Military Review

Broken air "Link"

Will the unique Russian strategic management system be revived?

In the modern world, strategic air command posts (VKP) exist only in the US and Russian air forces. But because of the unjustified decision of the former Minister of Defense Anatoly Serdyukov, the Russian Il-80 and Il-82 found themselves in an unenviable position.

In October, the 2013 of the year in the domestic media for the first time appeared data on the actual state of the Air Force of Russia. According to published figures, only 49 percent of combat aircraft are in good condition, and in the entire aircraft fleet there are no more than 42 percent. The IL-80 and IL-82 air control points are generally 20 – 25 percent, that is, the fleet of these special machines is practically earthbound.

IL-80 was created on the basis of the passenger liner IL-86 as a flying command post, designed to control the armed forces during the conflict with the use of nuclear weapons. There is no exact information about the secret IL-82, the special vehicle is probably built on the basis of the military transport IL-76. According to other assumptions, this is a repeater aircraft supporting the stable operation of the IL-80 communication and control lines.

Broken air "Link"

According to the tender announced by the Ministry of Defense in November 2013, the Russian Air Force has four Il-2014 and three Il-80 for liability insurance for the owner of aircraft for the year 82. It is reliably known only about two machines of this type, now based in Chkalovsk near Moscow. It is noteworthy that according to the conditions specified in the annex to the document, both types of machines are referred to the so-called third risk, that is, they are insured for the period of international flights. Summing up these figures, we can conclude that only six-seven planes are actually combat-capable 1,5 machines.

The system "Link", which includes IL-80 and IL-82, is the most closed in all Russian Air Forces. Being an analogue of the American E-4В doomsday planes based on Boeing-747-200, Russian flying command posts should provide the Supreme Commander and General Staff leadership with the ability to manage strategic nuclear forces in the event of a full-scale war. Therefore, the above-mentioned number 1,5 raises the well-founded fear of specialists, because IL-80 and IL-82 must carry around-the-clock combat duty and on the first team not only take off into the air, but ensure the stable operation of all systems.

Let's try to figure out what is happening with the fleet of unique aircraft of the Link system and how problems with their technical condition affect the combat readiness of Russia's strategic nuclear forces (SNF).

From airliner to control point

The outstanding Soviet and Russian aircraft designer, Heinrich Novozhilov, who headed the Design Bureau named after S. Ilyushin from July 1970 to December 2005, in his memoir “About Himself and Airplanes” describes the creation of the Link and indicates that Marshal initiated the IL-80 project. communication Andrei Belov. According to the military plan, each branch of the armed forces should have its own command center, and one more - from the General Staff. VKP of the General Staff was the main in this system. If the aircraft itself was developed by the Ilyushin Design Bureau, the onboard equipment was created by the Scientific Research Institute of Automatic Equipment under the personal supervision of Academician Vladimir Semenikhin. To ensure stable power supply of onboard equipment, two engines NK-80 were additionally installed on the IL-24.

According to Novozhilov, since at the X-hour these aircraft must be in the air before the 24 hours, it was necessary to develop and install a refueling system. Initially, such a system was received only by the air control center (VZPU) of the General Staff. In the tail section of the IL-80 installed manufactured antenna with a length of several meters.

IL-80 "Link" - a unique product, not inferior to the American counterparts E-4В. But the choice of IL-86 as a carrier was not entirely successful, and work on the IL-96 at the time of creation of the “Link” was just beginning.

“IL-86 is a medium-range aircraft with a flight range of up to four thousand kilometers. It was originally created to transport passengers on routes from Moscow to Novosibirsk, Alma-Ata, Adler. But the Boeing 747 flew on transcontinental lines. Therefore, by definition, it hung in the air longer, ”an aircraft engineer, participating in the design of promising samples, told the Military-Industrial Courier newspaper aviation technicians. According to him, aerodynamic drag also plays a big role.

“In the aerodynamic characteristics of the 747-th and our 86-th in many respects are equivalent as machines of one generation. But on the IL-80 visually well viewed in the nose of the oblong design, which increases the aerodynamic drag, which in turn leads to increased fuel consumption. The machine is secret, so I do not know the weight and size characteristics of the onboard equipment. Apparently, this is quite a heavy load, ”continued the representative of the aviation industry.

