Even after Ukraine reunited with Russia, and Moscow's sovereigns repelled foreigners' attempts to re-enslave the country, the situation in these parts remained unstable. Let me remind you, under the rule of Moscow in the XVII century. departed only Left Bank of the Dnieper and the Kiev region. The right bank was divided between Turkey and Poland, during the wars between them the border shifted. The Crimean Tatars were constantly attacked the Polish and Russian regions - the slave mining was their main business. And the peasants from the Polish regions moved to the Russian, it was easier and safer to live here.
But the Western powers did not forget the ideas set forth by Possevino as early as 1582. It is very important to tear Ukraine away from it in order to undermine Russia's power. They persistently sought out traitors, and those who seek will always find them. The most striking of these figures was Ivan Mazepa. More precisely, Jan - he was a Pole, a gentleman. Received an excellent education in a Jesuit college, served at the court of King Jan Casimir. Then it seemed more profitable to go to a private retinue of one of the magnates. But he was too carried away by the owner's wife, he caught them in bed. Pan was good-natured, did not kill. Instead, he ordered Mazepa to be stripped naked, smeared with pitch, tied up in feathers, tied backwards to the horse and put on the road.
After such a shame, it was impossible to remain in the gentry environment, and he went to the Cossacks. His education and utter unprincipledness turned out to be two qualities due to which Mazepa managed to occupy a prominent position. He attached himself to Hetman Doroshenko, who surrendered under the authority of the Turkish Sultan, became with him the general clerk (chief of staff). In 1674, Russian and Ukrainian troops gathered on Doroshenko. He sent Mazepa with a secret letter to Istanbul asking for help. But he did not reach. The clerk was intercepted in the steppes by the Cossacks, handed over to the royal governors. The clerk was taken to Moscow. He was interrogated by the first adviser to the king, the boyar Matveyev, and he was over-recruited. Mazepa committed another betrayal, agreed to work for the Russians.
After the surrender of Doroshenko, he began to serve in the rate of Hetman Samoilovich. He managed to take the post of general captain. Particularly different in terms of intrigue and slander. If someone needed to dig undermining, Mazepa could do it better than others. And in 1682 the princess Sophia and her favorite Golitsyn came to power. With Samoylovich he feuded. He opposed the entry of Russia into the "Holy League" - an alliance with Rome, Austria and Venice, opposed the entry into the war with Turkey. In 1687, in spite of any objections, the rulers undertook a campaign against the Crimea, and Samoilovich pointed out Golitsyn’s blunders. But the campaign failed, and he decided to shift the blame on Samoilovich.
Conspired with Mazepa - the general ésaul composed a denunciation that the hetman was a traitor. He was arrested and exiled to Siberia. And the fruits of the slanderers divided. Golitsyn single-handedly, without an elected Rada, set the new hetman Mazepa. For this, Mazepa dumped 100 Golitsyn X thousand chervonets unprecedented - the Ukrainian military treasury and personal wealth of Samoylovich. They had other common interests. Sophia and Golitsyn were staunch "Westerners", they introduced reforms along the lines of Poland, and launched Jesuits into Russia. They gave foreigners all sorts of privileges. The plan was also discussed of putting Sophia Sylvester Medvedev, the patriarch of the spiritual father, he was preparing the introduction of a church union in Russia.
In the critical summer of 1689, a coup was planned, the removal of Tsarevich Peter. At that moment, diplomats from different powers gathered in Moscow. Prikatil and Mazepa. He negotiated with the Jesuit and the spy de Neuville, agreed that it would be better for Ukraine to go under the auspices of Poland. Mazepa agreed with this, and Golitsyn considered Ukraine to be an acceptable price for help in seizing the throne. But in the events that had been played, the patriotic party, which rallied around Peter, took the upper hand. By the first act of the new government, the Jesuits were expelled from the country. Uniate Medvedev was executed, Golitsyn was exiled.
But Mazepa managed to stay away from repression. Moreover, he liked the young Peter of European education, culture, etiquette. He performed well in the Azov campaigns. Turkish fortresses on the Dnieper took voivode Sheremetev, but Mazepa was able to show his important role. Peter trusted him, put under his management "Sloboda Ukraine" - Kharkov, Raisin, Bakhmut, Chuguev. Previously, these places did not belong to the Ukrainian, but to the Moscow possessions, were subordinate to the Belgorod voevode.
