Military Review

German rocket artillery during the war. 2-Part I

57



In February, the 1943 of the German armed forces adopted the 300-mm reactive high-explosive mine 30 cm Wurfkorper Wurfgranate Spreng (30 cm WK.Spr.42), taking into account the experience of combat use of 280 / 320-mm rocket launchers. This projectile with a mass of 127 kg and a length of 1248 mm had a range of 4550 m, i.e. twice as large as the previous shells.

The 300-mm shells were supposed to be fired from the newly developed six-charge launcher 30, see Nebelwerfer 42 (30 cm WK Spr. 42). Since February, 1943, the division of these units passed military tests, in July of the same year, the installation was adopted. The mass of the installation is 1100 kg, the largest angle of elevation is 45 degrees, the angle of horizontal shelling is 22,5 degrees.

German rocket artillery during the war. 2-Part I

Preparing 30, see Nebelwerfer 42 for shooting


Launchers 30 cm WK Spr. 42 were in service with heavy battalions of Wehrmacht rocket artillery brigades. They were used in hostilities in both the Eastern and Western fronts until the end of hostilities.

For the production of a salvo from the 30 cm Nebelwerfer installation, the 42 required just 10 seconds, and after two and a half minutes the installation could have given another volley. Since, as a rule, much more time was required for the enemy to retaliate, the battalions of such installations usually fired two volleys and then left their firing positions. The presence of a sprung course at the carriages allowed the installation to be towed at speeds up to 30 km / h.

In the future, this installation was replaced in the production of a more advanced launcher 30 cm Raketenwerfer 56. In total, 380 units 30 cm Nebe Svyerfer 42 were released during production. From the start of production of 300-mm rockets in 1943, it lasted almost until the very end of the war, in total more than 200 000 units were produced.


Install 30 cm Raketenwerfer 56


The 30 cm Raketenwerfer 56 launcher was mounted on a converted gun carriage from the 50-mm 5 cm PaK 38 anti-tank gun. Vertical guidance angle from -3 to + 45 degrees, horizontally - 22 degrees. Using special inserts from 30 cm Raketenwerfer 56, it was possible to fire 150-mm 15 shells, see Wurfgranate 41, which significantly increased the flexibility of MLRS. There was also the possibility of shooting 300-mm projectiles from the ground. Ammunition was charged in 280 / 320-mm reactive mine closures. Obturation was achieved using special inserts. The mass of the rocket launcher reached 738 kg.

Of the total 1300 30 cm Nebe Svyerfer 42 and 30 cm Raketenwerfer 56 installations, which were actively used on all fronts until the end of hostilities, no more than a third of the initial number was lost in battles.

The most successful of all German towed MLRS was the five-barrel 210-mm 21cm Nebelwerfer 42 on the Pak 35 / 36 rifle wheeled cannon. Used for shooting 21 cm Wurfgranate missiles. The remaining characteristics of the 21cm Nebelwerfer 42 remained identical to the PU used to launch 150-mm rockets. Combat weight 1100 kg, weight in the stowed position - up to 605 kg. The shells were fired alternately with the smallest interval in 1,5 seconds, the salvo was fired during 8 seconds, the reloading of the mortar took about 1,5 minutes. During the operation of the jet engine (1,8 seconds) the PC accelerated to the speed of 320 m / s, which ensured the flight range in 7850 meters.


21 cm Nebelwerfer 42


The high-explosive missile 21cm Wurfgranate 42 Spreng was first used at the front in the 1943 year. She was highly technological in production and had a good ballistic form. 18 kg of jet fuel (7 tubular lumps of gunpowder) was placed in a stamped combustion chamber. The neck of the chamber was screwed down with a perforated bottom with 22 inclined nozzles (angle of inclination 16 degrees) and a small central hole into which an electric fuse was inserted.


21cm Wurfgranate Unassembled 42 Spreng Missile


The body of the warhead was made by hot stamping from 5-mm steel sheet. It was filled with molten trinitrotoluene or amatol mass 28,6 kg, then screwed onto the thread in front of the combustion chamber. A shock fuse was screwed to the front of the warhead. The required ballistic form of the missile was provided with a shell fitted on the front of the warhead.



