Military Review

Cossack Horde against Tsar Boris Godunov

Cossack Horde against Tsar Boris Godunov

Cossacks were the main force of the army of the impostor Gregory Otrepiev

The events of the initial period of the Russian Distemper (1600 — 1605 years) are commonly regarded as the struggle of three political forces: the Tsar of Moscow Russia Boris Godunov, the political allies of the impostor Grigory Otrepyev — governor Yuri Mniszek and other Polish gentry, as well as the Polish king Sigismund III. The tradition of such a hierarchy of protagonists of the beginning of the Troubles dates back to the official ideology of the Romanov dynasty that reigned in Russia from the 1613 year. The kings of this dynasty, which was not too high-born and seized the Russian throne thanks to external circumstances, did not want to include in the official chronicle of Russia the impartial truth for them. The truth is that the Romanov dynasty completely owes its accession to Moscow to military actions and the arbitrariness of the Cossack people.

Romanov seemed to be a more prestigious version, that they received power from the hands of the nationwide Zemsky Sobor, which de crowned the struggle of all sensible people of Russia against the crimes of Tsar Boris Godunov and the arbitrariness of the Polish interventionists. The Cossacks, with their reputation as congenital adventurers and amateurs, on occasion to plunder the Great Russian sister, under the department of "sensible" passed with great difficulty. Consequently, their active participation in the events of the Troubles should, in modern terms, be somewhat retouched.

Anti-Kazak Sovereign of All Russia

The Russian poet Maximilian Voloshin called the emperor Peter I "the first Bolshevik on the throne". The characteristic, although figurative, is exceptionally accurate. If so, then the tsar of Moscow Russia, Boris Godunov, can be poetically called "the first nestling of Petrov's nest." Indeed, all the major internal political undertakings of Tsar Boris were the forerunners of the more consistent, decisive, and invariably bloody reforms of Peter.

Having completely taken over the reigns of the Russian state in the year of the death of Ivan the Terrible (1584 year), Boris Godunov proved himself as a smart creator of the state, a talented builder and an experienced diplomat. By order of Boris Godunov, the White City was built in Moscow - a fortification of a scale unique to Europe. In 1602, Smolensk completed the almost impregnable Smolensk fortress, which later became the main outpost of Russia on the western borders. Under Tsar Boris, the first socio-economic description of Muscovy was made, the first map was drawn up. Under him, the first regiments of the “foreign system” —the prototype of the future military creation of Peter I — were established. Godunov brilliantly, with little blood, ended the long Russian-Swedish war (1590 — 1593 years). According to the Tyavzinsky peace treaty, Russia regained Ivangorod, Yam, Koporye - almost all the lands seized by Sweden as a result of the unsuccessful Livonian war for Russia.

Boris Godunov, to the great misfortune for the whole country, was persecuted by evil fate: the absurdity systematically spread by boyars-slanderers about the responsibility of the Godunov family for the death of Tsarevich Dimitri, the younger son of Ivan the Terrible. This boy, a patient with a very severe form of epilepsy (the last attack before his death lasted continuously for three days) fell during a regular seizure of convulsions on a sharp narrow knife, which he played “poke”. Godunov very thoroughly investigated the case of the death of the prince, and the main investigator who worked for almost three months was the main political opponent of the Godunovs - Rurikovich by origin, Prince Vasily Shuisky.

Tsar Boris perfectly prepared for the coming reign of his son Fyodor, who, having managed to rule in Russia, could probably anticipate the "bone-cutting" reforms of the extravagant Peter I. Intelligent, strong-willed, diversified, enjoying excellent health Fyodor Godunov could become the best autocrat for the whole history Rus-Russia. Could. But he did not ...

Fyodor Godunov was brutally murdered on 11 on June 1605 of the year by order of the criminal clique of Russian boyars, led by Vasily Golitsyn, Bogdan Belsky and Peter Basmanov. The renegades tried to buy the innocent blood of an “enlightened prince” the nearest place in the retinue of the rapist and murderer, the rootless “Lyashsky thief” Gregory Otrepiev. Surprisingly, until the end, only hired German officers remained loyal to Tsar Fedor Godunov, who, unlike the Muscovites, did not lose men's honor and human form.

What was the root cause of the rapid extinction of the dynasty of the Godunovs - a dynasty that gave so good hope and so unkindly collapsed? This reason, as it seems, was the consistent anti-Kazak policy of Tsar Boris Godunov, who tried as much as possible to diminish the military power of the Cossack people and seize Cossack lands. In his anti-Kazak policy, as well as in many other initiatives, Boris Godunov was the predecessor of Peter I, who drowned in blood, as you know, the Zaporozhian Sich and threw on the Army Don strangulation of the state military tax. In the events of the Troubles, in the words of Leo Tolstoy, the Cossacks "became a fuse in the Russian barrel of gunpowder."

The oldest Slavic people of Eurasia

The official history of the Russian Empire tried to affirm in the public opinion a version that the Cossacks were, they say, not an original people, but descendants of Russian peasants who had escaped from serfdom and the state tax on the Dnieper and Don. True, this version did not explain in any way why these “peasants” in the most gracious lands of the south did not cling to the usual for them, logically, plows and harrows, but for muskets and sabers. It was also unclear how the “peasants” could have been approved by the Troops for approval of the law on unconditional punishment by the death of any Cossack who dared to plow the land and grow grain.