Although the hetman maintained secret contacts with the same Jesuits, with the Poles. And the Northern War gave him hope to realize the treacherous plans. Karl XII subordinated Poland, put his protege Stanislav Leschinsky on the throne and moved on to Russia. Mazepa calculated that the right moment had arrived. He assured the Swedish king that all of Ukraine would spread to his side, ensure the supply of the army, and expose the Cossack army. It is because of this that Karl turned east.
But such views were not shared by all the leaders of the Cossacks. Peter was informed about the betrayal by Colonels Iskra and Kochubey. Although the king still recklessly trusted hetman and gave him both. Colonels were executed. Mazepa had the opportunity to freely prepare for treason. He collected treasury and large supplies for the Swedes in his capital Baturin. And he led the Ukrainian shelves to Karl. However, all his calculations fell to dust. When Mazepa announced that he had to fight against the Russians, his army was stunned. Outraged and gushed away. The hetman left only 2 thousand mercenaries, Serdyuk, personal guard.
All Ukraine turned away from him. And the best propaganda material against him was the announcement of letters captured in Baturin - in which the hetman agreed to citizenship of Poland. This is not what the Ukrainians wanted. Cossacks and peasants launched a guerrilla war against the Swedes. When Leshchinsky spoke with Poles to join up with Karl, he was defeated with the active help of the local population. The leader of the right-bank Cossacks Paly, who rebelled against the Polish authorities, also went over to the tsar's side.
Mazepa managed to fool the heads and lure only the Cossacks to Charles XII. They suddenly attacked the Russian garrisons, led to the king of 60 prisoners. The Swedes paid them a reward for 20 thalers. Mazepa himself added more on 10. In general, it turned out - according to 30 silversmiths. But further attacks stopped them. In the next battle, the Cossacks ran into large forces and were defeated. The royal troops marched on the Sich, took by storm and burned it. The surviving Cossacks fled abroad. And after the battle of Poltava, together with the Swedish king, Mazepa had to flee. His name became synonymous with a vile traitor, the Church betrayed him anathema, and Peter ordered him to make for him a huge iron medal of Judah - “reward” if caught. Not caught, he soon died. The assistant to Mazepa Orlik became the Ukrainian "hetman in exile" - but he naturalized in the Ottoman Empire, "freaked out" by adopting Islam.
And the tsar made Ivan Skoropadsky as hetman. But he no longer ruled alone. The Little Russian Collegium (an analogue of the ministry) was established from 3 Russian and 3 Ukrainian officials. After the death of Skoropadsky, Peter completely abolished the post of hetman. Although Ukraine retained significant autonomy, its own laws, and a "regimental" administrative structure. As for the emigrants - Zaporozhians and Mazepa, they asked to become citizens of the Crimean Khan. They were allowed to build a new Sich in Aleshki, in the lower reaches of the Dnieper. But their position turned out to be unenviable. They were forced to go on campaigns without pay with the Crimeans, send people to build and repair fortresses, Tatars and Nogais stole their livestock, horses, and the nobles extorted huge bribes. They worked part-time for bread from rich merchants and the same nobles. In the Cossack songs, the emigration was recalled as a hard labor: "Oh, Oleshki, we will be noble to you and that dashing day and that dashing year, oh, we will daunt your disguise."
Zaporozhtsy repeatedly appealed to the Russian tsars, asking back under the authority of Russia. Anna Ivanovna granted their request. She forgave former treason, granted former territories of the Sich for settlement, confirmed traditional rights and liberties - including full self-government. In Ukraine, the hetman's post has also recovered. First, he was taken by the hero of several wars, Daniel the Apostle. And then they brought to St. Petersburg a church chanter with a unique voice, the Poltava Cossack Alexei Rozum. The future Empress Elizaveta Petrovna fell in love with him. When she ascended the throne, Alexey became her morganatic spouse, Count Razumovsky. His younger brother Cyril was sent to study abroad, he received an excellent education at several universities. Upon his return, he was appointed President of the Russian Academy of Sciences - and in addition, he became the hetman of Ukraine.