From the installation of 21 cm Nebelwerfer 42 there was the possibility of firing single projectiles, which facilitated the sighting. Also with the help of special inserts it was possible to fire 150-mm projectiles from six-barreled 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41.



If necessary, 21 cm Nebelwerfer 42 could be transported over short distances by force of calculation. These installations were actively used by the Germans until the last days of the war. In total, almost 1600 towed MLRS of this type were produced.

In 1942, the Germans managed to capture the Soviet BM-13 rocket artillery machine and missiles to it. Contrary to the widespread Soviet myth, rocket artillery machines with rail-type guides and M-13 missiles themselves did not represent a special secret. They were very simple in the device, technological and inexpensive to manufacture.


Captured by the Germans installation BM-13


The secret was the production technology of powder checkers for jet engines of M-8 and M-13 projectiles. It was necessary to make checkers of smokeless nitroglycerin powder, which would provide uniform traction, and would not have cracks and cavities, the presence of which could lead to uncontrolled burning processes of jet fuel. The diameter of the powder checkers in Soviet missiles was equal to 24-mm. Their size and determined the two main caliber missiles - 82 and 132-mm. German specialists did not succeed in reproducing the technology for the production of powder checkers for engines of Soviet missiles, and they had to develop their own rocket fuel formulations.

At the end of 1943, Czech engineers at the Ceska Zbrojovka plant in Brno created their own version of the Soviet 82-mm M-8 missile.
The 80-mm rocket had characteristics close to its prototype, but the firing accuracy due to the rotation reported by the stabilizers (set at an angle to the body of the projectile) was higher than that of the Soviet model. The electric igniter was moved to one of the leading belts, which made the rocket more reliable. The missile, designated the 8 cm Wurfgranate Spreng, was more successful than its Soviet prototype.



A 48th launcher was also copied, which was unusual for the Germans of the rail type, called: 8 cm Raketen-Vielfachwerfer. 48 rocket launchers mounted on a trophy French chassis tanks SOMUA S35. The guides were mounted instead of the removed tank tower.



The lightweight version of the system - 24 guides, placed in two tiers, were installed on the basis of various semi-tracked armored personnel carriers and on a specially designed model, for which they used the base of the SOMUA MCG / MCL trophy French semi-tracked tractor. The installation received the designation 8 cm R-Vielfachwerfer auf m.ger.Zgkw S303 (f).

80-mm rocket launchers were used mainly in four-battery rocket artillery battalions, which were assigned to SS tank and motorized units.

Unlike the M-8 missile, the German copy of the M-13 has undergone great changes. To increase the fragmentation of the warhead, the caliber of the German version was increased to 150 mm. Manufacturing technology was significantly simplified, instead of screw connections, welding was used. Instead of powder checkers used granular jet fuel. Due to this, it was possible to achieve stabilization of pressure in the engine and reduce the eccentricity of thrust.

However, the matter did not come to combat use of these rockets, although the decision on their mass production was made.



Other types of missiles (lighting and agitation), as well as rockets, originally developed for the Air Force and Air Defense, were occasionally used at the front.

In addition to rockets, in Germany, active-jet missiles with increased firing range were created for large-caliber long-range guns. A jet engine placed in the body of such a projectile, began work on the trajectory some time after the projectile left the gun. Because of the rocket engine placed in the shell of the projectile, active-projectiles have a reduced explosive charge. The work of a jet engine on the trajectory negatively affects the dispersion of projectiles.

In October, the Wehrmacht 1944 adopted a heavy assault SAU - 38 cm RW61 auf Sturmmörser Tiger, known as "Sturmtigr." The "assault guns" were re-equipped from the Tiger heavy tanks, while the tank compartment and partly the frontal armor of the hull were converted, and the other units remained almost unchanged.


SAU "Shturmtigr"


This heavy SPG was armed with an 380-mm Raketenwerfer 61 ship-borne jet bomb with a barrel in 5,4 caliber.
The bomb was firing rockets with a solid-fuel engine, stabilized in flight due to the rotation achieved by the oblique location of its engine nozzles, as well as the occurrence of projections on the rocket body into the canal cutting channels. The initial velocity of the rocket at the exit of the barrel was 300 m / s. The Raketen Sprenggranate high-explosive rocket weighing 351 kg contained 125 kg of TNT.