Cossacks on the guard service. Epifan. XVII century. Artist - O. Fedorov

The familiar mythological formality of the official version of the origin of the Cossack people was already clear to the court historian of the House of Romanov Nikolai Karamzin. “Where the Cossacks came from,” wrote Karamzin, “is not precisely known, but in any case it is older than the Batu invasions in the 1223 year. These knights lived in communities, not recognizing the power of neither Poles, nor Russians, nor Tatars. ”

If you believe Karamzin, and you don’t have to doubt the knowledge of the largest Russian historian, it turns out that the Cossacks are the oldest Slavic people in south-eastern Russia. This conclusion is obvious if only because all ethnological scholars attribute the beginning of the ethnic folding of modern Russians and Ukrainians to the time “after the Batu invasion,” that is, after the defeat of Kievan Rus by the Mongol troops and the beginning of independent existence of North-Eastern Vladimir Russia. And if the Cossacks, according to Karamzin's authoritative opinion, are “older than the Batu invasions,” how can they be descendants of Russian peasants enslaved only at the end of the 16th century?

At the end of the reign of Ivan the Terrible and much later, the Cossacks, Zaporizhzhya and Don, were essentially a single ethnosocium, and the Zaporizhian Sich on the Dnieper was its territorial, cultural, and political center. Just look at the excellent, old letters of Parsun (portraits) of Don Atamans of the 16th — 17th centuries, exhibited in the Starocherkassk Museum of Cossack History, to understand that, in the anthropological type of persons, hairstyles and clothes, the Don people even in the middle of the 18th century were no different from Zaporozhians.

Tsar Ivan the Terrible viewed the Cossack Army State as a dangerous and unpredictable neighbor, with whom it was easier to be friends than to fight. The Zaporizhian Sich was far away from Russia, the Tsar's emissaries traveled very rarely to her, but here the Don Cossacks were practically near Moscow - in the 16th century, Don Cossacks of the Chiga clan lived even north of modern Voronezh. The need to hide behind the Cossacks from the raids of the Crimean and Volga Tatars, and even more the fear of Muscovy to become the target of predatory Cossack military raids, gave rise to the annual payments to the Cossacks of “state holidays”, that is, in fact, a veiled tribute.

This tribute to Moscow Russia to the Great Don Army was rather large at that time and was paid mainly by gunpowder, lead and grain bread. The size of grain supplies to the Don in the first half of the XVII century reached 200 tons, having increased by the end of this century to 500 tons. In addition, the Donians annually received from the treasury of Muscovy: 5 thousand rubles (a very large amount for that time), 430 halves of German Hamburg cloth (at a price of 5 rubles 50 kopecks for half), 230 pounds of guns and gun powder (1 pounds equal to 16 kilograms ), 115 pounds of lead, 10 pounds of iron forgings for sabers, 6,5 thousands of quarters (1 a quarter equal to 210 liters) of rye flour, 500 buckets of wine (1 bucket - 18 liters). As you can see, the payment of Muscovy donts for their peace was very generous in the era of Ivan the Terrible.

Another kind of “sovereign's salary” was the procedure for accepting the Don Winter Village in Moscow at Grozny. Usually, once a year, in the winter, Don Cossacks sent their embassy, ​​called Zimnaya Stanitsy, to Moscow for a “sovereign leave”. This embassy included from 120 to 150 generic Cossacks belonging to a noble Don foreman. Since the trip to Moscow was associated with various privileges and privileges for its participants, every Cossack sought to get into the composition of the Zimnoy stanitsa.

Upon arrival in Moscow, the Cossacks were primarily sent to the Ambassadorial Order, the then foreign ministry: the date of the audience with the Great Sovereign was agreed upon. On the appointed day in the Small Throne Room, the Zimniy stanitsa was received by the king himself according to the rank of the foreign embassy. Then followed a sumptuous dinner with the participation of the king, at which every member of Zimnaya stanitsa received as gifts weapon, money, silk taffeta, German cloth, sometimes sable. The Ataman of the village was personally presented with a silver ladle encrusted with gems or a rare work piece. The Cossacks lived in Moscow on the "sovereign's salary" almost all winter and before the spring, receiving a "sovereign leave" for the Army, and gifts to the road, went home.

"And the Cossacks do not sell protected goods!"

As the state power of Muscovite Rus increased, these relations of veiled dannici began to annoy the Muscovites more and more. With the entry of Boris Godunov in 1598, the throne of the “autocrat of All Russia” was decided to completely revise the Russian policy towards the Cossack people.

The first anti-Kazak law, approved by Boris Godunov, eliminated for the Cossacks the right of duty-free trade on Russian territory. This right was given to the Cossacks "forever and ever" by a special decree of Ivan the Terrible - as a gift for the military zeal of the Cossacks in conquering Kazan and Astrakhan, which ultimately ensured the success of these military expeditions of Russia.

In the future, Tsar Boris constantly strengthened the anti-Kazak trade rules, as well as the responsibility for their non-fulfillment: Russian people were forbidden to sell gunpowder and lead to the Cossacks, and bread from the year 1601. As the famous Russian historian S.M. Solovyov, in 1601, Tsar Boris “ordered the children of the boyar Ryazanians to ask: who to Don to the atamans and the Cossacks sent wine, potion, sulfur, saltpeter and lead, food, armor and helmets and all kinds of stocks, protected items?”.

Boris Godunov. State Historical Museum in Moscow.

The investigation found out that the tribal clan of the Ryazan nobles Lyapunov was engaged in this. The eldest of the Lyapunovs, Zakhara, was "mercilessly carved with a whip." Subsequently, Tsar Boris, probably, was very sorry for this execution, because the Lyapunov brothers in the years of the Troubles became the consistent and implacable enemies of the Godunov dynasty.

In 1602, Russian legislation began to demand from the provincial governors of the regions bordering the Don Army, the unconditional arrest of all Cossacks on the territory of Muscovy with subsequent imprisonment in prison for investigation of their origin. At the same time, all and all sorts of forms of “state leave” for the Don Cossacks were abolished, which, of course, practically eliminated the procedure for accepting the Zimnykh villages of the Don Army in Moscow.