Some media claim that the flight time of an Il-80 without air refueling can be five to six hours, which is clearly inferior to eight to eleven hours of E-4B. The American “doomsday plane” that made a lot of noise in the world at the Turkish Incirlik airbase last fall, according to the press service of the US Air Force Command, passed without additional refueling in the air. At the same time, the fleet of aircraft tankers of the Russian Air Force cannot be compared with the United States.

“The NK-86 engines are still too small in their characteristics for such a large car as the IL-86. This is not the fault of the Ilyushin Design Bureau, which created a beautiful aircraft from what was available. For all history the operation of the liner occurred only two flight accidents - a unique indicator for the aviation industry. But he clearly lacked a more powerful engine, ”the interlocutor of the“ MIC ”believes.

The existing problems were also known in the Soviet Air Forces, which in 1991 ordered the research and production enterprise Polet an experimental design work on the modernization of the IL-80 onboard complex, called the Link-2. But the collapse of the USSR and the gradual abandonment of airlines from the IL-86 with the development of their fleets affected the operation of the IL-80 in the Russian Air Force. Only in the 1997 year, work began on the modernization of the IL-82, which continued until 2010, and the IL-80 returned to the sky in the 2005 year.

Rather dead than alive

In 2012, it became known that the Ministry of Defense is considering the possibility of abandoning the operation of the IL-80 and IL-82 aircraft without further replacement. According to some information, then Minister Anatoly Serdyukov and General of the Army General Makarov, Chief of the General Staff, were behind this decision. An explanation of this decision did not appear. In the same year, testing of the first Il-2, upgraded under the project “Link-80” with a new unified on-board complex of technical equipment, began. In the process of upgrading the IL-80 "Link-2" received a system of refueling in the air.

If you go back to the memoirs of Heinrich Novozhilov, then we can assume that because of the subordination of the VkPu subordination to the combat arms, all the machines had individual differences in the composition of the onboard equipment. But most likely, the General Staff and the Russian Air Force decided to unify all four Il-80. It is also worth noting that at the end of the 90-s of the IL-80 and IL-82 they changed their subordination, moving from the structure of a separate aviation squadron of control and retransmission of the special purpose 8 aviation division to the 3-th aviation squadron of the 929 GLI VVS Russia, based at the Moscow airfield Chkalovsky.

The plans of the current leadership of the Ministry of Defense for the operation of IL-80 has not yet been made public. Last year, judging by private photographs of aviation enthusiasts, the Il-80 with the tail number RA-86148 underwent repairs and repainting at the aviation technical base of Domodedovo Airport. Nevertheless, the VKP Russia park is not in the best condition. It is not known whether other machines, besides the RA-2, went through the modernization of the project “Link-86148”.

The Americans with E-4, too, is not going smoothly. The US Department of Defense believes that in modern conditions, the CPSU is a vestige of the Cold War. In 2004, the George W. Bush administration removed the E-24В 4-hour readiness regime and they were used for international visits as well as temporary headquarters in the event of a national scale disaster. In 2006, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld announced that “doomsday planes” would be written off before 2009. True, the term is now extended to 2015. All the tasks assigned to them will be given to both liners of the special series “Boeing” VC-25, which carry the President of the country, and therefore are known as “Aircraft number one”.

If practical Americans refuse from VKP, then in Russia a question arises about the necessity of the “Link” system. The so-called President Il-96PU planes, based on publicly available information, can assume functions similar to Е-4В and VC-25. Anatoly Serdyukov and Nikolai Makarov have already expressed themselves on this topic.

Dmitry Kornev, editor-in-chief of the Internet project Militaryrussia, told the newspaper “Military Industrial Complex”: “Now Russia's strategic nuclear forces are actively being updated. It is not only about new intercontinental ballistic missiles "Yars", "Bulava", etc., but also about the latest automated control systems. In particular, the “Retaliation” ACS allows launching rockets and, if necessary, retargeting them on the active part of the flight path. ”

According to the expert, the stationary control points are vulnerable to the means of destruction developed by the Pentagon within the framework of the concept of a non-nuclear global strike. A BCP is difficult to track and hit.

“Modern atomic war is no longer just an exchange of blows, as it seemed in 70 – 80-s. The parties have the opportunity to change the attack scenario, work is underway to create missile defense systems. IL-96PU can ensure the launch of a SNF, but the operation should be managed by trained officers of the General Staff and VZUP, ”Kornev is sure.

In the opinion of aviation specialists, if the work on the “Link” continues, it is more rational to use the IL-96 plane to accommodate new advanced equipment.