380-mm high-explosive Shturmtigr rocket


The firing range of this “jet monster” was within 5000 m, but in practice it was not fired any further than 1000 m.



The “assault guns” were issued in the total number of 18 copies and had no influence on the course of the hostilities.

The Reneten-Sprenggranate 4831 long-range four-stage rocket created at the end of the war by the firm Rinten-Sprenggranate XNUMX stands out as well. It was the first, brought to mass production and adopted operational tactical missile.



It was developed several variants of the rocket, which differed in range and weight of the warhead. A modification was adopted - RhZ6l / 9 with a warhead loaded with 40 kg of powerful explosives. As a result of an explosion in the soil of medium density, a crater was formed with a depth of approximately 1,5 m and a diameter of 4 m. An important advantage of the rocket was its simplicity and relatively low cost. It took only 132 man-hours to make one rocket.



In the final version, the rocket had a length of 11 400 mm and weighed 1715 kg.
The diameter of the first stage was 535-mm, it was followed by two stages with a diameter of 268-mm, and the fourth combat carrier carrying a diameter of 190-mm. Solid fuel rocket engines of all four stages contained 585 kg of gunpowder and accelerated the rocket to 1600 m / s.



The rocket was launched from a mobile launcher at a distance of 200 km. Accuracy was low; dispersion relative to the aiming point exceeded 5 km.

The Reinbote missiles were armed with a specially formed 709 th separate artillery division with a staff of 460 soldiers and officers.

From December 1944 to mid-January 1945, the division conducted shelling of port facilities in Antwerp, through which the Anglo-American forces were supplied. It was launched about 70 missiles. However, this attack did not have a noticeable effect on the course of hostilities.

Analyzing the actions of the German rocket artillery in the course of the war, we can note the differences in tactics of use with the Soviet units of rocket artillery. German towed and self-propelled systems were much more often used for the destruction of individual targets and the provision of direct fire support. This can be explained by the fact that the accuracy of fire in the German systems due to the stabilization of the projectiles by rotation was very high: the coefficient of circular probable deviation did not exceed 0,025-0,0285 values ​​from the maximum firing range.

At the same time, the Soviet MLRS, being more long-range, were used on a much larger scale for the destruction of area targets.

Many technical solutions, first used in German rocket launchers, were implemented in post-war MLRS adopted for service in different countries.

Based on:
http://forum.guns.ru/forummessage/42/73.html
http://ussrlife.blogspot.ru/2012/10/blog-post_3526.html
http://fs.nashaucheba.ru/docs/270/index-1543563.html
http://strangernn.livejournal.com/892595.html
Author:
Articles from this series:
German rocket artillery during the war. 1-Part I
German rocket artillery during the war. 2-Part I
57 comments
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  1. Aryan
    Aryan April 14 2014 10: 08
    +2
    "Other types of rockets (lighting and propaganda) were occasionally used at the front,"
    what for propaganda rockets?
    explain to the ignoramus, otherwise some gramophones with flight stabilizers and
    with propaganda records "ruski ifan ... dafai surrender ... ruski ifan ... dafai surrender .." No.
    1. nikcris
      nikcris April 14 2014 10: 24
      +17
      We were equipped with leaflets: "Vanyushka, hello. Budish is shikolat. wassat
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Aryan
        Aryan April 14 2014 10: 38
        +2
        costly delivery method for roll-up paper
        to save, they could simply glue their leaflets on poles and trees
        the advance of the front line to the west would leave them already in the deep rear of their enemy laughing
        1. nikcris
          nikcris April 14 2014 21: 06
          +4
          Nevermind! Coated paper becomes unsuitable for cigarettes. Therefore, it causes special observation and taking positions. sad
    2. Mister X
      Mister X April 14 2014 14: 56
      +9
      Quote: Aryan
      what about agitation rockets