All these activities of the administration of Boris Godunov in a new way highlighted in the consciousness of the Cossacks a large-scale construction campaign begun in 1585 year on the erection of supporting fortresses and even Muscovite cities in the Cossack lands. In 1585, for the first time on the land of the Cossack Prisud, the Russian fortress Voronezh was built. In 1586, Livny and Samara were built, then Tsaritsyn (1589) and Saratov (1590). With the construction on Donets in 1596, Belgorod, and in 1600, the fortress Tsarev-Borisov, Moscow Russia actually completed the strategic coverage of the lands of the Don Cossacks with a chain of fortified forts and fortresses.

At the beginning of this building campaign, the Donians favorably perceived the arrival of the Muscovites in the Cossack lands. However, after the introduction of discriminatory trade rules and police measures against the Cossacks by Boris Godunov, the entire Don Army saw an attempt to launch a decisive attack on the Cossacks' original freedom in the building initiatives of Moscow Russia. And in the hitherto quiet for the Muscovites, the Don was highly leapt by the ramparts of Cossack rage.

Damn defrocked and Lyashsky thief

The story of the monstrous cherk (monk) gryshka Otrepiev’s adventure begins in the middle of 1600. At the very beginning of this year, Tsar Boris Godunov became seriously ill. By the fall, the king’s state of health had become critical: he could not receive foreign ambassadors or even walk on his own. In Moscow, talk began about the already predetermined death of the autocrat.

During this period, the numerous, although not too well-born, Old Moscow clan of the Romanovs-Zakharyins almost began to openly prepare a coup d'etat. The initiator of the attempt on the "sovereign word and deed" was the well-known Moscow dandy Fyodor Nikitich Romanov, who later became Filaret, the patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. Of the numerous Romanov estates, battle serfs and dependent nobles began to arrive in Moscow. One of them was Yury Bogdanovich Otrepyev - the future Lzhedmitry I, who is also the sheer and “Lyashsky thief” Grishka.

Boris Godunov, who had dried up from the disease, nevertheless managed to prove that an attempt to remove the skin from a not yet dead lion is always punishable. On the night of October 26 1600, the archers surrounded the Romanovs' estate on Varvarka and began the assault. Several dozen supporters of the Romanovs were killed in the assault, and the main instigators of the coup appeared in court.

The court of the Boyar Duma, in view of the obvious evidence, found the Romanovs guilty of the attempted murder of the tsar and high treason. Punishment for such a crime could only be the death penalty. Boris Godunov hesitated for a long time, but in the end, apparently due to his illness, he decided to spare the traitors. By this he, who had hitherto not been mistaken in major issues of domestic policy, signed the death sentence of his own dynasty. A subtle intriguer and ambitious Fyodor Romanov was forcibly tonsured as a monk, and his relatives — the brothers Alexander, Mikhail, Vasily, Ivan, as well as the son-in-law of the princes Cherkassky and Sitsky — were sent into exile.

All these events did not affect Grishka Otrepyev, who, because of his ignorance, could not count on forgiveness, but only on the executioner's block. Miraculously escaped from the Otropiev Romanov estate, he quickly adopted the monastic status, the only method of the Middle Ages, which allowed him to escape from the chopping block. His further wanderings are well known: Otrepiev fled from the Chudov Monastery to Galich, then to Murom, and then to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Here, in the estate of the richest magnates Vishnevetsky, Otrepiev talentedly imitated a serious illness and confessed to the “mortal core” that he is the same Tsarevich Dimitri, the younger son of Ivan the Terrible, miraculously saved himself from the black wiles of Tsar Boris.

Poles with irony in political intrigues perceived the words of the rogue, and Hryshka Otrepiev for a long time was aimlessly hanging around Poland surrounded by the same traitors as the Khripunov brothers. Apparently, the Poles did not seriously consider the political potential of Otrep'yev, and they did not want to quarrel with the powerful Godunov for the sake of no real support for the adventurer. The matter reached the point that the Polish prince Adam Vishnevetsky finally decided to arrest the pretender and extradite him to Tsar Boris: only the personal intervention of King Sigismund III was saved at the last moment by the cherite Grishka.

Otrepiev’s humiliated position in Crown Poland changed dramatically only after he had pulled the Cossack trump from the greasy sleeve of his cassock. After reviewing the customs and attitudes of the Commonwealth, the outcast realized that he couldn’t boil porridge with the Polish gentry, and therefore made his main political stake on the Zaporozhian and Don Cossacks who were extremely embittered on Tsar Boris.

Mobilization of the Cossack horde

In the spring of 1603, Grishka Otrepiev, unexpectedly for the Poles, disappeared from the territory of Crown Poland. And he appeared in the Zaporizhzhya Sich in the company of the Cossack petty officers Gerasim Evangelik. Several incendiary speeches - and always ready for war and robbery Zaporizhzhya Sich began to boil. Known for their organizational talent, the Cossacks instantly changed the humiliated moans of the monk Gregory to the non-alternative order “Spolokh” - a symbol of the general Cossack mobilization. Sich began to vigorously buy weapons, recruit hunters from the Ukrainian peasant flakes into the Cossack teams. By the end of the year, the scale of the formation of the rebel army of False Dmitry I had already frightened King Sigismund himself: December 12 of 1603 by special decree the king banned the sale of weapons to the Cossacks. The Cossacks did not pay the slightest manifesto the slightest attention.

