Military Review

Anti-tank gun MT-12

The 100 mm MT-12 anti-tank gun (individual GRAU - 2А29, in some sources is designated as "Rapier") is a towed anti-tank gun developed at the end of the 1960-s in the USSR. Mass production was started in 1970. This anti-tank gun is a modernization of the T-12 (ind. GRAU - 2А19). Modernization was the placement on the new carriage guns.

Anti-tank gun - a type of artillery weapons designed to destroy enemy armored vehicles. As a rule, this is a long-barreled gun with a significant initial velocity of the projectile. In most cases, the shooting of such a weapon is direct fire. When developing anti-tank guns, special attention is paid to minimizing its size and weight. This should facilitate the masking of the gun on the ground and its transportation.

This article will cover the MT-12 anti-tank gun, which entered service in the early 1970s.

The development of anti-tank guns as a form of artillery weapons occurred in the late 1930s. The main impetus for the intensive development of these weapons was the increasing role of armored vehicles on the battlefield. By the beginning of the Second World War, the main anti-tank gun was a 45-millimeter cannon, also known as “forty-five.” At the initial stage of the war, she successfully fought with tanks Wehrmacht. Over time, armor of German tanks increased, and this required more powerful anti-tank guns. This could be achieved by increasing their caliber. The main factor in the development of anti-tank guns is the confrontation of armor and shell.

After the war, the development of anti-tank guns did not stop. Artillery armament designers offered various options. They experimented with both the artillery unit and the gun carriage. For example, a D-44 gun carriage was installed on a gun carriage. In this way, the speed of self-movement of the gun at 25 kilometers per hour was ensured. Regarding the caliber of anti-tank guns, by the middle of the 1950-s it reached 85 mm.

In the middle of the 1960-s, the development of barreled artillery slowed down a bit. The reason for this was the rapid development of rocket weapons. The troops almost ceased to receive new barreled weapons, with the increasing distribution of missiles. For example, the anti-tank systems (anti-tank guided missile) were commissioned by the Soviet army.

Unknown as it turned история development of anti-tank guns, if the designers in the creation of guns would not have applied one technical innovation. Until a certain time, the barrels of anti-tank guns had rifling. The grooves give the projectile a spin, thereby ensuring its steady flight. In 1961, the T-12 gun was adopted. The barrel of this rifling gun does not have - it is a smooth-bore weapon. Stability projectile is achieved by stabilizers, drop-down in flight. This innovation has increased the caliber to 100 mm. The initial velocity of the projectile also increased. In addition, a non-rotating projectile is more suitable for a shaped charge. In the future, smooth-bore guns began to be used for firing not only projectiles but also guided missiles.

The design of the gun T-12 was developed in the design bureau of the Yurginsky machine-building plant. The works were led by V.Ya. Afanasyev. and Korneev L.V. For the new gun, a double-wall gun carriage and a barrel from the X-NUMX-mm rifled anti-tank gun D-85 was used. The barrel of the T-48 from the D-12 differed only in the 48-mm smooth-monoblock pipe and the muzzle brake. Channel T-100 consisted of a chamber and a smooth-wall cylindrical guide part. The chamber was formed by two long and one short cones.

At the end of the 1960-ies for the gun developed an improved carriage. Work on the new carriage began in connection with the transition to a new tractor, which has great speed. The upgraded instrument was assigned the designation MT-12. Serial production of this anti-tank gun began in the year 1970. The ammunition included in the ammunition made it possible to hit modern at that time tanks - American M-60, German Leopard-1.

The anti-tank gun MT-12 is also known as the "Rapier." The gun carriage has a torsion bar that is locked to ensure stability when firing. During the modernization, the cushioning stroke length was increased, for which it was necessary to introduce a hydraulic brake for the first time in artillery. Also, during modernization, they returned to the spring balancing mechanism, since the hydraulic balancing mechanism at different elevation angles needed constant adjustment of the compensator. The wheels were borrowed from the truck ZIL-150.

Smooth barrel (length 61 caliber) is made in the form of a monoblock pipe assembled with a muzzle brake, a holder and a breech.

The MT-L (multipurpose transporter is lightweight) or MT-LB (armored transporter version) is used as a tractor. This conveyor received in the Soviet army is very widespread. At its base, barreled and rocket self-propelled artillery installations were created. Caterpillar drive provides the conveyor with excellent cross-country ability. A tractor is able to tow an MT-12 anti-tank gun with a maximum speed of 60 km / h. The power reserve of this conveyor is 500 km. Calculation tools during transportation is placed inside the machine. During the march, the gun is closed with canvas covers protecting the weapon from dust, dirt, snow and rain.