      105-mm. Weiss-Rot-Geschoss agitation equipment for light howitzers le.FH16 and le.FH18
      73-mm. propaganda reactive mine P.Rg.41 for 12-barrel mortar 7,3 sm. Wgr.41 Spr

      Sample Finnish leaflets for Soviet pilots


      Article "Finnish propaganda during the Second World War"
      http://topwar.ru/28446-finskie-listovki-dlya-sovetskih-soldat.html
      1. nikcris
        nikcris April 14 2014 17: 32
        +1
        Fake. Show it to Himmler - spoils. Although Ukraine scans ...
    3. Civil
      Civil April 15 2014 07: 18
      +5
      Wow ... operational-tactical missiles, the Nazis were much more than prodigies
  2. vomag
    vomag April 14 2014 11: 48
    +5
    Well, what about campaigning here, a separate article is necessary and believe me there is something to read and see .... and on the cop there are really extremely rare mainly where the front line was stable wink
  3. kirpich
    kirpich April 14 2014 12: 39
    +17
    Finally, an honest and truthful article on Wehrmacht rocket artillery. Without hatred, laid out on the shelves and shown that the Germans were by no means fools. Their designs deserve elementary respect.
    Therefore, the more significant is our victory over such a serious adversary.
    1. inkass_98
      inkass_98 April 14 2014 13: 50
      +8
      Quote: kirpich
      and it’s shown that the Germans were by no means fools

      Not a single normal person will say that the Germans are fools. And even in Soviet propaganda during the war, only in the initial period was the "Germans-" stamp used. Subsequently, it dawned on smart heads that for the soldiers of the Red Army it was necessary to bring the correct idea of ​​the enemy - the Germans are strong, but they can and should be beaten.
      After all, fools could not have created so many reserves in space, aviation, artillery that we, and the Americans, and the British used their achievements for many years.
      Thanks to the author for a great review.
      1. Stas57
        Stas57 April 15 2014 11: 22
        +1
        Not a single normal person will say that the Germans are fools

        you would know how many people are saying that)))
    2. Andrey77
      Andrey77 April 15 2014 14: 46
      0
      Many technical solutions, first used in German rocket launchers, were implemented in post-war MLRS adopted for service in different countries.
      --
      Looking forward to part three? German development of the forties in the 21st century?
    3. TexasRanger
      TexasRanger 29 July 2014 13: 24
      0
      just respect ?? on the trophies of war the scoop got out of shit
  4. Alexey M
    Alexey M April 14 2014 12: 45
    +6
    The author is well done very interesting.
  5. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv April 14 2014 13: 03
    +7
    An interesting review.
    I also learned new things ... but only heard about "Vanyusha" ...
    winked

    Many thanks to the author for the material.
    good
    1. Day 11
      Day 11 April 14 2014 15: 36
      +4
      Great Lesha, but heard about it (read)?"In 1942, in Germany, in the area of ​​the missile base in Peenemünde, the idea of ​​launching missiles from under water was experimentally tested. During the tests, unguided powder missiles of the army type-30 cm Wurfkorpe 42 Spreng were used, and in subsequent experiments, Schveres Wurfgeraet 41. weighing 125 kg, launched from a depth of 10-15 meters at a distance of 8 km from an IXC-series submarine (U-511).
      launcher. Launches were successful. Experiments to launch rockets from a 12-meter depth showed that the rocket engine works perfectly in water. Moreover, the launch from under the water reduced
      dispersing and increasing the range of missiles ... "
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris April 14 2014 15: 43
        +1
        Well, it was ... But when it was launched from under the water, it turned out that the missiles only fly wherever they want, but never at the target. However, this result was also obtained on the Schilder submarine in Russia as far back as the 40s of the 19th century.
        1. Day 11
          Day 11 April 14 2014 15: 50
          0
          Read carefully: "... Moreover, launching from under water reduced dispersion and increased the range of missiles ... "
          1. anomalocaris
            anomalocaris April 14 2014 15: 59
            +2
            Have you read carefully? I strongly advise you to read it, you might understand why a shell accelerating in one environment feels extremely bad in another. This, you know, is such a banal physics, around the 8th grade.
            Z.Y. Where to read? If only in your fantasies
      2. Aleks tv
        Aleks tv April 14 2014 16: 00
        0
        Quote: Den 11
        In the 1942 year in Germany, in the region of the Peenemuende missile base, the idea of ​​launching missiles from under water was experimentally tested.