“So far, of all the cars proposed by the Russian aviation industry, the IL-96 flies the furthest. Of course, compared with the "eighty-six", it transports less cargo and passengers, and therefore, theoretically, problems may arise with the placement of special equipment. At the same time, modern element base can significantly reduce the weight and size characteristics of the equipment. In this case, it is likely that the upstairs on the basis of the IL-96 will not lose significantly in the range and time of flight. It may even be possible to do without the IL-82 repeater planes. The PS-96 engines on the IL-90 are reasonably economical and reliable, ”says an aircraft engineer involved in the development of promising aircraft models.

Director General - General Designer of the Aviation Complex named after SV Ilyushin Viktor Livanov in an interview with the newspaper “Military Industrial Courier” said earlier that the four cargo IL-96-400T standing on the territory of the aircraft factory in the city of Voronezh and which the airline refused Flight, now converted into special aircraft. Specify which ones, Livanov did not.

The IL-80 and IL-82 air control points are necessary for the successful functioning of the Russian strategic nuclear forces, so we hope that the current leadership of the Ministry of Defense will abandon Anatoly Serdyukov’s plans and will not follow the experience of the Pentagon, and together with AK Ilyushin will not only return the Link in the air but will also start developing new upstairs with modern special equipment on board.
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  1. polite people
    polite people April 4 2014 15: 26
    The new Minister of Defense is doing everything for RUSSIA.
    May God grant him health.
    1. platitsyn70
      platitsyn70 April 4 2014 16: 16
      The new Minister of Defense is doing everything for RUSSIA.
      May God grant him health.
      but the old minister must cut the eggs according to the tonsils. The enemy of the Russian state so that he is dead.
      1. Vadim12
        Vadim12 April 4 2014 17: 32
        It’s impossible even to call reforms what the stool did. He is an enemy of the people!
      2. kimyth1
        kimyth1 April 4 2014 23: 19
        Sent to the campaign go :-) n was !!! the anchor to him in the opera !!!
      3. old man 72
        old man 72 April 5 2014 03: 36
        For a long time this Taburetkin, with his leaky battalion, had to be sent to a logging site, otherwise they would rush about with them, like the devil with a written shell. At least some benefit from them would be.
      4. The comment was deleted.
    2. AlNick
      AlNick April 5 2014 10: 38
      I came across an interesting article "Why do domestic" Tu "and" Ily "disappear

      On April 8, at the initiative of the State Duma Defense Committee, closed hearings should be held - they are waiting for the president of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC), Mikhail Pogosyan. There are a lot of questions to him.
  2. afdjhbn67
    afdjhbn67 April 4 2014 15: 26
    I wonder how many rams he could, and most importantly he managed to make, this fart ...
    1. bomg.77
      bomg.77 April 4 2014 16: 14
      He was talented))
      1. delfinN
        delfinN April 4 2014 17: 50
        Was "introduced" into the cohort of the unsinkable, what kind of talent is there? Carte blanche!
        1. f.lourens
          f.lourens April 4 2014 21: 39
          We all know that does not sink hi
    2. Genur
      Genur April 4 2014 18: 33
      He worked out his. For a long time the activity of stools
  3. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich April 4 2014 15: 27
    here is B.L. ... where didn’t spit-perdyukov shit ... well, how is this pa.d. .. lu, is the Russian land being? Putin! Yes, plant him already! the people will worship you at all! and if 25 years old, so will I ...
    1. nezabor
      nezabor April 4 2014 15: 46
      we still have to wait at least another year or 2 already, he knows too much to just plant him, after all, the Ministry of Defense. So it's not evening yet.
      1. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich April 4 2014 16: 30
        Quote: nezabor
        we still have to wait at least another year or 2 already, he knows too much to just plant him, after all, the Ministry of Defense. So it's not evening yet.
        green on the forehead is for this, nafig memory mistakes ...
    2. sniper
      sniper April 4 2014 19: 21
      Quote: Andrey Yurievich
      Putin! Yes, plant him already! the people will worship you at all! and if 25 years old, so will I ...

