After a long break, Russia is taking steps to revive its navy. Contracts have already been signed for the construction of more than 40 ships and submarines, about half of which are already under construction. According to existing plans, over the next few years, the Russian Navy will receive several dozen ships, submarines and auxiliary vessels each year. The focus is now on the construction of guard ships of the near and far sea zone, as well as multi-purpose nuclear submarines and strategic submarine-launched missile carriers.
Despite the limited capabilities, the military department and the leadership of the shipbuilding industry should already take into account the prospects for the development of the Navy. One of the most difficult issues in this area is the creation and operation of ship groups capable of operating in the ocean zone. Now such capabilities of the Russian Navy are limited, since the number of ships capable of solving various tasks at a great distance from the bases is small. Of the existing surface ships in the ocean zone, only the Admiral of the Soviet Union Kuznets fleet, the nuclear-powered nuclear cruiser Peter the Great, three 1164 Atlant cruisers and nine large anti-submarine ships 1155 and 11551 Frigate can operate.
It is not difficult to guess that all the available ships of the ocean zone will remain in service in the foreseeable future. However, the moral and material obsolescence of equipment, equipment and weapons will require taking appropriate measures. It is already known about the plans of the Navy to modernize existing ships. As expected, the planned repair and upgrade of the ships will preserve or even increase their potential.
Now in the Russian Navy there is only one aircraft-carrying cruiser - “Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov”. Construction of new ships of this class is not planned yet, as a result of which timely modernization of the only available cruiser is required. Several years ago it became known that in the middle of the current decade (according to other data, in the second half of it) the aircraft carrying cruiser Admiral Kuznetsov would be docked for repair and modernization. According to reports, unused Granit missile launchers are being dismantled from the ship, which will increase the volume of aircraft and other payloads. In addition, it is possible that the composition of anti-aircraft weapons will be changed. The exact dates of commencement of work have not yet called.
While the “Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov” is waiting for the fleet command to determine the repair time, another large ship is preparing for transfer to the bulk basin of the Sevmash plant (Severodvinsk). The heavy nuclear missile cruiser “Admiral Nakhimov” of the 11442 “Orlan” project will be overhauled and upgraded before 2018. This ship was taken out of the fleet for a long time and was waiting for its fate. About a year ago, a repair contract was signed. Now the workers of the Sevmash plant dismantle some of the cruiser units and units and are preparing it for transfer to the bulk pool. Details of the modernization of "Admiral Nakhimov" has not yet been reported. Apparently, the ship will receive new missile weapons, both strike and anti-aircraft.
Shortly after the repair and modernization of the Admiral Nakhimov cruiser, similar work should be carried out on the Peter the Great ship of the same project. Details of this modernization also remain unknown, although it can be assumed that the flagship of the Northern Fleet will return to service in the early twenties. It remains an open question about the future of the two other TARK project 1144. The ships "Kirov" and "Admiral Lazarev", as well as the "Admiral Nakhimov", have long ceased their service in the military of the Navy. Their further fate in question. Perhaps, it will be decided later on the modernization of the ships, but we can not exclude a less optimistic outcome of events. For example, the cruiser "Kirov" has a serious damage to the units of the power plant, because of which its repair may be impractical expensive and difficult.
The Russian Navy has three rocket cruisers of the 1164 Atlant project. The ships "Moscow", "Varyag" and "Marshal Ustinov" serve as part of the Northern and Pacific Fleet. In the middle of 2011, the cruiser Marshal Ustinov arrived at the berth of the Zvezdochka shipbuilding plant (Severodvinsk), and repair work started soon. In accordance with the work plans, Zvezdochka employees had to replace half of the ship’s cable routes, replace some elements of electronic equipment, and also rebuild the Bazalt missile system with the П-500 missiles. Initially it was assumed that Marshal Ustinov would return to the fleet in 2014, however, some difficulties led to a shift in deadlines. By the end of this year, it is planned to complete repair work, and the missile system will be restored only in 2015.
In the spring of 2013, the scheduled repair of the cruiser Varyag was completed. As far as is known, during the last repairs, the ships of the project “Atlant” have not been subjected to serious modernization, connected with a cardinal upgrade of equipment and weapons. Nevertheless, the works already carried out and being carried out now allow us to keep the ship characteristics at an acceptable level.
The task of fighting submarines in the ocean zone is currently assigned to large anti-submarine ships of the 1155 and 11551 projects. There are four ships of the 1155 project in the Northern and Pacific fleets. The only BOD of the 11551 project, the Admiral Chabanenko, serves as part of the Northern Fleet. The armament of these ships allows you to attack both the submarines and surface ships of the enemy, as well as to carry out air defense. Despite the fairly high performance, the 1155 BOD project needs to be repaired and updated for various systems. For example, the ship "Admiral Kharlamov" has been in reserve for several years and is awaiting a decision on the start of repair.