        Hi Denis.
        hi
        Not ... for the first time I hear. )))
        I’m not so very curious expert ...
        Only with my "pieces of iron" I fiddle.
        winked

        But thanks for the info, very curious ...
        The Germans at the end of the war developed a lot of technologies: jet planes and missiles, and how much more by the little things ... and here also an underwater launch ...
        It is good that our grandfathers managed to fill them up in their own den.
        Respect for veterans.
      3. The comment was deleted.
      4. Aryan
        Aryan April 14 2014 16: 58
        0
        thanks for the clarification about agitation
        but there are some doubts about the underwater start ...
        the calculation of the trajectory for the refraction of two media should not greatly affect the accuracy, because the underwater part of the trajectory compared to the air one can be neglected: the gyroscope is where it is and whose gravity laws in the third Reich did not seem to be canceled
        and even a simple air rocket on its trajectory more than once passes the border of two media
        unless of course weather forecasters believe that the air is denser at the surface of the earth
        another question why shine your position on the first start?
        horizon line at sea much further
        in this regard, the electric torpedo is more secretive
        although if the news is not fake, the results obtained during the launches would probably be useful in the future ...
        1. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris April 18 2014 16: 14
          0
          Have tried. But they didn’t really get a damn.
  6. badger1974
    badger1974 April 14 2014 13: 04
    +5
    I think the author of articles on the German MLRS, paid attention to the technical part of this weapon, but in general this weapon appeared to the world as the most formidable is its use by the Red Army of the USSR. and in the post-war period, this was precisely what gave a huge impetus to MLRS around the world, we impatiently demand from the author the following article about MLRS of the countries of former allies
    1. Bongo
      April 14 2014 13: 32
      +5
      Volodya, I’ll write specifically for you and indicate in the article, at whose request it is written smile
      1. Andrey77
        Andrey77 April 15 2014 15: 04
        +1
        Part three come on! ;)
  7. zyablik.olga
    zyablik.olga April 14 2014 13: 53
    +7
    So we waited for the second part of the article, thanks to the author. Out of curiosity, I tried to literally translate the names of the equipment from German, sometimes quite funny results are obtained such as "3-ton Wehrmacht tractor" (this is from the first part), "throwing grenade", "explosive grenade "Affects the love of Germans to create nouns by gluing several words. Google translator is resting)))
    1. Bongo
      April 14 2014 14: 15
      +4
      Olya, to all your many talents, it turns out, you're also a polyglot ... wink
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Aryan
      Aryan April 14 2014 17: 06
      +5
      in my opinion in the Norwegian language the word TV sounds something like
      a small square box that shows
      what can you do, these are the norms of spelling and punctuation at Vitking wassat
    4. badger1974
      badger1974 April 14 2014 18: 00
      +2
      Olya you are in vain looking for a fact in the name, the most important thing is the performance characteristics, and the use of this weapon according to the performance characteristics, and you can give any names, for example, on the basis of the BMD there is a mortar that can be cut in directly, it is called "nona", and "bumblebee" and the armor does not cut as prudently in the name, but it is absolutely impossible to survive, and even more so to carry out some certain actions, although it really does not sting like a "seven", Olya is not the author, I’ll make you a linguist
  8. The polar
    The polar April 14 2014 14: 40
    0
    So all the same in 1942 "Katyusha" they took prisoner. I didn't know that
    1. 52
      52 April 14 2014 17: 10
      0
      Quote: Polar
      So all the same in 1942 "Katyusha" they took prisoner. I didn't know that

      there is evidence that almost in the winter of 1941. in my opinion, Shirokorad, but I could be wrong. But our shells of the TRS series are a typical German processing under our conditions.
      1. Predator
        Predator April 14 2014 21: 19
        0
        Not only in 1942 a whole with ammunition, beaten still near Vyazma
    2. Stas57
      Stas57 April 15 2014 11: 25
      0
      So all the same in 1942 "Katyusha" they took prisoner. I didn't know that

