The American fleet is the strongest in the world: aircraft carriers, submarines, destroyers; he is supported by the marines and aviation
The US Navy has the largest fleet the world. To a large extent, it is the fleet that holds the entire military power of the United States. Since the country has no serious military opponents in the Western Hemisphere, the projection of force into the Eastern Hemisphere is carried out, first of all, with the help of the Navy.
In addition to the “proper fleet”, the US Navy includes naval aviation and marines, which are also the largest in the world.
Organizationally, the US Navy is divided into the Navy Command (formerly Atlantic Fleet), the Pacific Fleet (Pacific Fleet), and the Shipping Command.
The naval command (hereinafter referred to as "the old") will be called the article Atlantic Fleet or AF. - RP) includes three operational fleets: 2 (North Atlantic), 4 (South Atlantic), 6 (Mediterranean). The Pacific Fleet also includes three operational fleets: 3 (east and central Pacific), 5 (Indian Ocean), 7 (northwest Pacific). Operational fleets do not have a permanent composition, they are formed from the AF and the Pacific Fleet compositions by constant rotation of ships.
As a rule, warships of the US Navy are divided approximately equally between the AF and the Pacific Fleet. Recently, however, there has been a "roll" towards the Pacific Fleet, which in the near future will include approximately 60% of Navy ships.
In addition, the US Navy has an 10 th operational fleet responsible for waging cyber warfare. There are no warships in it.
The naval component of the US strategic nuclear forces includes Ohio-type 14 nuclear-powered submarines with ballistic missiles (SSBNs) (eight on AF, eight on Pacific Fleet). Each of them carries on a 24 ballistic missile (SLBM) "Trident-2", up to eight combat units on each SLBM. In fact, two SSBNs are under major overhaul at every single point in time, respectively, 12 SSBNs with 288 SLBMs are deployed.
Four more of the Ohio-type SSBNs under the START-1 agreement were converted into submarines with cruise missiles (SSGNs), two each for AF and TOF. Each of them has 22 shafts for Tomahawk cruise missiles (seven in each) and two lock shafts for combat swimmers. Accordingly, each SSGNL carries the Tomahawk 154.
The submarine "Michigan" class "Ohio".
By the number of multi-purpose nuclear submarines (PLA), the US Navy is ranked first in the world. The most advanced of these are the three of them of the type "Sea Wolf" (all in the composition of the Pacific Fleet), but because of the very high price, the construction of the remaining PLA of this type (they were supposed to have 32) was canceled. Instead, they are currently building submarines of the "Virginia" type, with somewhat lower tactical and technical characteristics, but cheaper ones. In total, they are supposed to be built from 30 to 40. Currently, the US Navy has ten submarines of the “Virginia” type (six at AF, three at the Pacific Fleet, one is not yet distributed among the fleets). In addition, as part of the Navy, the Los Angeles 41 submarines (17 on AF, 24 on Pacific Fleet) remain, which are gradually being written off. The Los Angeles 18 submarines are still in the sludge, but they cannot be returned to service, since reactors have already been cut from their hulls.
All American multipurpose SSNs can launch not only ordinary torpedoes, but also Harpoon anti-ship missiles (ASMs) and sea-based cruise missiles (SLCMs) AMS through their torpedo tubes. In addition, all the submarines of the type "Virginia" and 30 submarines of the type "Los Angeles" have 12 vertical mines for launching the Tomahawk SLCM.
The symbol of the US Navy and the basis of their combat power - aircraft carriers. Today there are ten nuclear aircraft carriers of the Nimitz type in the ranks (five each for AF and Pacific Fleet). Two aircraft carriers of the “Ford” type are being built, in fact, this is a significantly improved version of the “Nimitz”. It is planned to build at least three ships of this type. There are six aircraft carriers with a conventional power plant: "John Kennedy", two types of "Kitty Hawk", three types of "Forrestal". Theoretically, they can be returned to service. During the deployment period in the ocean, each aircraft carrier carries an F-A-32 combat aircraft as part of the 48 — 18, four to six E-6 or EA-18G combat aircraft, four to six E-2C long-range radar detection aircraft, and two C-2A transport aircraft and six to eight anti-submarine helicopters SH-60. As a rule, four aircraft carriers are deployed at the same time in the ocean (two for AF and AFF), although recently there has often been only one American ship of this type in the ocean.
Until the middle of the 80 of the twentieth century, cruisers, destroyers and frigates of the US Navy were, in fact, “aircraft carrier guards”, not having an independent role. The situation changed with the adoption of the Ajis universal command and control system, which provides simultaneous tracking and hitting targets on land, in the air and at sea at long ranges. The most important addition to this system was the installation of a vertical launch (UWP) Mc41, which has 29 or 61 (in the latest versions - 32 or 64) cells, each of which can accommodate either the Tomahawk anti-aircraft missile or the anti-aircraft missile Asrok. Cruisers and destroyers with the Aegis system and the Mk41 UVP were able to deliver massive strikes on coastal targets with the help of Tomahawks, as well as to carry out air defense and missile defense systems of ship formations and even in some cases of groups of troops on land. Due to this, these ships can not only guard, but complement and sometimes replace aircraft carriers as the main striking force of the fleet.
