction. In their years, German tankers gained the upper hand not at the expense of super technology, but precisely at the expense of information support and the interaction of all structures of the unit. I WANT US IN THE ARMY THE SAME, BUT ONLY BETTER!
    1. cosmos111
      cosmos111 April 14 2014 18: 42 New
      -1
      Quote: 52gim
      . In their years, German tankers did not get the upper hand due to super technology

      especially in the initial period of the war 41-42 years (((
      when their Pz 1,3,4 -x lost outright T-34 and KV !!!
      1. tchoni
        tchoni April 14 2014 21: 02 New
        +1
        Tip. Take a trip to the cuban and beg the ranger to put you in the place of the Pz-3 commander, and then transfer to the place of the same T-34-76 commander - I assure you the difference is amazing. anyway, from the Lada in an armored personnel carrier (I mean visibility), the HF, the same presence of a separate commander did not save. Because the only available surveillance tool is a device similar to the T-34 + slit around the perimeter. So depending on what to shield with technical excellence: meters liters kilometers or ease of use.
        1. cosmos111
          cosmos111 April 14 2014 22: 02 New
          0
          [quote = tchoni] I mean visibility [/ quote]

          but I had situational awareness !!!!
          it
          1.Air reconnaissance: Focke-Wulf FW.189, "frame" ...
          2. Pz -3,4 tanks: Fu-5 shortwave radio transmitters or Fu-2 radio transmitters were installed ...
          3.good visibility of the tank + "commander's cupola" .... So depending on what to shield with technical perfection: meters liters kilometers or convenience is used [/ quote]

          in war, more importantly technical excellence or combat effectiveness, maintainability, technologist
          Quality in mass production !!!!
          I believe that the first is combat effectiveness ...
          so that the T-34, it was utterly higher than German tanks !!!
  9. Logos
    Logos April 14 2014 18: 40 New
    0
    It is strange to hear speculations about the high cost of military equipment and systems. For the armies of post-industrial states, it is not the cost and complexity of equipment that matters, but the life of each ordinary soldier.
    For a very simple reason: the birth rate in these countries is very bad, because the argument "don't spare the soldiers, women still give birth" is no longer valid - today's women do not want to give birth and any war with more or less high human losses will easily turn into a demographic catastrophe for the country. Therefore, the high cost and complexity of the system does not matter, it matters how much it will help to reduce losses when performing a combat mission
    1. wanderer_032
      wanderer_032 April 14 2014 20: 50 New
      +1
      Quote: Logos
      It is strange to hear speculations about the high cost of military equipment and systems.

      Of course, it’s strange to hear about it if you don’t even have an idea how much these toys cost for 1 unit.
      But all this is paid not by oligarchs and thieving officials, but ordinary people from their own pockets in the form of taxes. So many requisitions hang on ordinary people. Housing and communal services, transport, education of children, payment of medical services (you can’t talk about compulsory medical insurance), food and clothing + clothes for children, property and land taxes, transport taxes, all kinds of charges for the repair of everything and everything, excise state taxes ( which manufacturers include in the price of goods or services if an excise tax has been introduced for this), income tax on salary (13%) and much more.
      The question is, why are we still alive and not dead from such loads without any war?
      Give it to me, give it to me ...
      Myself for life is nothing left.
      And it all goes on without end, a bloody whirlpool.
      And in the meantime, the army does not have them..rena of modern technology and weapons.
      Where does it all go? If we all pay so much for everything.
      Even according to the roughest estimates for these sr-va, our army and navy should have this ...
      That our probable opponents should hiccup loudly and fight in their pants from just one mention of our aircraft.
      But something is not noticeable.
      In the days of the USSR, we had this ... that made all of our potential opponents hiccup and shake loudly.
      And education was free for USSR citizens as well as medicine and much more. And for housing and communal services they paid a penny ... And taxes were not a burden.
      1. cosmos111
        cosmos111 April 14 2014 22: 22 New
        0
        Quote: wanderer_032
        And in the meantime, the army does not have them..rena of modern technology and weapons

        Quote: wanderer_032
        Even according to the roughest estimates for these sr-va, our army and navy should have this ..

        Quote: wanderer_032
        In the days of the USSR, we had this ... that made all of our potential opponents hiccup and shake loudly.


        well said good , for all 100%, I agree with each word ((((
    2. Professor
      Professor April 15 2014 10: 08 New
      0
      Quote: Logos
      For a very simple reason: the birth rate in these countries is very bad, because the argument "don't spare the soldiers, women still give birth" is no longer valid - today's women do not want to give birth and any war with more or less high human losses will easily turn into a demographic catastrophe for the country. Therefore, the high cost and complexity of the system does not matter, it matters how much it will help to reduce losses when performing a combat mission

      Nonsense. In the United States, fertility is higher than in Russia. Your theory collapses before our eyes.
  10. Logos
    Logos April 14 2014 18: 55 New
    0
    Quote: cosmos111
    Quote: 52gim
    . In their years, German tankers did not get the upper hand due to super technology

    especially in the initial period of the war 41-42 years (((
    when their Pz 1,3,4 -x lost outright T-34 and KV !!!