"Dmitri the Impostor at Vishnevetsky". Painting by Nikolai Nevreva, 1876 year

Since the interaction of Zaporozhye and the Don Cossacks was carried out in that era on an ongoing basis, through the mediation of the Dinsky (Don) Zaporozhye kuren, very soon the Dontsa joined the military preparations of the False Dmitry. Their participation in the upcoming military expedition was not only a “call to plunder of the heart,” like that of the Cossacks, but perhaps a vital measure. By stopping supplies of gunpowder and lead to the Don, and also banning the sale of these goods to the Cossacks, Boris Godunov left the Don Cossacks without any “weapon potion” in the event of war with the Tatars, Nogai and Turks. Under such circumstances, the Don people could not accept this situation.

The genius of Pushkin perfectly conveyed the atmosphere of sincere willingness of the Don to go to the end in the war with the hated Boris Godunov. In the drama of the same name, the Cossack emissary at Otrepiev’s headquarters, Ataman Korela, to the impostor’s question: “Who are you?” Answers:

Cossack, I have been sent to you from Don

From the free troops, from the brave chieftains,

From the upper and lower Cossacks ...

And he immediately receives political guarantees for taking full account of the vital interests of the Cossack people of the Don:

We thank our Don army.

We know that now the Cossacks

Unfairly oppressed, persecuted;

But if God helps us enter

On the throne of the fathers, then we are of old

We wish our faithful free Don.

It is clear that, having heard such or similar words from the False Dmitry, the ataman Andrey Korela immediately recognized the renegade as the “true sovereign”. As the famous historian of the Cossacks V.D. Sukhorukov, the ataman Korela “in the name of all his fellows beat the impostor with his brow as the legitimate sovereign, presented gifts and reassured all the Cossacks with loyalty and devotion.”

Having received a corresponding report from Korela, the Don Troop Circle rejoiced and, through the accidentally captured boyar Semen Godunov, then released to Russia, ordered the Russian autocrat to be conveyed the following words: “Our persecutor Boris! Soon we will be up to you, on Moscow, with Prince Dimitry. ”

Boris Godunov was very excited about this message. He immediately sent to Don his close boyar Pyotr Khrushchev with an extract of the decision of the Boyar Duma about the death of the present Tsarevich Dmitry, and also with a proposal to immediately restore the “sovereign leave” to the Don. Alas, this sensible offer is too late. Already mobilized Don, together with Zaporizhzhya Sich, was ready for war and wanted only war. Doners, without reading, immediately broke the Tsar's statement, and poor, beaten Khrushchev, imprisoned in chains and put backwards on a horse, sent to False Dmitry. Seeing the impostor, Petrushka Khrushchev, shedding tears, immediately recognized in him the "sovereign son Dimitri."

However, Otrepyev’s mishandling of Khrushchev and other Moscow lackeys was no longer necessary: ​​his well-armed rebel army crossed the Dnieper and approached Moravsk, the first Russian fortress on its way to Moscow. An inexorable Cossack horde was advancing into Russia, which the Godunov dynasty, undermined by the betrayals of the Moscow boyars, could not stop.
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  1. Turkir
    Turkir April 5 2014 08: 55
    Very interesting and quite detailed. hi
  2. avt
    avt April 5 2014 09: 19
    Quote: Turkir
    Very interesting and quite detailed.

    Yeah, such "great historical" discoveries that just ayyay laughing Looking at the flag, I can’t resist the question. In the Soviet school history lessons were skipped and even for the sake of interest they didn’t open the history textbook, they didn’t really know that together with the Lyakhs, the "zealots of Orthodoxy" - the Cossacks, for example, the Troitsko Sergiev Lavra were starved to death under siege? ?? What is new here, well, except for the current "discovery" about a certain "ancient" Slavic people? Slavonicness of which, in general, the same Kazakhs very much dispute on this site? There is only one new thing - just like with the new, ancient velikoukras , the idea of ​​some "Cossack" is being introduced, which the German lackey Krasnov launched in the 17th century. And so everything is the same as always - as soon as the central power weakens, the Ruin and "The Ruin of the Russian Land" immediately begins, where brother to brother with the obligatory justification of his own, preferably original, superiority and the right to power. Since the Old Testament times, nothing has happened. they haven’t come up with a new one, but how everything settles down after the general massacre, called the civil war, and everything new, ancient and free from the foot gets in the scent, then everything falls into place.At once, yesterday they cheerfully walked by dashing robbery in cities and villages, become "defenders of Orthodoxy, the support and hope of the sovereign", on which only the Russian Land rests and really begin to actually perform very specific feats for the good of the fatherland.
    1. Turkir
      Turkir April 6 2014 14: 18
      Understanding your point of view, I want to draw your attention to some points.
      Cossacks from the time of Boris Godunov and Cossacks from the time of Nicholas II, these are different ethnic groups. By ethnos, I understand not only a group of people united by clans or one blood, religion, but also a vector of action.
      In the time of Boris Godunov, the Cossacks acted independently (dependence was only on military supplies from Moscow) and many military operations were carried out excluding Moscow’s foreign policy and responded to current issues that developed on the border with them, the Cossacks. This situation also happened later, already under Mikhail Romanov. Because of the complaints of Turkey (!) Atamans elected by the Cossacks, imprisoned, TORTURED in Moscow. In memory I now have one last name, Ataman Starikov. It seems he cut off his tongue. Pay attention to the moment in this article: Boris Godunov stopped supplying the Cossacks. Than? Gunpowder and weapons.
      Naturally, the Don Cossacks regarded this as a betrayal, which left them virtually unarmed in the face of enemies. And what was happening at that moment in Moscow, not everyone understood.
      On the example of Ukraine it can be seen that in the information age, it’s very easy to expand the vector of the ethnic group with enemies, especially if the enemies are in the ethnos itself. Which happened THEN in Moscow itself. Where is it, the Cossacks, to understand the political leapfrog of the Time of Troubles.
      Cossacks under Nicholas II, these are already state people, vector completely different.
      People of a certain era and their actions should be evaluated from the moral point of view inherent in that era, and not from the standpoint of today.
    2. Turkir
      Turkir April 6 2014 16: 57
      Memory failed. I want to fix one point in my previous comment.
      Ataman Old... There was such a wonderful book, back in Soviet times: "Azov", by Miroshnichenko. I don't remember the initials.
      The book examines the period of the history of the Don Cossacks at the time of the accession of the Romanov dynasty.
  3. rotmistr4
    rotmistr4 April 5 2014 10: 11
    The article is interesting, but quite controversial !!!
    1. rexby63
      rexby63 April 5 2014 10: 25
      Undeniably controversial. And its interest lies in how the current ideologists of the West and the masters of ukrov rewrite our common history once again. We live in an interesting time, I would say: in the most interesting in the whole new history. But Lysenko must be read very carefully
    2. The centurion
      The centurion April 6 2014 13: 29
      Quote: rotmistr4
      The article is interesting, but quite controversial !!!