Today, the US Navy has 22 cruisers of the “Taikonderoga” type (ten on AF, 12 on Pacific Fleet), each of which is equipped with the Aegis system and has two UHP McNXXX with 41 cells each. Thus, each cruiser carries 61 missiles of three classes. On five cruisers (two on the AF, three on the Pacific Fleet), the Aegis system was upgraded to solve the missile defense tasks. Three more cruisers of the type “Taykonderoga” of the first modification are in the sludge. These ships do not have a DCP McNUMX, so their return to service, although theoretically possible, is unlikely.
The basis of the surface forces of the US Navy are destroyers of the type "Orly Burke". Now they are available in the 62 (27 on AF, 35 on the Pacific Fleet), all will be built from 75 to 99 ships of this type, which will serve until the end of 70-s. Each destroyer carries two ATCs McNUMX - nasal (41 cells on the first 29 destroyer, 21 cells on the next) and aft (32 and 61 cells, respectively). Thus, the 64 destroyer carries 21 missiles, 90 (and all of the following) carries 41 missiles. On 96 destroyers (nine on AF, 22 on Pacific Fleet) the Aegis system has been upgraded to solve missile defense tasks. In addition to "Orly Burke" in the United States began the construction of destroyers of the type "Zumvalt" "futuristic" architecture with a significant number of various technical innovations. Each such destroyer will carry one DPS on 13 missiles. It was originally intended to build 80 destroyers of the Zumwalt type, but due to the very high price, only three of them will be built.
Destroyer type "Orly Burke" "Michael Murphy"
The frigates are represented in the US Navy 15 ships of the type "Oliver Perry" (nine AF, six on the Pacific Fleet), another 16 ships of the same type withdrawn in reserve. These frigates with sufficiently large sizes have very weak weapons, they are the most unsuccessful ships of the US Navy for the entire post-war history. Therefore, they are in an expedited manner removed from service and sold abroad.
Corvettes - are the most common class of warships in the world, but they were absent for a long time as part of the US Navy. Only in the 21st century did the construction of the so-called “littoral combat ship (LCS)” begin. For the Navy, two different LCS projects were proposed: Freedom and Independence. The command could not make a choice, therefore ships of both projects began to be built. Now in the fleet there are two corvettes of the Freedom type and one of the Independence type (all three are on the Pacific Fleet). It should be noted that ships of both types have a very high price with a rather weak armament. Although it is planned to build 55, but most likely, the program will be severely curtailed (most likely, to 24 units).
Minesweepers in the US Navy are represented by 13 type ships "Avenger" (all on the Pacific Fleet).
The landing forces of the US Navy are by far the largest in the world and, in their capabilities, are comparable to the landing forces of all the other fleets combined.
The largest of the landing ships are universal landing ships (UDC). Now in the US fleet there are eight UDC of the “Wasp” type (four for AF and Pacific Fleet) and one of the Tarawa type (for Pacific Fleet). Two more ships of the Tarawa type are in the sludge. The construction of the UDC of the “America” type was started, which are actually full-fledged aircraft carriers. Helicopter landing ships docks (DVKD) are represented by eight ships of the type "San Antonio" and two types of "Austin" (four each and one for AF and TOF). There are six Austin type DVKDs in reserve. There are also eight amphibious transports-docks (DTD) of the “Whidby Island” type and four types of the “Harpers Ferry” (four and two for AF and TOF). In addition, four old Newport-type tank-landing ships remain in reserve (all for sale).
Despite the large number of amphibious assault ships and their considerable amphibious assault capability, they can transfer at the same time only an insignificant part of the marines and, especially, the US ground forces. Therefore, for massive transfer of troops and equipment to remote theaters of operations (theater of operations), the American command freights civilian cargo ships from commercial shipping companies.
The US Navy has a very complex organizational structure. It is divided into fleet aviation, marine aviation, fleet aviation reserve and marine infantry reserve. Each of these four components is divided into Atlantic and Pacific. An aircraft wing is assigned to each aircraft carrier, the approximate composition of which was indicated above.
As in the case of airplanes and helicopters of the US Air Force, a significant number of naval aviation vehicles are stored at the Davis-Montan base (AMARG - Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group), from which many of them can be returned in build.
The main combat aircraft of naval aviation - F / A-18 "Hornet". This is so far the only carrier-based aircraft of the fleet and the main aircraft of the marine infantry (its squadrons are stationed on board of deployed aircraft carriers). Machines of modifications A, B and C are gradually transferred to AMARG, while E and F continue to enter service. In general, the F / A-18E / F is very much improved compared to the original version and is largely a new aircraft (therefore, it is called the “Super Hornet”).