      Not everything is simple in the Kremlin .... And they still don’t give Serdyukov to prison, and who is Serdyukov ??? If you think that this is a lonely villain, then you are most likely to make a mistake, this is a protege of an influential clan who, while fulfilling their tasks, did not forget about his beloved ... Tyril everything that is bad, but it’s tears, compared to what he was ordered to destroy ... And most likely he won’t be able to defeat this clan without plunging Russia into a civil war .. here Putin is waiting, waiting in the wings, quietly pushing his people to key positions ... Something like me it seems ...
      1. max702
        max702 April 4 2014 22: 29
        That's all they say in the Kremlin that taakoy gadyushnik ogogo. Damn damn it !!! am Speak to the president on TV, call a spade a spade, announce the list of comrades and all the kirdyk to them .. the people will support yes and a couple dozen thousand loyal troops I think there will be, no one will really mind when the liberals start hanging up on the streetlights, but rather take an active part. The country got this fucking verbiage! THE ENEMY AT THE THRESHOLD! What the hell! A little bit more and amba! Late snot will be reared .. It is necessary to do things, now in the wake of the return of Crimea GDP can have an absolute blank check with functionaries, bureaucrats. oligarchs, and other bloodsuckers to do what he wants! I repeat PEOPLE SUPPORTS! The case for small .. Start and finish !!
        1. Semen Semyonitch
          Semen Semyonitch April 5 2014 00: 02
          Quote: max702
          I repeat PEOPLE SUPPORTS! The case for small .. Start and finish !!

          The rallies in support of Crimea were the catalyst for the people's attitude. Putin had to enlist this support, to show the liberals who is boss in the house. Now he has all the trump cards, it's time to move on to the "cleanup". And we will support ...
    3. Semen Semyonitch
      Semen Semyonitch April 4 2014 23: 47
      Quote: Andrey Yurievich
      the people will worship you at all! and if 25 years old, so will I ...

      What time? You, like, not the people?
  4. svp67
    svp67 April 4 2014 15: 27
    It is time to revive our industry, in particular the aviation industry - the creation of such airplanes, a very good argument in this, and far from the only one ...
  5. konvalval
    konvalval April 4 2014 15: 30
    And again smerdyuk. Avakov, or something to ask, so that he would fill him up like a sash.
    1. lelikas
      lelikas April 4 2014 15: 34
      Quote: konvalval
      Avakov, or something to ask, so that he would fill him up like a sash.

      No need to ask - it’s enough to start a rumor that heart wants to be the president of Ukraine - everyone will blame him for distillation;)
      1. Turkir
        Turkir April 4 2014 18: 16
        If he wants to be the president of Ukraine, let him change his name to Serdyuchka. winked
  6. ava09
    ava09 April 4 2014 15: 43
    Nothing will help us as long as we call "error" outright theft and betrayal.
  7. nikcris
    nikcris April 4 2014 15: 44
    It is necessary to nominate Serdyukov for the presidency of Ukraine wassat
  8. mabuta
    mabuta April 4 2014 15: 46
    Break through the brethren! A reliable person is at the helm.
    1. waisson
      waisson April 4 2014 20: 39
      Lyapota yes and only good
      1. kimyth1
        kimyth1 April 4 2014 23: 24
        Krasava !!! goodload the perdyukov in a revolver and on .... th !!!!
  9. Gagarin
    Gagarin April 4 2014 15: 54
    If everything is as described, the situation is extremely sad.
    1. asar
      asar April 4 2014 18: 01
      Nothing, let's break through! Now, it seems, the situation is "breaking" in the direction of strengthening the army and navy! God forbid!
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. siberalt
      siberalt April 4 2014 19: 46
      Hi Gagrin! The described situevina is sucked out of the finger when there is no where else. So what? There is one obvious message in the article - guys, and let's touch a stool for fun, since the topic is popular. Hooray, the concert is off! And where are the facts, links, analytics? Solid hollow. Excuse me, please, for an honest personal opinion.
  10. igor.borov775
    igor.borov775 April 4 2014 16: 35
    Quote: ava09
    Nothing will help us as long as we call "error" outright theft and betrayal.

    1. dustycat
      dustycat April 4 2014 19: 45
      Quote: igor.borov775

      Do you think that if Serdyukov and Co. would completely pay taxes from the evacuated and stolen country it would be easier?

      The essence of Article 20 of the UN Convention is simply pay taxes on bribes and live in peace.