Zaporozhye and registry Ukrainian Cossacks performed well in several wars waged by Russia. But in general, autonomy did not benefit them. The energetic Empress Catherine II undertook to bring order to the loose state. She sent a new chairman of the Little Russian College, General PA, to Ukraine. Rumyantsev. He found a catastrophic picture - the hetman Razumovsky lived in St. Petersburg and launched the local affairs altogether. Colonels and centurions (in Ukraine these were the heads of administrative regions turned into hereditary princes of the emperor. They mercilessly exploited their subjects, executed and pardoned of their will, even fought with each other!
A rich foreman stood out from the Cossacks, she only cared about her household, and did not know about any service. And the poor were ruined and could not serve. Her wages were appropriated by their superiors; they had to labor on them. With the help of the Little Russian Cossacks, Rumyantsev failed to establish even mail in Ukraine. Well, Zaporozhye New Sich has become a real abscess. In contrast to the Old Sich, she was no longer the "knighthood fraternity." Here, too, the foreman grew rich, owned huge herds of cattle, herds of horses. And the ordinary "siroma" worked on the foreman or frankly robbed, trades smuggling (after all, the Cossacks themselves guarded the border). Orders to find those guilty descended on the brakes, since the foreman was in proportion. Sich also became a “collective feudal lord”, received runaway peasants, settled on its lands, but took high fees from them.
The Empress and her administration tried to call the Cossacks to order, Catherine abolished the electoral self-government, in which the same persons bossed the same. But the top of the Sich, led by the ataman Kalnyshevsky, defiantly violated the decree, held regular elections. Arriving in St. Petersburg, they were intimidated - “do you need us or not?” Hinting that Cossacks can go to the Turks or Tatars. Kalnyshevsky received Turkish emissaries, allowed them to speak in front of the Cossacks, negotiated - in general, he himself was not a traitor, but lightly tried to blackmail the government, bargain for additional benefits.
These processes marked the end of the autonomy of Ukraine. The Little Russian Cossack army was disbanded, hussar and pikiners were created on the basis of the Cossack regiments. In 1775, the Zaporizhian Sich was abolished. This time without defeat and without blood. Kalnyshevsky and his two assistants, who became too impudent in their relations with the empress, were sent to captivity in monasteries. The rest of the Cossacks were allowed to settle in the same places or go anywhere.
Some of them wished to preserve the traditions of Zaporozhye, remain an army - they called themselves Kosh of the True Cossacks, confirmed this loyalty in the battles and received extensive awards in the Kuban. Others still went abroad, were transferred to the citizenship of Turkey, formed the Transdanian Sich. But again they didn’t take root among the “basurman”. In a few waves - in 1794, 1807, 1827, they returned to Russia. The last batch was already received by Nicholas I. He said to the Cossacks: “God will forgive you, the Fatherland forgives and I forgive. I know what kind of people you are ”(they justified the trust, in the very first battle, right before the king’s eyes, 10 people deserved St. George's crosses).
It should be noted that a significant part of Ukraine remained under Polish rule, and the local population accounted for very hard. Landlord arbitrariness was much harder than in Russia, persecution of Orthodoxy was added. In 1768, on the right bank of the Dnieper, a powerful uprising of Zheleznyak and Gonty broke out. Russia at that time was considered an ally of the Polish king Stanislav Ponyatovsky, helped to suppress the rebellion. Although the attitude towards the rebels was very different. The prisoners were divided. Half of them, led by Zheleznyak, went to the Russians — they were sent to Siberia, enlisted there for service, and they formed a new regiment of the Trans-Baikal Cossack Army. The other half, led by Gonta, went to the Poles - they skinned them alive.
And the Russian monarchs, despite the help in suppressing the uprising, tried to protect the rights of fellow believers. In the same 1768, the gentry launched another persecution of Orthodoxy, a campaign to seize temples and monasteries. Catherine II presented an ultimatum - to stop persecution, to equate the rights of the Orthodox with the Catholics. Diet categorically opposed. But Poland was no longer the same as in the last century. The Russian ambassador in Warsaw, General Repnin, came to the Sejm with soldiers, arrested four of the most ardent Russophobes, the rest turned tails and accepted the ultimatum. However, the lords supported France and the Vatican, sent money, weapon, military units. Polish aristocrats constituted a “confederation,” declared the Sejm and the King declared overthrown. Decided to fight.