F / A-18 "Super Hornet" on board the aircraft carrier "George Washington".
Now in service with US naval aviation is 1063 F / A-18: 97 A, 22 B, 339 C, 133 D, 223 E, 249 F. In addition, AMARG also stores 100 (65 A, 3 B, 32) C), in storage at the Air Force bases - also 14 (12 A, two B) machines.
The second-largest naval aviation aircraft of the United States - AV-8 "Harrier". This aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing is in service only in the Marine Corps. It was produced in the United States under a British license, but then underwent purely American modernization. Now in service is the 138 "Harrier": 37 AV-8В, 85 В +, 16 training and combat TAV-8В. There are one TAV-8A on AMARG, as well as English Harrier 58 (three GR7, 47 GR9, eight T12), which the United Kingdom sold in the United States as a source of spare parts in 2011.
All “Harriers” and all F / A-18A / B / C / D are supposed to be replaced by the fifth-generation fighter F-35. It is planned to purchase for the fleet aviation 260 the deck F-35С, and for the aviation of the marines - 80 similar F-35С and 340 aircraft with short take-off and vertical landing F-35В. While this program is developing with a significant delay from the schedule and with an even more significant excess of the original price. So far, the Marine Corps has received 27 F-35В, fleet aviation - six F-35C.
A special kind of combat aircraft - anti-submarine. The most modern aircraft of this type of US naval aviation are the P-8 "Poseidon", created on the basis of the passenger "Boeing-737". At present, they have been put into service with 19, in total it is planned to build 117. They will replace the famous Orion P-3. Currently, the US Navy 131 P-3С remains, on the AMARG - still 66, as well as eight Р-3А and 45 Р-3В. Deck anti-submarine aircraft S-3 "Viking" almost removed from service, the replacement of them has not been created. Now four S-3B are still in service, on the AMARG - still 81.
The main deck EW aircraft is the EA-18G, based on the F / A-18F. Now 100 of such aircraft has entered service, it is planned to have 114 in total. They replace the EA-6В aircraft, of which 60 is left, and 16 is replaced by AMARG.
The E-2 “Hokai” remains a DRLO aircraft, the 61 aircraft of this type are in service, and the 30 is still on the AMARG.
The ground-based fleet aviation has 15 EP-3E and 16 E-6B airborne reconnaissance aircraft.
The United States has a C-2A, the only carrier in its class, used to transport people and cargo from the ground to aircraft carriers and back. They are in service with 48, five more on the AMARG.
The newest US naval aviation transport aircraft is the convertiplane (“hybrid” of the aircraft and helicopter) of the MV-22V Osprey, which can be based both on airfields and aircraft carriers. Now in service there are 184 of convertible.
In addition, there are more than 100 transport aircraft and tankers, around 400 training aircraft.
There are 172 attack helicopters AH-1W / Z “Cobra” in the Marine Corps, more than 500 H-60 “Black Hawk” helicopters of various modifications, including X-NUMX anti-submarine SH-59B / F, more than X-NUMX heavy H-60 transport helicopters modifications, including 200 minesweeper helicopters. In aviation, the Marine Corps remains 53 transport helicopter CH-56E, they must be completely replaced convertiplanes.
The Marine Corps, being in terms of the number of personnel and the number of vehicles, is much less than the US Army, is very actively used in all wars and conflicts that the country is waging. The level of combat training of personnel is higher here than in the ground forces.
The marines include four divisions, two each in AF and Pacific Fleet. The Pacific Fleet divisions are 1-I (headquarters in Camp Pendleton, California) and 3-I (Okinawa island, Japan). AF divisions - 2-i (Camp Lydzhn, North Carolina), 4-i (reserve; New Orleans).
In service with the Marine Corps is 447 tanks M1A1 Abrams, about four thousand armored personnel carriers, about 1,5 thousand guns, more than 600 mortars, 40 HIMARS MLRS, 95 self-propelled LAV-TOW anti-tank systems, 1083 Tou man-portable anti-tank systems, several hundred Stinger MANPADS.
Thus, the US Marines are stronger than the armed forces of most European countries. Its weak point is ground defense, but this is offset by the presence of its own aircraft. In addition, in real conditions, the marines almost always interacts with the Navy and naval aviation, air force and ground forces.
Forces of special operations (MTR) of the Navy are an integral part of the command of the MTR of the US Armed Forces and at the same time a separate branch of the Navy. Headquarters - in Coronado, California. Includes four groups of MTR proper Navy and MTR of the Marine Corps. They consist of eight reconnaissance and sabotage detachments of the Navy SSO, one regiment (three battalions) of the Marines SSO and various support units.
In general, the US Navy has a huge combat power. At the same time, the cuts in the US military budget that were started will be affected to the least degree, therefore, in the foreseeable future, the US fleet will retain its dominant position in most oceanic theaters. However, in the Pacific, he will have increasingly serious problems due to the rapid growth of the power of the Chinese fleet.