      my answer is depends on what do you mean
      shells back in the summer 41
      fall 41 installations
  9. 52
    52 April 14 2014 17: 13
    +3
    Quote: Dr.Faust.Patron
    Quote: zyablik.olga
    So we waited for the second part of the article, thanks to the author. Out of curiosity, I tried to literally translate the names of the equipment from German, sometimes quite funny results are obtained such as "3-ton Wehrmacht tractor" (this is from the first part), "throwing grenade", "explosive grenade "Affects the love of Germans to create nouns by gluing several words. Google translator is resting)))

    n-yes ... you try to translate the nodal letter promtom. so many discoveries ....

    I recommend translating the names of armored vehicles, both German and French. Terrestrial brain fracture!
  10. Yozhik
    Yozhik April 14 2014 17: 37
    +5
    Thanks to the author for the article. Informative.
  11. I think so
    I think so April 14 2014 17: 50
    0
    Does the article imply that the Germans had better MLRS? Or have I misunderstood something? For example, the weight of the charge (gauge) is greater and the accuracy is better and can be moved manually, only the range is slightly worse and the number of barrels is less, and the Czechs completely bypassed the Katyusha in terms of accuracy and number of barrels and range? It's just not very clear why then modern MLRS are made almost similar to the "Katyusha"? I wish someone would clarify such a question ...
    1. alex86
      alex86 April 14 2014 19: 36
      +5
      Quote: I think so
      almost the same as "Katyusha"

      Let me disagree, since modern MLRS is characteristic of:
      - stabilization by rotation (albeit with a drop-down stabilizer)
      - tubular guides, not rail
      The main advantage of using the "Katyusha" was the mass character, which, as I understand it, the Germans lacked.
      1. Stas57
        Stas57 April 15 2014 11: 27
        +1
        The main advantage of using the "Katyusha" was the mass character, which, as I understand it, the Germans lacked.

        strange, emnip, almost the entire war "Katyusha" is RGK, and "nebel" from 42 already at the divisional level, is the idea clear?
    2. Andrey77
      Andrey77 April 15 2014 15: 11
      0
      The main difference is that we put MLRS in the battalion and above the link. The Germans could not do this economically, so they put a piece in the company and distributed it along the front. The task was also different. If we have this as a breakthrough weapon, then the Germans have the suppression of individual firing points for the purpose of the German commander. This is the same as giving our modern company one Grad installation, which acts in the interests of the company. Many issues are being resolved.
      1. Stas57
        Stas57 April 16 2014 10: 31
        0
        The Germans could not do this economically, so they put in a company piece by piece and distributed along the front.


        you have a little lie!
        In 1942, three regiments (Nebelwerferregiment), as well as nine separate divisions (Nebelwerfeabteilung) were deployed as part of the German army. The battalion consisted of three 6 batteries each, and the regiment consisted of three battalions (54 Nebelverfer). Since 1943, the batteries of 150-mm rocket mortars (according to 6 PU) began to be included in the light divisions of artillery regiments of infantry divisions, replacing 105-mm field howitzers in them. As a rule, one division had two MLRS batteries, but in some cases their number was brought up to a three-battery division. In addition to strengthening the artillery of infantry divisions, the Germans also formed separate parts of rocket mortars.
        In total, the German industry has managed to produce 5283 six-barrel 150-mm installations of Nebelwerfer 41 and 5,5 million missiles to them.
      2. Artem Popov
        Artem Popov 4 July 2018 17: 22
        0
        What else is the "battalion link" in the RGC stuffed everything, then read the text.
        Those. even DIVISIONS did not have their own Katyushas.
  12. oreh72
    oreh72 April 14 2014 19: 03
    +3
    Quote: I think so
    Does the article imply that the Germans had better MLRS? Or have I misunderstood something? For example, the weight of the charge (gauge) is greater and the accuracy is better and can be moved manually, only the range is slightly worse and the number of barrels is less, and the Czechs completely bypassed the Katyusha in terms of accuracy and number of barrels and range? It's just not very clear why then modern MLRS are made almost similar to the "Katyusha"? I wish someone would clarify such a question ...