      And how about it and the "real" fight against corruption in Europe, the liberals squeak and pee with boiling water ...
  11. ICT
    ICT April 4 2014 17: 58
    During the modernization process of IL-80, Link-2 received a system of refueling in the air.

    if this board is meant, then it was originally installed on it, and it was never used (they tried it once and said, but I will give it .. for sin), you can’t do without an IL-82 airplane during our exercises (in our realities until they invent a metal cable that does not fluff)
  12. Giant thought
    Giant thought April 4 2014 18: 12
    Taburetkin and in this area managed to spoil! Control systems in any form should be debugged, interchangeable, well protected. The current leadership of our Moscow Region, thank God, understands this, and is working in the right direction. Let’s say thank you to him for this, and not only for that.
  13. zulus222
    zulus222 April 4 2014 19: 08
    Quote: ava09
    Nothing will help us as long as we call "error" outright theft and betrayal.

    fully support!
  14. siberalt
    siberalt April 4 2014 20: 06
    Storetkin is "waste material". Behind him is the sunset of the EBN era. And did he dare to "turn" billions to the left without a "roof". Let's pay tribute to journalists and investigators for giving them a story to tell. That's not the point at all. There is a starting point - tears of faith in the people of the newly elected president. So? Further, a consistent cleaning of the field for a referendum on the new Constitution from our enemies. Do not be afraid to call by their proper names those who disguise themselves as friends of the people.
    This is not a moment of weakness. This is a minute of rethinking, determination and faith in the people of Russia.
  15. waisson
    waisson April 4 2014 20: 35
    the main thing is that she be strong and then I will begin to respect the jacket
    1. waisson
      waisson April 4 2014 20: 36
      add next
  16. aud13
    aud13 April 4 2014 20: 42
    Quote: dustycat
    Quote: igor.borov775

    Do you think that if Serdyukov and Co. would completely pay taxes from the evacuated and stolen country it would be easier?

    The essence of Article 20 of the UN Convention is simply pay taxes on bribes and live in peace.

    And how about it and the "real" fight against corruption in Europe, the liberals squeak and pee with boiling water ...

    It’s easy to find this article, here it is ...
    Article 20 of the Convention, “illicit enrichment”, reads as follows: [2]
    Subject to the observance of its Constitution and the fundamental principles of its legal system, each State Party shall consider adopting such legislative and other measures as may be necessary in order to criminalize, when it is intentionally committed, illegal enrichment, i.e. a significant increase in the assets of a public official in excess of his legal income, which he cannot reasonably substantiate.

    So dear, in my opinion you are wrong. It does not say that you can pay taxes and sleep peacefully. On the contrary, it is clearly and clearly said that if an official receives income that he cannot justify, then he will face criminal prosecution.
    That is, the state is not obliged to prove that the embezzler or a corrupt official stole denyu somewhere. Now it is his problem to prove the sources of income, which is much more complicated.
  17. Klim2011
    Klim2011 April 5 2014 00: 46
    Ukrainian. Defense Ministry published the first pictures of its drones
    Be sure to read the comments.
    Article- BOMB
  18. mamont5
    mamont5 April 5 2014 09: 17
    How many Serdyukov harmed the RF Armed Forces.
  19. Captain45
    Captain45 April 5 2014 10: 15
    Maybe my opinion seems controversial, but, like any opinion, it has the right to be. So:
    -all amicably professionally blaspheme Serdyukov. And, as they say, there is a reason. But ..,
    and whether there was a place to be a grandiose professional special operation. I will explain that in November 2012 Serdyukov was removed from his post of the Ministry of Defense, while all the media write - they destroyed, plundered the army, the death of Serdyukov. But not even six months have passed since the Russian army, after the appointment of S.K. Shoigu, begins to conduct large-scale exercises related to the transfer of large military contingents from West to East, from South to North and vice versa, launches of strategic missiles, exercises, etc. Explain to me, stupid, how this could happen if, judging by all the information, the whole army was in deep ... that the arrival of one Shoigu in some 5-6 months influenced so much? All people are adults and they know perfectly well what if to ruin house, then just from one surname the house will not fall into place. Out of our western "partners" they were convinced of what they wanted to see, but in fact they were shown a big and thick penis and, now gritting their teeth, they are forced to admit it. Crimea is a clear confirmation of my version of events. And according to Serdyukov, well, a little merchant boy got caught, asked to do one thing, and he went into a rage. Therefore, he is not prosecuted, even, judging by the information on the Internet, he was assigned a Hero of Russia. special operation - to convince the whole world of our infirmity, and in fact poke everyone in the guano. Bravo, I take off my hat hi Once again, Putin is our PRESIDENT and Russia in the present time period was lucky!