      There is no doubt that the Cossacks were the main shock and military force of the Time of Troubles, but far from the only one. Moreover, they didn’t participate at all in the preparation of the Troubles, in the many years of undercover struggle of the boyars-princely oligarchy with the Godunov clan. They joined the Troubles, along with Dimitry, took the most active part in it and put Mikhail Romanov on the throne with their Cossack sabers. The article is biased, significantly exaggerates the political role of the Cossacks, downplays the destructive role in the Troubles of the corrupt anti-people, anti-Russian oligarchy and tries to do the unthinkable altogether: to rehabilitate in unleashing the Troubles of Boris Godunov. The rehabilitation of the godfathers of Smoot, Boris Godunov, Nicholas II, Gorbachev, Louis XV, M. Gaddafi, and others, is absolutely wrecking and unpromising business, doomed to failure in advance. The rulers of the pre-momentum are guilty of unleashing the Troubles in the first place, they bear the indelible guilt for the generation of the preconditions of the troubled times and they cannot be rehabilitated. This is their crime against the state and its people has no excuses and no statute of limitations. In fact, the topic of the Cossacks' participation in the Russian Troubles is described in sufficient detail by Cossack historians and writers. There were also more detailed, balanced and balanced articles on this topic in the VO, for example: vremya.html
    3. cdrt
      cdrt April 6 2014 21: 40
      The article is interesting, only ... realistically the fabrications of the followers of Krasnov and his Cossack.
      Well, there was no such Slavic people.
      When it was roaming, it was. Whether they are Slavs is not a fact, some researchers consider them relatives of the Alans, and some consider them Circassians (i.e., Circassians). Orthodox - yes, mixed with the Slavs - yes.
      However, this ethnic group joined the rights of the estate in Russia for a very long time, perhaps by the end of the XVI century already for sure.
      Well ... the ethnic component of the Time of Troubles is quite controversial. The Cossacks acted in the same way as the Ryazan petty nobility led by the Lyapunovs ... a separate estate group - yes, ethnically isolated? is not a fact
  4. serge
    serge April 5 2014 10: 14
    Looking at what is happening in Ukraine, you somehow understand the events of the Time of Troubles better.
    1. allexx83
      allexx83 April 6 2014 00: 06
      Even being an eyewitness to events, it is not easy to understand them. And after 400 years ... Especially with cleaned chronicles and archives. recourse
    2. The centurion
      The centurion April 6 2014 14: 30
      Quote: serge
      Looking at what is happening in Ukraine, you somehow understand the events of the Time of Troubles better.

      The history of Ukrainian Smoot is a whole song, more precisely a historical poem. The transition of the Dnieper Cossacks under the authority of the Moscow tsar took place, on the one hand, and on the other hand, under the influence of coincidence of circumstances and external causes ( slu
      zhbu.html). The Cossacks, fleeing from their final defeat by Poland, sought protection under the authority of the Moscow tsar or the Turkish sultan. And Moscow took them to keep from going under the rule of Turkey. On the part of the Moscow Tsar, the Cossacks confirmed their liberties and established a salary, but they presented demands as a service army. And the Cossack officers, taking the oath and salary, did not want to give up their personal freedoms and privileges in the management of the army. This duality of the gentry consciousness of the Ukrainian elite was characteristic from the very beginning of the annexation of Little Russia to Great Russia, and it was not eliminated even later, and it has not yet been eradicated. It is the basis of the Russian-Ukrainian mistrust and misunderstanding that has characterized for many centuries and became the basis for numerous betrayals and excesses of the Ukrainian gentry, revolts and manifestations of separatism and collaborationism. These bad habits spread over time from the Ukrainian gentry to the wider masses. The subsequent history of three centuries of living together the two, and not becoming truly fraternal, peoples, like the history of the twentieth century, gave a number of examples of this situation. In the 1918 and 1941 years, Ukraine almost meekly accepted the German occupation. The occupation of 1918 of the year and the civil war famously went through Ukraine. Hetman, Haidmatchin, Petliurism, Makhnovshchina ... Many works have been written about it and dozens of films have been shot, including incredibly popular ones. Remember the "Wedding in Malinovka", "Red Devils" and you vividly imagine ... the future of Ukraine. And in 1941, only some time later, the “charm” of the German occupation led some Ukrainians to start a struggle against the occupiers, but the number of collaborators was also very large. So from 2 million More than half of the Soviet people who cooperated with the Nazis to one degree or another during the war were citizens of the Ukrainian SSR. Ukraine was a strip line. Along with the areas that had an active and heroic resistance movement comparable to the Belarusian one, there were regions in which the size of the collaboration was quite comparable to the Baltic ones. It was affected by the fact that for many centuries the desert Wild Field voluntarily-forcibly sowed by Polish pans with a diverse and mixed population from all the borders of the Commonwealth. The Russian landlords continued the same thing, settling their unpopulated estates in Novorossia, received from the authorities for service, by diverse and mixed ethnic groups from the Russian and non-Russian provinces of the immense empire. This polyethnic borscht in the Ukrainian cauldron was not cooked to the end; moreover, even the Russian component was severely infected with Westerners. Ideas of independence, separatism, hostility towards Muscovites (read the Russian people) constantly agitated the national consciousness of many Ukrainians under any authority. As soon as Gorbachev shook the USSR, as Ukrainian separatists and collaborators of all stripes immediately and fervently picked up his destructive ideas and reinforced them with massive popular sympathy and support. It is no coincidence that it was President Kravchuk, who arrived in Belovezhye in 1991, said at the Minsk airport that Ukraine would not sign a new union treaty in any form. And he had for this a strong legitimate basis, the decision of the All-Ukrainian referendum on the independence of Ukraine.
  5. rexby63
    rexby63 April 5 2014 10: 21
    moreover, the Zaporizhzhya Sich on the Dnieper was its territorial, cultural and political center.