    Modern MLRS use all currently available developments in this area:
    - a package of tubular guides - the most compact arrangement of the PC;
    - stabilization of the RS in flight by rotation;
    - improved fuel composition - increased range;
    - modern guidance system, including individually for each RS ("Uragan", "Smerch").
    What has changed is the manufacturing technology of PC cases. In short, something like this.
    1. alex86
      alex86 April 14 2014 19: 38
      +3
      Sorry, I didn’t read up to your comment, I wrote about the same thing a little higher ...
  13. Bugor
    Bugor April 14 2014 19: 25
    -1
    Zadelo.Za "Katyusha" insulting. sad
    I don’t understand how such a log, practically without guides, even if rotating, can fly exactly... Despite the development of technology, modern RPGs are also not very "snipers".
    I’m afraid that the truth is rather in the words “in practice, they didn’t shoot further than 1000m.”
    IMHO, the accuracy of the “Katyusha” was at least not lower, and, given the caliber, there was no point in the “Katyusha” trying to destroy the point target.
    1. 77bob1973
      77bob1973 April 14 2014 22: 02
      +2
      The fact of the matter is that the higher accuracy of German chemical mortars is both a plus and a minus, our BM-13 covered a much larger area! Our turbojet shells appeared only after the war!
    2. Andrey77
      Andrey77 April 15 2014 14: 57
      0
      You yourself answered. Katyusha hit in areas, 21 cm Nebelwerfer 42 in points. The use in parts was also different. Katyusha is a separate battalion. Which still needs to be received. Nebel fell into his mouth. Yes, in the amount of one installation. But still.
      1. Stas57
        Stas57 April 16 2014 10: 35
        0
        and again
        The Germans could not do this economically, so they put in a company piece by piece and distributed along the front.


        you have a little lie!
        In 1942, three regiments (Nebelwerferregiment), as well as nine separate divisions (Nebelwerfeabteilung) were deployed as part of the German army. The battalion consisted of three 6 batteries each, and the regiment consisted of three battalions (54 Nebelverfer). Since 1943, the batteries of 150-mm rocket mortars (according to 6 PU) began to be included in the light divisions of artillery regiments of infantry divisions, replacing 105-mm field howitzers in them. As a rule, one division had two MLRS batteries, but in some cases their number was brought up to a three-battery division. In addition to strengthening the artillery of infantry divisions, the Germans also formed separate parts of rocket mortars.
        In total, the German industry has managed to produce 5283 six-barrel 150-mm installations of Nebelwerfer 41 and 5,5 million missiles to them.

        I will explain in my own words, they were like separate regiments and divisions on the "balance sheet" of the RGK
        so were their divisional heavens in call. 6 pieces in artillery regiment
  14. Ivan Tarasov
    Ivan Tarasov April 14 2014 20: 09
    +3
    As a supplement;
  15. flc9800
    flc9800 April 14 2014 23: 11
    +5
    Great article, plus definitely! good Thanks to the author! Especially for photos good
  16. cat1973
    cat1973 April 15 2014 04: 40
    +4
    Excellent article good
  17. Stas57
    Stas57 April 15 2014 11: 34
    0
    In 1942, the Germans managed to capture the BM-13 Soviet rocket artillery machine and rockets for it. Contrary to the widespread Soviet myth, the rocket artillery machines with rail-type guides and M-13 rockets did not represent a special secret. They were very simple in design, technologically advanced and inexpensive to manufacture.

    shells-summer41
    car + shells- fall41
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 April 15 2014 14: 51
      +4
      Do not carp.
    2. Bongo
      April 16 2014 12: 48
      +3
      In the photo in the article, the fully operational BM-13 with shells captured in the 1942 year.
  18. Andrey77
    Andrey77 April 15 2014 14: 50
    0
    The article is excellent. I read both parts - there are minor nitpicking, but overall great!
  19. xomaNN
    xomaNN April 15 2014 15: 56
    0
    Interesting material about German jet systems (RBU, as it is customary in the fleet to call them winked ) The first time I heard that the "Sturmtiger" was armed with a 380-mm naval bomb.
    But ours that "Katyusha", in addition to the real combat, gave a powerful psychological effect. Ours is positively joyful, the Germans are panicky and scary!
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 April 16 2014 09: 39
      0
      But ours that "Katyusha", in addition to the real combat, gave a powerful psychological effect. Ours is positively joyful, the Germans are panicky and scary!