In March last year, information appeared in the domestic media about the possible modernization of the existing ships of Project 1155. This was reported by the Izvestia publication, citing an unnamed source in the General Staff of the Navy. It was argued that as a result of the planned modernization, large anti-submarine ships will actually change their status, they can be considered destroyers. The source claimed that the ships would receive A-192 artillery mounts, the Caliber multipurpose missile system, and new anti-aircraft missiles. Until the end of last year, the 1st and 2nd central research institutes of the Navy were to prepare terms of reference for the modernization of ships. Given the time required for the development of the project and subsequent repairs with updating, the first modernized BOD will be able to return to operation no earlier than 2016-17. Within a year after the appearance News On the modernization of the BOD of project 1155, no new information appeared in this regard. Perhaps the relevant organizations are still engaged in the formation of technical specifications or the creation of a project. In addition, do not forget that the news was obtained from an unnamed source, and this may be the reason for the corresponding suspicions.
The main hope of the national fleet of the ocean zone is the program "Leader". As part of this project, it is planned to build a number of promising destroyers with modern radio-electronic equipment and the latest weapons. According to reports, in the late eighties, shipbuilding design bureaus began to study the prospects of destroyers. However, the main events around the new project began much later. Until the end of 2009, the Navy command intended to determine the developer of a new project. In 2012, the formation of requirements for a new destroyer was completed, after which design work began.
According to media reports, in 2013, various design organizations were working on their own options for the Leader destroyer. At 2014, the start of development work is scheduled. Thus, the construction of the lead destroyer of the new project will start no earlier than 2016-17, and it will enter the Navy only at the beginning of the next decade. At about the same time, the construction of Leader serial destroyers could begin. For obvious reasons, such dates are tentative and actual dates may differ significantly from them.
Model of one of the variants of the project of the destroyer 21956 Ave. Northern design bureau 2008, IMDS-2009, St. Petersburg, July 2009 (photo - A.V. Karpenko, http://bastion-karpenko.narod.ru)
The development of a promising ship is at its earliest stages, due to which all available information about the new project is extremely scarce and fragmentary. It remains only to make various assumptions that may not be confirmed. Last year it was reported that the destroyer of the project "Leader" can get a conventional or nuclear power plant. The total displacement of the ship can be estimated at 10-12 thousand tons. Apparently, the hull and superstructure of the ship will be made taking into account the so-called. stealth technology, because of what will have a distinctive appearance, formed by large intersecting planes.
The basis of the weapons of the destroyer "Leader", most likely, will be the Caliber missile system with a vertical launcher. Protection against air attacks in the far zone should be assigned to the C-300F. In addition, it cannot be excluded that by the end of the decade a ship version of the C-400 or C-500 complex will be created. At short distances, the destruction of airborne targets will be the task of the Polymer-Redut air defense missile system, as well as missile and artillery systems like the Palash or Pantsir-M complexes. To destroy the enemy's submarines, the ship must carry anti-submarine missiles and jet bomb bombs.
As we see, the construction of ships of the ocean zone is not yet a priority task for the Russian Navy. The economic and political problems of the last decades have forced us to pay more attention to the construction of new ships near and far sea zones. As a result, no new ships capable of operating in the ocean zone will appear in the fleet until the end of this decade. It should be noted that some plans of the Ministry of Defense will affect the total number of combat-ready cruisers and BOD, but this will only be the repair and modernization of existing equipment, and not the construction of new ones.
As follows from the available data, by the end of this decade, the list of Russian ships of the ocean zone will look something like this:
- 1 aircraft carrying cruiser "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov";
- 2 heavy nuclear missile cruiser 11442 project "Orlan (" Peter the Great "and" Admiral Nakhimov ");
- 3 missile cruiser project 1164 "Atlant" ("Moscow", "Varyag" and "Marshal Ustinov");
- up to 9 large anti-submarine ships of the 1155 and 11551 projects;
- 1 destroyer "Leader".
Out of a dozen of these ships, only one is planned for construction, and about half in the future may be modernized. All this will increase the potential of the Russian Navy in operations in the ocean zone, but such opportunities will still be less than is necessary for a full return to remote areas of the global ocean.
The twenties should be the most important period in the development of the Russian Navy. Exact plans for the next decade have not yet been determined, but the available proposals and statements allow us to present approximate trends in the future development of the Navy. In the twenties, the serial construction of new destroyers "Leader" will begin. Over the past years, the possibility of creating new aircraft carriers, whose construction will begin no earlier than 2020, has been regularly mentioned. In addition, there remains a certain probability that after the cruiser "Peter the Great" repairs will pass his "sistership" - TARK "Admiral Lazarev". Finally, it cannot be excluded that by the second half of the twenties the fleet will receive cruisers or destroyers of a new project, which is not yet in current plans.
Now and in the very near future, the Russian shipbuilding industry will not be able to give the navy a sufficient number of ships of the ocean zone. This situation will change no earlier than the end of this decade. Nevertheless, shipbuilding and the fleet are not going to waste time and are actively engaged in the construction of ships and submarines of other classes. As for the ships of the ocean zone, the fleet will have to exploit the existing BOD and cruisers, from time to time carrying out planned repairs and, possibly, upgrades.
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