The transfer time of the anti-tank gun from the marching position to the combat position is no more than 1 minutes. Upon arrival at the position, the gunners remove the covers and the beds are raised. With divorced beds, the gun has greater stability. After that, lower the lower armor shield. Shield cover provides protection for the calculation and mechanisms against shrapnel and bullet damage. The calculation opens viewing windows in the shield and mounts sighting devices.

When firing direct fire in sunny weather or when shooting against the sun, the OP4М-40У sight is additionally equipped with a special light filter. The APN-6-40 night sight, which can be equipped with a gun, improves the fighting qualities of the gun. For shooting in adverse weather conditions, a version of the gun with a radar sight was developed.

The calculation of the anti-tank gun includes: the commander, who controls the actions of the calculation; gunner, using for guidance flywheels; charging.

The shot is made by pressing the trigger mechanism or using a cable (remotely). Valve-type tool lock, semi-automatic. In preparation for the shot from the loader, you only need to send a shell into the chamber. Before the first shot the shutter opens manually. After the shot, the liner is automatically ejected.

To reduce recoil energy, the barrel of the gun was equipped with a muzzle brake. Because of its rather interesting form, the muzzle brake was nicknamed “salt shaker”. At the time of the shot from the muzzle brake a bright flame escapes.

Anti-tank gun MT-12

The ammunition of the gun MT-12 consists of several types of ammunition. Armor-piercing piercing shells are used to destroy tanks, self-propelled guns and other armored targets. Direct shot range - 1880 m. Shot with a cumulative fragmentation projectile, as a rule, are used for firing direct fire on targets with powerful armor protection. Manpower, gun emplacements, field constructions of the engineering type are destroyed with the help of high-explosive fragmentation shells. When mounted on a gun, a special guidance device can be used with anti-tank missile shots. The rocket is controlled by a laser beam. The maximum firing range for this is 4000 m. Shells - reusable. After making a shot, they are placed in special containers and sent for repair.

The anti-tank gun MT-12 is capable of firing not only direct fire, but also from closed positions. For this purpose, the gun is equipped with a C71-40 sight with a PG-1M panorama.

The MT-12 anti-tank gun has been in service for over 40 years.

Performance characteristics:
Caliber - 100 mm.
The initial speed of the sabot projectile is 1575 m / s.
Weight - 3100 kg.
Vertical pickup angle - from –6 to + 20 degrees.
The angle of horizontal guidance - 54 degrees.
Rate of Fire - 6 shots per minute.
The longest firing range - 8200 m.

Based on materials:
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  1. rennim
    rennim April 7 2014 09: 14
    A well-deserved weapon that has served in many hot spots. On my own I would add that there are modifications with the radar "Ruta" and "Brass knuckles". We had "Routes" in service with a brigade in an anti-tank battalion.
  2. ICT
    ICT April 7 2014 10: 05
    as the film parade of planets said, "after the enemy retreated, you were hit by a missile strike.,
    where did the rocket come from?
    from there
  3. chenia
    chenia April 7 2014 10: 29
    old woman, made the first shot of her almost.
  4. wanderer_032
    wanderer_032 April 7 2014 10: 41
    A good tool for the years 60-70s of the last century, but now it is clearly outdated.
    Definitely in a modern battle against technically superior enemy forces, these guns will not stand.
    As can be seen from the photos and videos, self-propelled modifications of this gun were delivered only in the Airborne Forces or MP.
    All other guns are towed.
    At the same time, they do not have such a gun carriage as the D-30, which can conduct circular fire without changing its position.
    And the range of fire is not enough for modern conditions 8,2 km. A rather large mass of 3,1 tons will not allow the calculation to quickly change its firing position on its own if the tractor is damaged or destroyed.
    In addition, after the first shot from this gun (with characteristic unmasking signs), the gun’s position is very quickly detected and destroyed. This was during the Second World War.
    Here I propose to watch films on this topic.