    Yeah, especially they "outright lost" in the largest tank battle in the Second World War near Dubno http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B0_%D0 % B7% D0% B0_% D0% 94%
    D1%83%D0%B1%D0%BD%D0%BE_%E2%80%94_%D0%9B%D1%83%D1%86%D0%BA_%E2%80%94_%D0%91%D1%8
    0%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%8B

    I see that Fursenko’s efforts in the reform of education were not wasted
    1. cosmos111
      cosmos111 April 14 2014 22: 50 New
      0
      Quote: cosmos111
      in war, more importantly technical excellence or combat effectiveness, maintainability, technologist
      Quality in mass production !!!!
      I believe that the first is combat effectiveness ...
      so that T-34, in it were utterly higher than German tanks !!

      here is my answer, which is incomprehensible ???
  11. Logos
    Logos April 14 2014 22: 29 New
    0
    Quote: wanderer_032
    Quote: Logos
    It is strange to hear speculations about the high cost of military equipment and systems.

    But all this is paid not by oligarchs and thieving officials, but ordinary people from their own pockets in the form of taxes. So many requisitions hang on ordinary people. Housing and communal services, transport, education of children, payment of medical services (you can’t talk about compulsory medical insurance), food and clothing + clothes for children, property and land taxes, transport taxes, all kinds of charges for the repair of everything and everything, excise state taxes ( which manufacturers include in the price of goods or services if an excise tax has been introduced for this), income tax on salary (13%) and much more.
    The question is, why are we still alive and not dead from such loads without any war?
    Give it to me, give it to me ...
    Myself for life is nothing left.
    And it all goes on without end, a bloody whirlpool.
    And in the meantime, the army does not have them..rena of modern technology and weapons.
    Where does it all go? If we all pay so much for everything.

    I do not agree with your opinion. Since the foundation of the Russian economy is the resource-mining sector and not a developed industry or service sector, it pays for all these pleasures in oil and gas wells, and not in the pocket of a simple taxpayer, who, along with bureaucrats or oligarchs, only parasitizes on the country's resources. It sounds very unpleasant, but that’s how it is.
    1. cosmos111
      cosmos111 April 14 2014 22: 54 New
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      Quote: Logos
      I do not agree with your opinion. Since the foundation of the Russian economy is the resource-mining sector and not the developed industry

      I don’t agree with your opinion ....

      I am offended that my country from the GREAT INDUSTRIAL POWER-turned into a raw materials appendage of the West .....

      there is little hope, but there is that in connection with the sanctions of the west of Russia will begin to industrialize its industry !!!!
  12. Morgan
    Morgan April 14 2014 23: 30 New
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    Interestingly, and infantry jammers, REDUCING the situational awareness of enemy crews will not be cheaper? Is it more efficient to blind an MBT or BMP than with a grenade under the tracks? And finally, the technique, sharpened by sophisticated surveillance devices, will it not lose combat capability when incapacitating them with massive cheap (and at least expensive) countermeasures?
  13. Russian 77
    Russian 77 April 15 2014 00: 35 New
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    It is a pity that there were no such mikrofoniks on the Maidan, but in general the cars for the most part are not worth the money spent (well, only against the demonstrators, then it seems a little too much ... I forgot about the partisans))) it would be interesting to see the Afghan report - how did this work there recording studio
  14. Logos
    Logos April 15 2014 17: 02 New
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    Quote: Morgan
    Interestingly, and infantry jammers, REDUCING the situational awareness of enemy crews will not be cheaper? Is it more efficient to blind an MBT or BMP than with a grenade under the tracks? And finally, the technique, sharpened by sophisticated surveillance devices, will it not lose combat capability when incapacitating them with massive cheap (and at least expensive) countermeasures?

    One thing I know for sure: if instead of a video camera a soldier’s head sticks out of a car’s hatch, it’s much more efficient to blind and kill him than a video camera. And from the loss of a soldier, combat effectiveness will fall more than from the loss of a pair of cameras. Of course, you don’t have to stick your head out and remain a blind mole, then the probability of losing the combat vehicle itself along with the crew will greatly increase

    As for opposition, i.e. "flashing" - surveillance cameras: the very fact of such "flashing" will immediately give away the intentions of the attackers and give the crew a head start for defense. An alternative to video cameras is to get an RPG grenade from there instead of being blinded by the jammer, from where, if there were cameras of a good surveillance system, this grenade would simply be impossible to unnoticed
  15. beifall
    beifall April 19 2014 17: 02 New
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    Interesting article!
  16. waggish
    waggish 19 July 2014 17: 29 New
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    Yes competently !!!!!!!!!! 111