In the past works of this cycle, we have already considered how 360 years ago Russia saved Ukrainians from genocide. The delegations from various cities and regions, coming together to Pereyaslavskaya Rada, unanimously made the decision that together in Russia “forever everyone be united”. They took the oath of allegiance to Moscow. At the same time, the sovereign Alexei Mikhailovich granted Ukraine complete autonomy, she retained her laws and customs, “rights and liberties”, she chose rulers, hetman and foremen, even received the right of external relations. The tsarist troops were not deployed in Ukraine, Russian dignitaries were forbidden to intervene in her internal affairs, she herself collected taxes, maintained her military contingents.
The sovereigns of the army together with the Cossacks of Bogdan Khmelnitsky moved to smash the Poles. They beat Smolensk, occupied almost all of Belarus and Lithuania. But in actual fact, the Ukrainian problem turned out to be quite confusing. Other powers that were hostile to Russia — Sweden, the Crimean Khanate, and then the Ottoman Empire — intervened in the war. But even among the Ukrainians themselves, the attitude towards the transition under the authority of Moscow became completely ambiguous. The common people would like to obey the king, but not even under such conditions, but without any autonomy. In Russia, an autocratic government operated, the sovereign controlled the nobility and officials, did not allow predation and abuse - and ordinary people suffered precisely from this.
But the Ukrainian clergy, even though they were Orthodox, did not want to obey the Moscow Patriarchate. It would fall under constant supervision and strict leadership — but for the time being it was subject to the Constantinople Patriarchate, which was under Turkish rule and did not pay attention to what was happening in the subordinate dioceses. In fact, the Kyiv Metropolis lived on its own. However, the king did not insist - you want to remain in the jurisdiction of Constantinople, well, stay.
In addition, a layer of rich foremen emerged in Ukraine. Bohdan Khmelnitsky divided the country into shelves and hundreds - these were administrative regions and districts. They were managed by colonels and centurions, and during the war they formed and removed the corresponding military units. These colonels and centurions occupied the castles of the Polish magnates, took over the hands of their farms and lands, and for many of them the entry into Russia with its autocracy seemed very unattractive. They were seduced by the orders in Poland, the absolute power of the lords who did what they wanted and dictated their will to the king himself. But, of course, on condition that the Ukrainian commanders themselves would be admitted to the circle of Polish aristocrats and retain their seized property. There were frivolous heroes who believed that there was no need to obey anyone - Ukraine itself casts caps on any enemies. Finally, the liberation struggle, like any revolution, raised up a lot of dirt and foam. It did not require any stabilization and reconciliation. She needed further confusion, to take longer to walk and plunder.
These contradictions became acute when Khmelnitsky became seriously ill. His eldest son, the valiant and intelligent Timothy, died in battle. Bogdan dreamed of transferring his post to the youngest, Yuri - in his father's blindness, not noticing that he was cowardly, deceitful, incompetent. And two parties were preparing for a real power struggle. “Narodnaya” was headed by Poltava colonel Martin Pushkar. "Gentry" Ivan Vyhovsky. He was a Polish nobleman, under Korsun was captured by Khmelnitsky, but went to his service. Vtrusya in confidence, married his daughter, took the post of clerk general - chief of staff. In July, 1657 Khmelnitsky reposed, the Ukrainian elite began to convene Rada (council) for the election of a new hetman. Supporters of Pushkar and Vyhovsky were about to be mated with each other.
But the Mirgorod colonel Lesnitsky-Khmelnitsky confused the cards to them in his campaign against the Tatars, gave him signs of power, a mace and a horsetail. Therefore, Lesnitsky said that he had already been appointed hetman, and he did not recognize any Rada. She took advantage of a rich foreman. She screamed that she couldn’t waste time, and in her circle, without a “golub” (poor), cried out Vyhovsky’s hetman. He drew the “people's” party against the impudent rebel, descended with the army in Mirgorod, took away the mace and bunchuk from the impostors, forced him to feed and water the whole army as punishment.
However, after this operetta prologue, Vyhovsky rigged the composition of the Rada from among his supporters, he was unanimously elected hetman. Pushkar he declared a traitor. He dragged the Kiev Metropolitan Dionysius Saker Balobon over to his side, who in general betrayed Pushkar anathema. And Vyhovsky suddenly called for the Crimean Tatars, defeated Poltava with them and killed his rival. Moscow was alarmed, but the position of the Kiev clergy confused the tsar, Vyhovsky lied that he had punished a traitor, and Aleksei Mikhailovich himself had undertaken not to interfere in judicial and internal affairs in Ukraine. He honestly fulfilled his obligations.