    In general, it's time for them to resign already.
    1. _CAMOBAP_
      _CAMOBAP_ 1 May 2014 01: 07
      In the Airborne Forces, such guns have never been in service - there is nothing to pull, and the shots to it are healthy. As a PT, there were at first ASU -57 (people called from * Andavoshki - pardon me, but you can't throw out a word from the song). Then the Su-85, but they are not airborne. Then there was a period in general without cannon anti-tank artillery, and only now, it seems, the Sprut, 100 mm, began to arrive a little bit. Although about this "Octopus", too, twenty years ago, as they tried ...
      1. devastator
        devastator 29 June 2014 21: 55
        D-30 is the "Landing" for that, to provide ...
        A cumulative projectile, and at a distance of a direct shot, will "lay down" any tank without active armor is guaranteed.
        Well, and LNG-9, perhaps, in extreme cases, it may come in handy.
    2. devastator
      devastator 29 June 2014 21: 48
      That's right!
      And now, even in defense, one MT-12 under normal conditions should be spent on one enemy tank.
      In the offensive, 3 pieces of MT-12 are considered quite acceptable losses per enemy tank.
      But any tank costs more than three MT-12s!
      I understand that the logic is creepy, but such is life.
      1. czes
        czes 16 June 2021 23: 56
        "But any tank costs more than three MT-12s!" And the gunners are not included in the price of the gun?
  5. Argon
    Argon April 7 2014 11: 12
    I agree with the wanderer 032. It was seen that these guns were firing at a shooting range - they hit the 800-1100m target from the ninth salvo, four guns fired. Of course, we can talk about the lack of skill and dexterity of calculations, but in my opinion it jumps so hard that we can’t talk about the simultaneous shot and retention of the sight until it is aimed, it is ready, it will fire, the tank will have time to do 2-3 maneuvers.
    1. devastator
      devastator 29 June 2014 22: 00
      Just no luck with the calculation.
      Actually, the MT-12 is a sniper gun. Competent gunners at a distance of more than 1500 can plant the first shell in the embrasure (150x150mm).
      One of my Teachers had a senior sergeant under his command, who could even smudge ("his") SPG-9 from 800 meters into a 20-liter canister (on a dare, on a box of cognac) from XNUMX meters the first time!
      Probably there in the calculation there were all the rags like me belay
  6. chenia
    chenia April 7 2014 11: 23
    Quote: Argon
    It was possible to see the firing of these guns at the firing range; at 800-1100 m, they were shot from the ninth salvo, four guns fired.

    Volleys you say shoots. And they didn’t get into 3 by 2 meter crap. Yes, you just did not see the tracer (speed-1500m / s).

    Listen to a specialist.

    Quote: Sveik
    A magnificent gun and a huge, exceptionally accurate sniper rifle.

    We have teachers in a XNUMX-liter jar (with tinted water - otherwise you can’t see horseradish) at such a distance.
    1. Argon
      Argon April 7 2014 14: 47
      The target in the dimensions and dimensions of the side projection of the BMP-2 (I don’t know the designation), but it turned out that they fired in volleys, the speed of the target was about 35 km / h. In case of defeat, the target "falls down." , and the target passed twenty times, they sometimes did not have time to fire a volley. Which gave rise to the exercises in oral folk art (of a very high class) to the lieutenant colonel who commanded this whole "computer." ? And then they did not sip from it? I listen to a specialist wassat .
      1. vietnam7
        vietnam7 April 8 2014 06: 36
        I am not an expert on guns, but in 97, when we just got into the battalion after the militia, I was appointed a sniper of the reconnaissance group, they gave me the SVD and after a short period of time we handed over the night raid of the reconnaissance group. I shoot like where I need to, all the lights go out, the targets go down, we go back to the original one, I see all the guys smile, everyone tells how he put all the targets down, and only the company commander comes up "a little" angry. If it is politically correct to translate his speech: "Dear scouts, you shoot badly, so I had to give Uncle Misha some fire water so that he would turn off the lights for you and lay down targets and you yourself would not get anywhere." I mean that if we were never hit by the whole group, it does not mean that our weapons were old and bad.
  7. brn521
    brn521 April 7 2014 11: 48
    How an anti-tank gun became obsolete in the trash. But in local conflicts it can come in handy to pick fortifications and buildings at great distances. Even a poorly prepared calculation will cope with this.
    As a reserve, too, will pull. There isn’t much artillery, in the case of a serious troubles much better than nothing.
    1. wanderer_032
      wanderer_032 April 7 2014 12: 23
      Quote: brn521
      As a reserve, too, will pull.

      Only for ceremonial payments or to the museum. And the rest is for scrap.
      And on BHVT it is better to deliver more RPG-7s with new shots, ATGMs, etc. fairly inexpensive and more mobile weapons of this kind.
      Speaking of ammunition, I wonder how many of them were irretrievably lost (including to "Rapiers") during the so-called "disposal" when warehouses were torn across the country?
      What will shoot these guns in case of what?
      That D-30 would be better left, they are more versatile.
    2. Mister X
      Mister X April 7 2014 20: 13
      Quote: brn521
      But in local conflicts it can come in handy to pick fortifications and buildings at great distances.

      The MT-12 anti-tank battery was used by the Moldovan side in the Transnistrian conflict.
      They opposed the T-64BV tanks, which before the conflict were in long-term storage in the 59th motorized rifle division of the 14th army.
      The Rapier battery burned at least one tank and knocked out several.