    "Here Ostap suffered." The author, like all modern Ukrainian historians, attaches excessive importance to the organized criminal group called Zaporizhzhya Sich
  6. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg April 5 2014 10: 33
    But I’m still interested, I look forward to continuing.
  7. Santor
    Santor April 5 2014 10: 38
    The article received a minus ... There is not a single source to which this author could refer .... I can’t write such a thing .... The fact that this author calls False Dmitry Grishka Otrepyev - this alone serves as a big fat minus .. For all this writing is based on the official Romanov version, flavored with sci-fi sci-fi Cossack ostensibly.
    There are facts, but their interpretation is incorrect

    Yes, the king stopped paying the Cossacks the supply of bread, but for a different reason.
    The summer of 1601 is cold rains from April to the end of June, then unexpectedly snow fell in July, snow and snowstorms in late August, people burned bonfires in the fields trying to save at least something ...

    1602 year is a warm spring, the fields sown since last year have sprouted abundantly, but in early June the snow falls again and the main thing was frosts before -25. After a week of frost, the heat began almost until the end of August ....

    1603 year - both spring and summer are favorable, but ... there were no seeds for planting ... Everything was gone. Bread prices soared 25-30 times ....
    And the Great Famine came - they ate everything from litter to dogs and cats, and then cannibalism began ....

    Boris Godunov fought as best he could, and by the way, not all regions were struck by hunger. Even for the first time, "food detachments" have dispersed across the country, taking away the hidden excess grain. For many hid the bread, thereby raising prices for it, the commanders of the food detachments covered the hiding for bribes, the boyars who distributed the bread in the cities stole and then sold it 20 times more expensive from under the floor, bakers who had a strict decree of the tsar on the composition and weight of the bread poured there water, they sold bread unbaked for weight ...

    They chopped heads, planted especially zealous for a stake, but this did not produce any impression on the others.
    Abraham Palitsyn, cell of the Trinity-Sergeeva Lavra, names the number 127000 of starvation from the 250 000 population of Moscow.

    Everything that I wrote above can be read in more detail in the memoirs of the head of the personal guard, Boris Godunov, Jacques Margeret and the guardsman Peter Bussov - both engaged in grain trading in Russia except for ministry. Memoirs are available. In addition, read the History of the Scythian State written by clerk Lyzlov in the 1679; It’s difficult to read with language, but when you get used to it, it’s the norm.

    And what gifts could the Tsar make at that time?
    According to Otrepiev, Adam and Konstantin Vishnevetsky, whom Dmitry Ioannovich appeared with, were not just Polish nobles. They were the richest tycoons of the Commonwealth. And by the way there is not a single evidence that Dmitry had promised them something. They were Orthodox magnates and helped him sincerely ....
    But Mnishek - it was a figure .... There is no stigma where to put, and the whole family including sons and brothers ...
  8. Santor
    Santor April 5 2014 10: 38
    By the way, few people know that Dimitri was originally intended for the throne in Krakow, because the Rurikovich clan had all the rights to the Polish throne, as well as then the prince Vladislav to Moscow. But this is a separate song, and it draws on the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Union ... But since many were against this idea, they backed down ...
    And never D.I. himself was in the Cossack lands, all this is fiction of the late bottling. Set, or rather. the enlistment of the Vishnevetskys was engaged in hiring troops, ringing a gold coin. Cossacks were HIRED .... In those days they were hired anywhere, 10 000 Cossacks took Spanish fortresses for Conde in Navarre ... An interesting song but not the topic.

    The authors of the article contradict themselves. Many knew Grigory Otrepiev in Moscow; he was almost 40 years old. And the prince 24. In addition, according to the testimony of the same Margeret Otrepiev appeared in Moscow already ... in the retinue of Dmitry Ioannovich ..

    The moment - the king sends against D.I. his loyal boyar, a talented commander Peter Basmanov, promising his daughter Ksenia as a wife and a third of the kingdom ... But Basmanov, who could crush the army of the "impostor" (60 against 000) suddenly for some reason that has not yet been explained by Romanov historians goes over to the side of Dmitry Ioannovich. Having recognized him as true ... And he will be faithful to him until the very end, dying at his feet, protecting him with a saber in his hand ...

    There were no Cossacks yet, they will appear only later, together with Trubetskoy ... And they will burn and rob Russian cities, especially the atrocities the hetman Sagaidachny will differ, Khodkevich himself will stop him ... Sagaidachny is now the hero of UKRAINE.