Although it turned out - the traitor is not Pushkar at all. The new hetman led secret negotiations not only with the Crimea, but also with Poland. September 6 1658 signed the Hadiach Treaty. He returned Ukraine under the authority of the lords, and for this, King Jan Casimir promised to cancel the church union (lied) and send Vyhovsky 10 thousand troops. Getman called Tatars and began to seize the city, approached Kiev. But not all Ukrainians took his side. In Kiev, there was a small garrison Sheremetev, purely nominal. He was supported by the whole city. The assembled army went on a sortie, drove out Vyhovsky and the Tatars. Many Ukrainians joined the detachments of Romodanovsky, who was standing at the border, they chose the military judge Ivan Bespalyi as "hetman for a time".
And from Russia at the beginning of 1659, the army of the governor Trubetskoy spoke. But ... the king did not want to conquer Ukraine! After all, the war began to support and save the Ukrainians, at their own insistent requests. The instruction of Aleksei Mikhailovich demanded from the governor "to go to Pereyaslavl to persuade the Cherkas to have them in his wines to him, the sovereign, to finish off their heads, and the sovereign would enjoy them as before." Trubetskoy stood in Putivl, called Vyhovsky to negotiate. But the hetman drew time. Only in the spring it became clear that he was lying and did not intend to put up. It became known and more. Most Ukrainians still want to be with Russians. The army moved to Ukraine. But supporters of Vyhovsky managed to gain a foothold in Konotop, the royal army stopped at the walls of the fortress. And he came to the hetman Khan Mehmet Giray with 100-thousandth horde of Tatars.
27 June night hetman Cossacks and Tatars flew to the Russian camp, stole a herd of horses and a herd of cattle. The whole Russian cavalry, 20, thousand horsemen Seeds Pozharsky and Semyon Lvov, rushed in pursuit. But on the Sosnovka River, the fleeing squad led them into a trap. A mass of cavalry was surrounded in a clearing, shot from bows and cannons. Few escaped. Most were killed, 5 thousand, along with the commanders were captured. But Vyhovsky had agreed in advance with the khan not to take prisoners - let the blood feud between Ukrainians and “Muscovites” fall. All 5 thousands who have surrendered are cut. Pozharsky Mehmet Giray offered to choose: either to accept Islam, to receive for this high post and possession in the Crimea, or to die. The last representative of the glorious family of Pozharsky, the nephew of the liberator of Moscow, did not shame the honor of his ancestors. He spat into the beard of Mehmet Giray and was immediately beheaded. Saved life only Lviv, but he was crazy.
After this victory (which is being honored by the current Ukrainian nationalists), Vyhovsky and Khan attempted to defeat Trubetskoy's entire army with a raid. But she repelled the onslaught, in full order she withdrew into her territory and took refuge in Putivl. Don Cossacks raided the possessions of the Khan, he immediately became nervous and led the horde away. And the royal ratifications received help and went over to the offensive. Many cities greeted them with joy. Left-bank shelves crossed over to the Russians. Vyhovsky retreated over the Dnieper, calling for help to the Poles. But the forces of the king were occupied in Belarus, he sent only a small detachment. Disappointed Vyhovsky led the negotiations with the Turks - on the transition to citizenship of the Sultan. The Cossacks recognized, were indignant, and right-bank regiments, which still remained loyal, fell away from him.
Vyhovsky fled to Poland, but nobody wanted him there either. He tried to communicate with the king in order to return to his citizenship again, but the Poles intercepted the letters and executed him. Meanwhile, in October 1659 was convened in Pereyaslavl, another Rada. She elected Hetman Khmelnitsky. Ukraine has sworn again to the king. But the previous agreement approved the amendment. In five cities, Kiev, Pereyaslavl, Chernigov, Bratslav and Uman, Russian garrisons were stationed with the governors. After the hetman's rebellion, the Ukrainians fully agreed with such a measure.
But Yuri Khmelnitsky also changed as easily as Vyhovsky! The Poles generously promised, beckoned, and the miserable son of a glorious father in the midst of the battles spread to their side. As a result, the army of Vasily Sheremetev under Lyubart was surrounded and killed. Although the events went on the same scenario. Traitor refused to obey the left bank of the Dnieper, Zaporizhzhya Sich. Khmelnitsky with his subjects and with the Tatars attacked them, they fought back with the help of the Russians. Although they did not get on well with each other. On the Left Bank, there were three leaders at once - Zolotarenko, Samko and Bryukhovetsky, who are at war with each other. Finally, they waylaid when Khmelnitsky besieged Pereyaslavl. The Russian army of Romodanovsky arrived, pressed him against the Dnieper and defeated him to pieces. So he defeated that all the supporters turned away from Yuri, and he went to the monastery.