      Article "T-64BV in battle" in the Military Review:
  8. Locksmith
    Locksmith April 7 2014 13: 20
    Quote: Sveik
    extremely accurate sniper rifle

    Somehow, on the train, when the gunners in the same car drove to the training ground, the flyers boasted that they got 1 km into the matchbox from a rapier, then we were very surprised. wink
    1. wanderer_032
      wanderer_032 April 7 2014 16: 52
      Quote: Locksmith

      Somehow, on the train, when the gunners in the same car drove to the training ground, the flyers boasted that they got 1 km into the matchbox from a rapier, then we were very surprised.

      All these are car tales, you should not listen. Well, you get once in one tank.
      And then what?
      It is better to think about where to "pinch" after you shoot from the "Rapier" once, because this shot will be far away and many can see.
    2. _CAMOBAP_
      _CAMOBAP_ 1 May 2014 01: 14
      The cannon is very accurate - in the third year, I managed to get into the school as a "supervisor" for the first practical shooting of the freshmen, and after they otbahali the teachers gave us the opportunity to shoot ourselves - and more than one shell at a time, we shot from the heart. True, then her ears rang for a week - her shot was very clear and sharp, but this is an everyday matter. But here is a matchbox for a kilometer ... it will only be possible to see it through a telescope.
  9. xsapranx
    xsapranx April 7 2014 13: 31
    MT-LB + MT-12 two girlfriends ... The gun is extremely accurate who mastered the pine sawed off for a bet ..
    Another thing is that in modern combat "Goodbye Homeland" the same RPGs are easier, cheaper and in rare cases more preferable ...
    1. vietnam7
      vietnam7 April 8 2014 06: 56
      How many meters will you need to let the tank in to hit it in a weak spot?
  10. mrDimkaP
    mrDimkaP April 7 2014 17: 01
    Good gun, but towed ...

    It seems to me that you need to develop some kind of tractor with mounts for guns of different types so that you could fire directly from it.
  11. chenia
    chenia April 7 2014 17: 49
    Quote: Argon
    target speed of approximately 35km \ h.

    Quote: Argon
    Uncle, how did you tint the water in the jar?

    2, the task does not imply such conditions (6 km / h - 100 m / min and all), and the targets are pulled on a slide. What you say is characteristic of tank directors (tankers can more accurately say what kind of task this is.). But at the same time, the speed is still high. and the targets are not pendulum (overturning), but contact (a grid on both sides of the plywood with voltage applied), and when it breaks through, it closes and the signal on the remote control. There were hits (they just didn’t report to you), but 9 times (I just can’t understand how they shot in one gulp) they hit the support post and the target fell over.

    Ink was tinted (shot at a dispute - vodka, cognac). and then sipped these noble drinks.
    1. Argon
      Argon April 7 2014 21: 47
      Yes, it was at the "tank" position of the training ground (I got there at the training camp in 95g). Two electric winches are pulled along the rails, the frame is covered with a tarpaulin with altered belts (sort of like a quilt) it was always watered before the controls!? after the fall, the smoke squib should still be triggered, but they were not available. Move at an angle to the bisectis, I think the angular velocity of the target is approximately the same as the speed you specified. They did not have the task of firing a salvo, so it turned out, the potpol received a signal about the movement of the target, made a wave of the flag, the gunners moved up to the sights, at this time the target was shown from behind the hillock, the shots were almost simultaneous, which was not usual for the landfill and caused everyone's attention, but they did not report on the supply (see above), but the flood was broadcast - on the entire polygon. By the way, for tankers, a target "tank to the front" was put on this cart by about 2/3 smaller in area.
  12. lexx2038
    lexx2038 April 7 2014 21: 52
    To preserve and store just in case, to throw out a lot of mind is not necessary. In which case, I think how an ambush weapon will go for at least a few shots, and the price of a tank that it can kill if it's lucky is not comparable.
    1. czes
      czes 16 June 2021 23: 42
      Shooting a modern tank from the MT-12 is suicide. An artilleryman is worth more than an infantryman! But for all sorts of Bradley, Cougars and Strikers once you can.
  13. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I April 8 2014 03: 09
    For a long time no one argues that the MT-12 is outdated as an anti-tank weapon, but, if desired, the MT-12 can also be "improved". Here the Americans are developing a 120mm active-jet hypersonic tank projectile (the abbreviation "flew out" of the head), thus solving the problem of improving the armor-piercing qualities of traditional weapons. What if we try to "make a 100mm active-reactive hypersonic projectile, albeit uncontrollable, but cheaper? And if it is also corrected using the relatively cheap RCIC technology?"
  14. DimaChorny
    DimaChorny 3 October 2014 19: 56
    interesting article. Somewhere I came across an experimental T-64 + MT-12 tank. It is interesting to know more about him ...
  15. czes
    czes 16 June 2021 23: 59
    Quote: Argon
    jumping strongly

    Most likely this is a design flaw - probably, the haulers have a shoulder ...