    And in Ukraine, the feat of the Cossacks, led by the ataman Korela, is glorified, who allegedly defeated the army of Muscovites near Kromy ... They write pens, scribble dissertations ... Yes, the annals indicate how the Cossacks were driven with whips - “... Don Cossacks, chasing them, slash them [Muscovites] with sabers spared; in the place of slaughter and murder - whip the beating them and, chasing, laughing and saying: "But then don't go to battle against us!" But they did not drive the soldiers, but the mobilized peasants ... They did not approach the soldiers, and even those, following the orders of Basmanov, Golitsyn, Saburov, did not interfere ... And the units remaining loyal to Godunov waited in vain for orders ... That's all bloated. "victory"

    Now about the author Nikolai Nikolaevich Lysenko. A prominent representative of Russian liberalism, all his works and books on the topic of history and not only are literally permeated with disdain and latent hatred for Moscow Russia and admiration for everything Western ... This is how he describes foreigners in the "battle of Kromy" - In this theater of absurdity, the only armed force that maintained order and calm was the German mercenary regiment under the command of Captain Walter von Rosen. The Germans raised their standard, formed a square and bristled with muskets. The essence of what was happening soon became clear to them, and they expected the command of the chief governor M. I. Katyrev to firmly “bring to life” the demoralized archers.
    1. rexby63
      rexby63 April 5 2014 10: 48
      Plus. Thank.
    2. allexx83
      allexx83 April 6 2014 00: 11
      A plus! Informatively. good
  9. parus2nik
    parus2nik April 5 2014 11: 18
    The author, who are you? From Muscovy? Muscovite? Tell me how bad you are?
  10. Alexey Prikazchikov
    Alexey Prikazchikov April 5 2014 12: 56
    The author is Ukrainian and that says it all. Well, you understood me shorter.
  11. Walking
    Walking April 5 2014 17: 16
    What do we have here, the study of history according to ukrovariant?
  12. siberalt
    siberalt April 5 2014 20: 47
    The article is similar to the Karamzin tales, written under the impression of the works of the Romanov hirelings from the "friendly West" Schletzer, Bayer and Miller. Anyone who is interested in history knows that this was a civil war, the same as the Pugachev war. And not some riots or organized crime attacks on the autocracy.
  13. Ka3ak
    Ka3ak April 6 2014 00: 39
    “The official history of the Russian Empire tried to confirm in public opinion the version that the Cossacks are, they say, not the original people, but the descendants of the Russian peasants who fled from serfdom and state taxation to the Dnieper and Don. True, this version did not explain in any way why these “peasants” in the most prosperous lands of the south clutched not for the plows and harrows that were usual for them, logically, but for muskets and sabers. It was also unclear how the "peasants" could qualify for approval by the Army Circles of the law on unconditional punishment by the death of any Cossack who dared to engage in plowing the land and farming. "

    In fact, historical sources of the 17th century speak about this. In the legend about the Azov seat of the Don Cossacks, the Russians say in white: "Overseas, tell your foolish sultan what it is like to start a Russian Cossack."
    But why does the supposedly separate Cossack people not show their own separate cultural paradigm from the Russian? For some reason, they sing songs about Ilya Muromets, Sadko, Fedor Tyryanin. And not about their cultural heroes. They speak Russian speech. Burdened by the Russian world. Even despite the confrontation with the authorities in the Russian state, (which is reflected in the source).
    And these facts about the unusual new activities of Russian people. For example, this: the Don steppes, the outskirts of the state, there are no strong fortresses (around Crimeans, Nagays, highlanders, etc.) the tsar’s power is not, for whom there is hope, only for ourselves. Set aside a plow take a saber. And it is logical that they decided that it is impossible to take up the plows, the plowman will not think about martial art, but about arable land, and then all will die.
    “The beginning of the ethnic folding of modern Russians and Ukrainians is attributed by all ethnological scientists to the time“ after the Batyev invasion ””

    That this monk Nestor wrote, “where did the Russian land come from”, presumably at the beginning of the 12th century. Apparently he was engaged in relevant analytics. And what does modern Russian mean? That there are Russians of the time of Vladimir Krasno Solnyshko and completely different Russian times of Alexander the First and Kutuzov, or the times of Marshal Zhukov? Avon so you can write each generation in separate Russian.
    1. stroporez
      stroporez April 6 2014 06: 47
      Quote: KA3AK
      For some reason, they sing songs about Ilya Muromets, Sadko, Fedor Tyryanin. And not about their cultural heroes.
      ---- just about their .......
      "..... Leaves Ottul yes a good fellow, Old Cossack and Ilya Muromets ..." so sho ...
      1. Ka3ak
        Ka3ak April 6 2014 14: 57
        Quote: stroporez
        --- just about their .......
        "..... Leaves Ottul yes a good fellow, Old Cossack and Ilya Muromets ..." so sho ...

