Military Review

Forever twenty. 90 anniversary of the birth of a sniper Rosa Shanina

Exactly 90 years ago, 3 on April 1924, Rosa Yegorovna Shanina, participant of the Great Patriotic War, Soviet solo sniper was born. Rose Shanina became the first woman - the knight of the Order of Glory. She fought on the front for less than a year, but managed to write into her account 59 confirmed confirmed soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht, among whom were enemy's 12 snipers. Also on the account of the girl with the "flower" name were three captured by the Nazis. Rosa Shanina died 28 on January 1945 of the year during the East Prussian offensive operation, not having time to celebrate 21's birthday.

The most important qualities for a sniper - patience, observation, the ability to wait, as well as accurately perform all the tasks. Very often, snipers had to lie in their shelter for several hours without movement in any weather. At that time, it was believed that such patience is peculiar only to women. Therefore, a lot of female snipers fought on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War. In the USSR, training of female snipers was launched quite actively, special schools were established in the country. Women between the ages of 16 and 45 have won the right to go to the front in February of 1942. At that time, it was believed that women are more flexible limbs, better plasticity, they have more cunning and perseverance, besides, they tolerate cold and stress better. All this is the best suited for snipers.

Rosa Shanina was born in the Arkhangelsk region in the small village of Edma (at the time of birth it was Velsk district of the Vologda province), in a large peasant family. Her father, Yegor Mikhailovich, worked in logging, and her mother worked as a milkmaid in a local collective farm. Roza was named after the famous revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg, she had four siblings (Mikhail, Fyodor, Sergey and Marat), and her family raised three orphans. Of the five native children of the Shanins, who went to the front, only one Marat returned home alive.

Forever twenty. 90 anniversary of the birth of a sniper Rosa Shanina

After graduating from high school 7, at the age of 14 for years, against the wishes of her parents, Rosa left for Arkhangelsk, while she traveled to the nearest railway station 200 kilometers through the taiga. In Arkhangelsk, she enrolled in a local pedagogical school. At that time, she practically had neither money nor her property. Before enrolling in a student dormitory, she temporarily lived with her older brother. Soon Arkhangelsk became her hometown for her. Later, she spoke very warmly of him in his diary, which led during the war.

In 1938, Rosa joined the Komsomol. In 1940, tuition fees were introduced in the USSR, after which the girl began to miss the scholarships and financial assistance that her parents sent her. Therefore, she was forced to get a job in kindergarten №2 of the Pervomaisky district education department, she was provided with housing at the kindergarten. The young teacher was appreciated by parents and children. In 1942, she successfully graduated from the Pedagogical School.

When World War II began, Rosa was just 17 years old. Her three brothers went to the front and died at the very beginning of the war, in its most terrible part. In 1942, the USSR allowed girls to be called up for military service. In 1943, Rosa Sheina independently came to the draft board to volunteer for the front. After she passed the universal training, the girl was sent to Podolsk, where the Central Women's School of Snipers was located at that moment. Here she met with future front-line friends Kaleria Petrova and Alexandra Evdokimova. Only Petrova returned home from the war. Rosa graduated from a sniper school with honors, and 1 on April 1944 was sent to the front as part of a female sniper platoon.

Rosa Shanina scored 59 killed soldiers and officers of the Nazi army, 12 of whom were snipers. According to others, the number of Hitlerites killed by her could be 75 people. Especially emphasized her ability to effectively shoot at moving targets. Shaninu fell in love with the media, and not only in the Soviet. Allied newspapers called Roza Shanin "the invisible horror of East Prussia." Soviet magazines and newspapers printed photos of a girl sniper with a charming smile.

A separate sniper platoon operated as part of the 184th Infantry Division. Already on April 18, 1944, for the heroism that Rosa Shanina showed during the battle for the village of Kozi Gora (Smolensk region), she was awarded the Order of Glory of the III degree. According to the report of the regiment commander Major Degtyarev, only in the period from April 6 to 11 weapons and enemy artillery fire destroyed 13 Nazis. By May 1944, there were already 17 enemy soldiers and officers on the account of the sniper girl. Soon after, she was even appointed platoon commander, and the military newspaper “Destroy the Enemy” placed her portrait on the front page in her next issue.

22 June 1944 began the famous counteroffensive of the Soviet troops in Belarus - Operation Bagration. The platoon in which she served Shanin had to attack in the second echelon in order not to risk in vain the lives of the girls snipers. At the same time, during 1,5 of the month of previous battles, the girls were very tired, they were ordered to rest as much as possible, to use any halts and not to join the combat operations of the infantry detachments. Shanina violated this order, seeking from the command of sending it to the front line - in reconnaissance or rifle battalion. Between 26 and 28 June 1944, Rosa lagged behind her unit during the halt and followed the battalion, which was going to the front line.

Having violated the direct order of the command, Rosa Shanina took part in the battles to eliminate the group of Germans surrounded in the Vitebsk region. In these battles, she captured 3's German soldiers. For failure to comply with the order of the higher command, she was even subjected to Komsomol punishment, but they did not punish her more seriously. In the future, when Rosa was awarded the Order of Glory II degree (September 16 1944), among her other military achievements were these three prisoners of war, whom she captured during the "AWOL". After the division commander sent a sniper to the rear, Rosa personally appealed to 5 Army commander Nikolai Krylov, who officially allowed her to serve at the front line.