Well, to protect the rights of Ukrainians Catherine sent troops. Confederate defeated. With Prussia and Austria-Hungary agreed on the first partition of Poland. No, the pans did not calm down, the West again supported them, helped to form troops and set them on Russia. This caused new cruel wars, and as a result - the second and third sections of Poland. Belarus, Lithuania and a large part of Ukraine — the Right Bank of the Dnieper, Podolia, and Volyn — came under the authority of the Russian tsars. Although the most western regions, Carpathian and Transcarpathian, in the course of the divisions went to another empire, Austria-Hungary.
As for the areas that have become part of our country, now there is no autonomy for them. On the contrary, Catherine II sought unification and extended to the whole of Ukraine the general laws of the Russian Empire, including serfdom. The current "yellow-blakytnye" nationalists interpret this as the "enslavement" of Ukraine. Although it is too much stretch. "Attached to the ground" was only a part of local residents, about 800 thousand people. The rest maintained the status of state (free) peasants, townspeople, Cossacks. A significant increase in serfs was due to the annexation of the Polish regions - where the peasants, as they were serfs, remained.
And serfdom itself in Russia was much softer than in Poland. However, and softer orders on the "free" Ukraine, when she remained under the hetman's self-government. After all, there, any colonel or centurion could screw up to death the disagreeable peasant and servant. There was no national discrimination in the Russian Empire. What kind of discrimination is there, if the Chancellor and Grand Duke Alexander Andreevich Bezborodko, who has not learned to speak Russian, led the entire foreign policy of our state? His favorite expression was: “Yak Vono, the mother of the Empress, tell me, do not give up so much ...” Ukrainian Cossacks acquired awards, officer ranks, and became Russian noblemen. Among the lower ranks, thorough and conscientious Ukrainian non-commissioned officers were highly respected and respected.
By the way, with “Mother Catherine,” our country won wars not only with Poland. Twice she routed the Ottoman Empire. She took from her all the Northern Black Sea coast, the land between the Bug and the Dniester. New cities of Kherson, Nikolaev, Odessa were built here. However, to Ukraine (that is, Little Russia), these territories had nothing to do. Before they belonged not to the Ukrainians, but to the Turks and the Nogais. When joining Russia, this region received a special status. He was not attached to the Ukraine, and called Novorossia. The population here was mixed. The generals and officers who received the estates on the conquered lands transferred the peasants from their Russian estates here. Retired soldiers and sailors settled. There were many immigrants from neighboring Moldova. Emigrants from the countries subject to the Turks flowed - Bulgarians, Serbs, Greeks, Albanians (Arnauts). Jewish merchants came and arranged. Of course, many Ukrainians were added - in the new big cities and ports there was a place and a job for everyone.
And in the Crimean Khanate our troops entered 1771, occupied key fortresses and put an end to Tatar raids that had devastated Russian and Ukrainian lands for more than 250 years. In 1774, the Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhi peace treaty was concluded with Turkey. The sultan had to give up power over the Crimea, the khanate was declared independent. Khan Sahib-Girey passed under the patronage of Russia. But the Turkish party was not asleep. Sahib was overthrown by his brother Devlet Giray, massacred Christians. In March, 1777 was. Russian troops again stormed the Crimea, put the third brother, Shagin-Giray, on the throne. But in October, he was overthrown by his fourth brother, Selim Giray. Again there was a massacre of Christians, Russian troops were again introduced, smashed Selim. Shagin was returned to the throne, but in 1782, another uprising rose against him.
He fled to the Russians. The Empress got tired of this whistle, and she agreed - let Shagin-Girey finally give Crimea to Russia. Our soldiers Cossacks attacked them again and took Perekop, Shagin returned to Bakhchisarai. He made an official statement that he did not want to be the khan of "such an insidious people." And on April 8, 1783, the manifesto of Catherine II followed - “in view of the troublesome actions of the Tatars,” the annexation of Crimea, Taman and the Kuban Territory to Russia was proclaimed. Crimea did not have the slightest relation to Ukraine at that era - and its incorporation into the Russian Empire did not at all mean joining the Little Russian Territory. He was on his own. Indigenous people were considered Tatars. In ancient times, many Greeks and Armenians lived in Crimean cities. And in Sevastopol, the main base of the Russian Black Sea fleet, under the leadership of the holy righteous Fedor Ushakov, the construction of ships began. Both Russian and Ukrainian officers, sailors, soldiers, artisans flowed here in a multitude.