        And what ?)
        This just confirms not the ethnic origin of the Cossacks, but social.
        Let me remind you that they were about Ilya Muromets, these were the epics of the Kiev cycle about HOLY RUSSIA.
        This Cossack himself, a stupid good fellow Ilya Muromets, is from a city from Muroml from the village of Karachaev. And the enti most epics were mostly found in the north of the Novgorod region, Arkhangelsk. And are you going to argue that Ilya Muromets is a hero of a separate Cossack people? Do not you find it very illogical? Rather, it is the Cossacks part of the Russian people.
        1. stroporez
          stroporez April 6 2014 19: 58
          Quote: KA3AK
          Rather, it is the Cossacks part of the Russian people.
          --- I did not claim Shaw Cossacks is a separate ethnic group. It seems to me that the Cossacks are very similar to modern "hobby groups". see for yourself - when border guards, maremans, paratroopers are walking --- they are far from all Russians ........ but they are not united by a common nationality, not by faith --- something else .......... . from the type of that, I think, and among the Cossacks. you can not designate them by nationality, origin, or property qualification --- here shoto OTHER .............
          1. Ka3ak
            Ka3ak April 7 2014 19: 36
            In part, I agree with you.
            But it is impossible to consider the Cossacks as a subculture. In that era, with the dominance of traditional ties within any society. The existence of a subculture was simply impossible. Because such a person would fall into the vacuum of information and ideology, would lose self-identification (which now, under the conditions of the information age, is maintained artificially through the media) and turns into a marginal, and the group itself was not viable. Subculture phenomenon without roots and guidelines, based only on the external interests of the individual, could not exist in those conditions, in my opinion.
            I am not a great expert on the Cossacks, but from such a written source as "The Tale of the Azov Siege Seat ..." and also the ethnographic material of Cossack songs, I got the idea that the Cossacks are part of the Russian world. With a full set of the cultural Russian paradigm. Do you know non-Orthodox Cossacks? Or Cossacks who do not speak Russian? (of course not modern Russian)
            This basis makes the Cossacks part of the Russian world. And how it was formed through a club of interests, social unrest, or in any other way, IMHO the second, if not the third thing.
            1. Turkir
              Turkir April 7 2014 19: 59
              Let me clarify. We consider any historical events in a certain TEMPORAL framework, called the era.
              If, I take the Cossacks in the era of Napoleon, they are Doubtless Russian. Who is arguing? Cossacks Before the accession of Mikhail Romanov, she felt like an assistant to Russia, but not her full-blooded part. Hence the appearance of atamans such as Korela. And his very name, in my opinion, speaks for itself and says where he comes from.
              I personally begin the history of the Don Cossacks as the first steps towards joining the state, in a different way, the emergence of common interests, precisely from the Azov events. Atamans of a completely different type appeared than Korela. They, even before the king, argued that their actions came from the interests of the state.
              Prior to this, there was simply a freemen, whose interests did not extend beyond their own benefit.
              This is my vision and I do not insist on it. Just shared it.
              1. Ka3ak
                Ka3ak April 7 2014 22: 03
                Not all that glitters is gold)
                I agree with you in many ways.
                But it is worth distinguishing nationality from political views and nationality. It so happened that after the collapse of a single ancient Russian state, the Russian people became divided by the state border.
                Cossacks of the Don, Volga, Yaika could well remain Russian people even before they came under the rule of the sovereign.
                (In the Middle Ages and earlier modern times, belonging to the state was determined through vassality to the sovereign.)
            2. stroporez
              stroporez April 8 2014 21: 12
              well, here where I live now --- Volgograd region, Don ... 10 years ago, if a Russian was given water to drink, then they definitely, defiantly washed a mug ... in every possible way, emphasizing sho Cossacks -et to Russia "sivolapaya" ...............
              1. Ka3ak
                Ka3ak April 8 2014 21: 55
                This still does not mean anything.
                It is not clear where these ideas came from. Now take a zapadents and ask him who the Russians are for him and he will tell you: the Finno-Tatar nationality is not fully assimilated in its time, now tyrannizing Ukrainians, who in fact are the real Russians.
                1. stroporez
                  stroporez April 10 2014 19: 49
                  Quote: KA3AK
                  This still does not mean anything.
                  I think it says a lot ... purely psychologically. Considering the, one might say, the rage with which the Cossacks separate themselves from the Russians. They "stopudovo" are the same "Russia sivolapaya". a little different customs, concepts .. but all the same - this is Russia. for example - go to the Arkhangelsk village, and then somewhere to Tyumen, or to Semirechye. there is approximately the same difference between them as between Russians and Cossacks
  14. bbss
    bbss April 6 2014 03: 59
    Version from banderlog.
  15. Turkir
    Turkir April 6 2014 20: 42
    But what he wrote about Korel Kostomarov, a Ukrainian historian, a characteristic portrait of a "hero": "The brave chieftain Korela walked (wandered around the taverns) around Moscow and freaked out, saying that he despises the blessings of this world, he staggered, doing nothing." He drank all the time in Moscow taverns and drank himself to death. He has become a hero now, he has brought False Dmitry to Moscow. I would not be surprised if he has not already become an honorary member of UNA-UNSO.
    And then there was an uprising led by Bolotnikov.
    That is why I call the Cossacks of the Time of Troubles a separate "ethnos". They did not yet feel their connection with the people and the state. This understanding will come later.
  16. oracul
    oracul April 6 2014 21: 37
    At first glance, it may seem that here it is a true story. But only at first. In world history, for example, Knights Templar are known. But it never occurred to anyone to call them a separate ethnic group. The same applies to the Cossacks.
    1. Turkir
      Turkir April 6 2014 22: 39
      Knights Templar emerged from the French nobility.
      What role did brodniks play in history?
      Who are they and where did they come from? From whom did the Cossacks come from and when?
      Look for this information yourself.
    2. stroporez
      stroporez April 10 2014 19: 53
      Quote: oracul
      In world history, for example, Knights Templar are known. But it never occurred to anyone to call them a separate ethnic group. The same applies to the Cossacks.
      --- a very correct comparison. like any other order. and the community of assassins can say tracing paper from the Cossacks ...........
  17. rezident
    rezident April 6 2014 23: 47
    What the Cossacks bandits it is clear but what the tribute was taken from the Muscovites did not know however.
  18. Bosk
    Bosk April 8 2014 02: 09
    So all the same, Otrepev and False Dmitry are one person or what ?, because if memory didn’t change the evidence, it was both confirming and denying it.