But this did not bring calm and unification. The left bank Cossacks in 1663 were elected hetman Bryukhovetsky - the first thing the new leader accused of treason and executed rivals, Zolotarenko and Samko with his closest assistants. And right-bank colonels did not recognize the election results. They elected a second hetman, Teter, who confirmed the Hadiach agreement on the return of Ukraine to the power of Poland. He even assembled an army of Cossacks, led along with King Jan Casimir and with the Crimean Khan to the Left Bank of the Dnieper, to conquer his brothers! But the royal voivode Grigory Romodanovsky, together with the Ukrainian militia of Bryukhovetsky, utterly defeated the royal hordes near Glukhov, the surviving panes and soldiers in panic fled.
After such a confusion, some supporters separated from Teteri and elected another hetman, Peter Doroshenko. He is unexpectedly a completely new turn in Ukrainian affairs. Submission to Moscow did not suit him, Warsaw clearly showed that you would not receive support from it. Doroshenko asked for citizenship ... to Turkey. Sultan replied with a gracious consent to accept him among the "slaves of the Brilliant Ports." Of course, together with Ukraine.
Here it is full porridge! Three hetman - one subordinate to Moscow, the second Warsaw, the third to Istanbul. The fourth part, Zaporizhzhya Sich, clinging to the will and not submitting to anyone. All hetmans were cut among themselves, but victories were determined not by fighting, but by betrayal. Colonels were transferred with their regiments and cities here and there. Opinions of citizens and villagers at the same time did not ask. And then the opponents of their colonel fell upon the townspeople and villagers ... Bryukhovetsky was very afraid that he would be overthrown. The first of the hetmans paid a visit to Moscow and donated part of the granted “liberties”. I asked the tsarist administration to collect taxes from Ukraine (because a ravaged country did not give anything). And in return, let him send more troops.
The king agreed. But the war was too long, and Alexei Mikhailovich did not want to forcibly conquer the Ukrainians. If some of them again wanted to return to Poland, so be it. You look, will eventually come to their senses, then it will be clear. In 1667, the Andrusovo truce was divided into Ukraine. Left Bank and Kiev were withdrawn to Russia - the Poles remained in the western part of the country. Although Bryukhovetsky is outraged. He had hoped that Russian troops would be erected by hetman over the whole of Ukraine.
Doroshenko took advantage, most of the colonels, the Kiev metropolitan, secretly spread to him, for the sake of such an occasion, Yuri Khmelnitsky threw off the monastic robe. Not far and stupid Bryukhovetsky okrutili like a child. Colonels and Metropolitan Tukalsky turned to him. They began to convince him that if he raised a rebellion, then the Right Bank would submit to it, and Doroshenko would deny hetmanship. He was tempted and changed too. I sent delegations to Istanbul and Bakhchisarai to ask for patronage. The reason for the provocations were the Russian garrisons and the collection of taxes by the tsarist officials, whom Bryukhovetsky himself himself had asked the king. Ukrainians began to inspire - "Muscovites" enslave them.
In February 1668, in different cities, the hetman units attacked the Russians. Who was taken by surprise, cut. Traitors captured 14 thousand rubles. On 74 thousand rubles. belongings of Russian officials and soldiers, 183 guns, 142 thousand quarters of bread (sent by the Russian government to feed the distressed Ukraine!) The garrisons of Kiev, Nezhin, Chernigov, Pereyaslavl, sat in the siege. Murza Chelibey, the ambassador of Turkey and Crimea, came to Doroshenko and took the oath of allegiance to the Sultan (the hetman brought her on the cross and the Gospel). Tatar horde came. Joint army acted to the Russian borders. But then the deception was revealed. Suddenly we learned that the army of Doroshenko is approaching, and he is not going to renounce power! On the contrary, the colonels seized Bryukhovetsky and betrayed his opponent. By order of Doroshenko he was beaten to death with clubs and abandoned without burial.
But the winner miscalculated - the mean act of punishment of the hetman angered ordinary Cossacks. They boiled over, shouting that Doroshenko was generally a non-Christian and "accepted the Tatar faith." The army began to disperse, the hetman had to retreat to Chigirin. And on the Left Bank marched Grigori Romodanovsky rati, beaten and scattered the rebels. Those who remained faithful to Russia met them as redeemers. Many seduced thought again. Doroshenko and the Tatars tried to raid, but the Russian governors were building a solid defense, the predators got their teeth time after time. Then they turned to the west! On the Poles and on Western Ukraine — there was a henchman's protege, hetman Honenko.