      yeah, you google according to our memoirs "donkey howled", appreciate the psycho-effect
    2. Artem Popov
      Artem Popov 4 July 2018 17: 38
      0
      the Katyusha combat effect was very modest due to the large dispersal
  20. Takashi
    Takashi April 17 2014 10: 53
    +1
    good article.
    But I would like to know more about the military use by the Germans.
    As ours evaluated the effectiveness of German weapons.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 April 18 2014 11: 57
      +2
      From the point of view of the party and government? German weapons - complete garbage. It could not be otherwise. From the point of view of a fighter - who is how. If used effectively, good. If not, then no. Not a child prodigy, but with the proper use of blood, he spoiled a lot.
    2. landromat
      landromat April 20 2014 15: 33
      +2
      Very much appreciated and even borrowed a lot in the postwar RSZO bm-20, bm-24.
  21. MichaelSH
    MichaelSH April 19 2015 16: 12
    0
    Things are good. And the syllable. And ... But the fact is that the Germans captured the first M-8-36 installation on the basis of the ZiS-6 on August 22, 1941, an ode under Velikiye Luki (see the memoirs of E. Manshtein) The first M-13-16 installation (though without RS ) On October 8, 1941 near Oryol (2 pieces), tankers were captured by the 4th Wehrmacht tank division On October 10, 1941 in Mtsensk, the Germans got a total of 2 batteries (7 units, some fully charged) of the 9th Guards mortar regiment (commander Major Shamshin ) In the article a photo from Mtsensk. And further. For all reason, the Germans are impenetrable rams !!! At the beginning of the war, enough RS-132 rocket shells were captured enough ... And the BM designation was introduced after the war. Who cares - write. I will answer.
  22. AL141165
    AL141165 13 May 2015 03: 16
    0
    Here is such a picture is now sold in the album of a certain Radovts on Ebay:
    http://www.ebay.de/itm/Fotoalbum-2-WK-Ostfront-Bruckenbau-Pioniere-und-Flieger-T
    echnik-Zerstorung-etc-/371295900493?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_77&hash=item5672f5d34d
    As I understand it, this is our fully equipped BM-13 installation bogged down in mud ??? Unfortunately the picture is not dated. Judging by the rest of the photos in this album, the meeting with the Katyusha was an accidental road episode for the German.
    1. AL141165
      AL141165 13 May 2015 03: 58
      +1
      Clarification not related to rocket artillery. The album, of course, is not RADovets, but "Pioneer", i.e. sapper directing the crossings, etc.
  23. Artem Popov
    Artem Popov 4 July 2018 17: 35
    0
    Quote: Bugor
    Zadelo.Za "Katyusha" insulting. sad
    I don't really understand how such a log, with practically no guides, even if it is rotating, can fly accurately . Despite the development of technology, modern RPGs are also not very "snipers".
    I’m afraid that the truth is rather in the words “in practice, they didn’t shoot further than 1000m.”
    IMHO, the accuracy of the “Katyusha” was at least not lower, and, given the caliber, there was no point in the “Katyusha” trying to destroy the point target.

    Oh, they broke the jacket for his favorite myth, what a sorrow! 99% of artillery work is on point targets. The offensive - it is once or twice a year for the military unit, and combat life - every day. And the much-praised “fire shaft” over the areas during the offensive almost always went into milk, the impact was more moral.
    You need to play less toys, think more. There was an incident a couple of years ago with the shelling of a Ukrainian checkpoint, when the bus was damaged, it was clearly visible in the video what “work on areas” is. The checkpoint wasn’t even nearby. Yes, even a whole division of hailstones would fire - without a direct hit in the trench of the maximum barotrauma (shell shock) and anyone would fall asleep. And now let's calculate the ratio of the area of ​​the trenches and the area of ​​the cover, what is the probability, although there would be a missile in the fragment dispersion zone