The Polish king and pans tried to fight back, but it turned out that Doroshenko deliberately bullied them. In 1672, Sultan Mohammed IV suddenly sent a sharp reprimand to the Poles for “disturbing” the possessions of Doroshenko, who entered into the number of “slaves of our high threshold”. The king tried to justify himself, replied that Ukraine "from centuries was a legacy of our predecessors, and Doroshenko himself is none other than our citizen." For the Turks such an answer was enough. 150-thousandth army moved to Ukraine. Captured Kamenetz, Lviv, Tulchin, Ladyzhin, Uman. Poles thrashed in the tail and in the mane, and they threw Ukraine to fend for themselves. A desperate Polish supporter Hetman Honenko with the remaining 2 squad from him. Thousands of Cossacks came to the Left Bank, passed on to the Russians.
Meanwhile, voivode Romodanovsky and the boyar Matveyev actively participated in Ukrainian diplomacy. They studied the local leaders and managed to hold the post of hetman Ivan Samoilovich - the first after Bohdan Khmelnytsky, who remained loyal to Russia. But Doroshenko was cursed by the Ukrainians themselves - his “capital” Chigirin turned into the largest slave-trading market, where the Turks and Tatars resold slaves. The troops of Romodanovsky and Samoylovich made several campaigns over the Dnieper, and in 1676, the inhabitants of the besieged Chigirin rebelled and demanded that Doroshenko surrender. The king, by the way, pardoned him, accepted him among the Russian nobility, only settled away from Ukraine - in Ustyug.
However, the Turks did not bother that they had lost the formal and legal support for the intervention. One stooge was gone, quickly found another. At that time Yury Khmelnitsky was in captivity with them, and he was offered the role of hetman under the authority of the sultan. Rogue willingly agreed, began to form an army. True, his authority has already fallen too low. The “army” numbered only 150 vagrants without a clan without a tribe. But what's the difference? He was titled "Prince of Little Russia" and sent a huge army to "help" him to take the throne.
The matter was considered easy. In Istanbul, plans were made that the Ukrainians will immediately go over to the side of Yuri, and the remaining Russians will not be easily expelled. In the first campaign they were supposed to “clear out” the Right Bank, take Chigirin and Kiev, and then take the Left Bank next. Appeals were spreading - they say, the Sultan sent Khmelnitsky, “an imperious grandfather ... that he should rule over the whole of Ukraine,” and the army came “to plant him in the hetman.” It was offered to Russians to leave without a fight, having saved life and property for this, and if you don’t listen - blame yourself. An not here it was! Nobody went over to Yuri’s side, except for the obvious rabble. Russian warriors stood shoulder to shoulder with the Ukrainian Cossacks about the militia. Decisions were made on appeals "Answer no other than guns."
Twice, in 1677 and 1678, the Turkish hordes were stuck near Chigirin. The fortress withstood the hardest siege and bombardment, was actually wiped out. But the ratios of Romodanovsky and Samoylovich came up, hot battles boiled on the meadows near the Dnieper - and as a result of both Turkish armies were gone. Both buried half of the personnel and rolled back in complete disarray. For the third time, the Sultan did not dare to test the strength of the Russian-Ukrainian coalition.
3 January 1681. Turkey and Russia signed the Bakhchisarai world. It was he who put an end to 27 years of battles for Ukraine. The left bank of the Dnieper and the Kiev region went to Russia, the Right Bank was divided by the Ottoman Empire and Poland. Yuri Khmelnitsky as he scornfully called him, “Yuras nebozhchik”, tried to play the role of hetman in the Turkish part of Ukraine. Gathered a gang, made attacks on the Russian possession. But he also terrorized his own subjects, robbed him with irrepressible requisitions, and snatched women into amusement. Once I flew to the place where the wedding was played. The groom was killed, guests were robbed and beaten, Yuri and his henchmen themselves outraged the bride. But the girl’s father was a merchant, went to Istanbul and filed a complaint with the Grand Vizier. And the Turks, unlike the Poles, did not allow such blatant disgraces in their state. The war ended, Yuri no longer represented political values. He was arrested and executed for robbery.
Well, Ukraine as a result of all these wars and betrayals for a long time remained divided into Eastern and Western. From here began to accumulate the difference in industrial and cultural development, in linguistic dialects. And then in the world.