In our stories Rose Shanina will forever remain the first female sniper, who was awarded two Orders of Glory, II and III degree, as well as the honorary combat medal "For Courage". She received the medal "For Courage" first among Soviet female snipers. She was awarded 27 December 1944 of the year for successfully repelling an enemy attack.

Despite the front ban, Rosa kept a personal diary, where she recorded her thoughts and impressions. Thanks to this diary, it subsequently became very popular in the USSR. In the diary, the girl was genuinely surprised at her popularity. She thought it strange that the magazine “Ogonek” placed her portrait on the first page, and that in the newspaper “Destroy the Enemy” she was called the best sniper. The girl herself wrote in her diary that it was strange for her to imagine how those whom she knew looked at illustrations with her in Soviet newspapers and magazines, and believed that she had done quite a bit more. However, she did not know that much was written about her in the Western press. In 1944-1945, American and Canadian newspapers wrote a lot about Rosa Shanina.

13 December 1944, Rosa Shanina, was shot in the shoulder. In the diary, a brave girl wrote that she practically did not feel pain and did not want to leave the front edge of the defense. At the same time, she again turned to her merits, noting that she considered them only the share of participation that every citizen of the country should contribute to the victory in the war. She never recognized herself as a hero, although she wrote so about her wounded and dead fighting friends.

In January, 1945, the entries in Rosa Shanina’s diary become pronouncedly sad. In one of her last letters, she asks her friends to send her mother a farewell letter in case of death. At that time, she participated in bloody battles on the territory of East Prussia, seeing whole battalions die in a bloody meat grinder on the front. In late January, in one of the battles, she tried to cover up the wounded commander of an artillery unit with fire, and she herself was seriously wounded in the chest. On January 28, she was still alive and was taken to a field hospital, but the injury was fatal. Rosa Shanina did not live a little more than a month before her 21 anniversary and several months before the end of the war.

The character of Rosa can be judged by the reviews of her close friend from Arkhangelsk Maria Makarova. Maria recalled Rosa Shanina as a responsive and kind girl who during the war years shared her products of compassion with her. At the same time, the young kindergarten teacher herself was torn to the war, and all her actions were aimed at achieving this goal. Makarova noted her strong-willed character, which allowed Rosa to seek respect from the people at the front too. From the published letters and diary of the girl sniper, it becomes clear how strongly this young and beautiful girl was eager to avenge the tortured and fallen compatriots.

Interest in Rosa Shanina increased in 1964-65 in many respects precisely because of the publication of her military diaries in the Soviet press. After the war, the streets in Arkhangelsk and in the villages of Stroyevskoye and Shangaly were named after her. The house of her family in the village of Yedma was turned into a museum, and a memorial plaque was installed in the village school where she studied from 1931 to 1935. In Soviet times, traditional competitions of DOSAAF shooters were held in Arkhangelsk for the prize named after her. In 1980, the DOSAAF publishing house published two books that were dedicated to the girl sniper: “After the battle I will return ...” (N. A. Zhuravlev) and “To the wind in the face” (V. E. Medvedev).

Information sources:
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Siberia 9444
    Siberia 9444 April 3 2014 08: 13
    A charming lady! God forbid if she would look at you through an optical sight. love
    1. smile
      smile April 3 2014 12: 58
      Siberia 9444
      Yes, charming .... but what lady? The girl is still .... Pay attention to the second photo - the butt of the rifle rested in a boot - so as not to smear the butt in the ground .... the girl always and in any conditions remains a girl. What about the profession? A kindergarten teacher is difficult to find a more peaceful profession, but the time has come and without hesitation has become the "invisible horror of East Prussia" .... it is painful to look at her sweet smile, knowing that she almost lived to the Victory ...
  2. The comment was deleted.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  3. GRDS
    GRDS April 3 2014 08: 46
    Bright memory!
  4. erased
    erased April 3 2014 08: 49
    The girl is a real hero and just beautiful! But it’s always hard to read about girls and women who went to war. Not their business, but men. It is clear that then all the people fought. But anyway, the soul is not okay.
    Eternal memory to Rosa!
  5. Barmalej
    Barmalej April 3 2014 08: 51
    In Arkhangelsk, we have a street named after Rosa Shanina! Many people know that the street is named after the sniper))))))
  6. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky April 3 2014 09: 31
    Something similar to Scarlett Johanson.
    1. Petrol
      Petrol April 3 2014 10: 22
      the children of the gods are like their parents!
  7. family tree
    family tree April 3 2014 09: 39
    And ski races for the prize named after Rosa Shanina, we have in the Ustyansky District every year. Now, another ski and biathlon center is being beaten off, you see, they’ll also make a cup in biathlon fellow
  8. La xnumx
    La xnumx April 3 2014 10: 01
    Bright memory! Eternal Glory!
    1. Petrol
      Petrol April 3 2014 10: 30
      see the glory and pass the memory from children to children on that and is the memory of the ancestors!
  9. valday
    valday April 3 2014 10: 38
    Everlasting memory! They did a great job!
  10. les103284
    les103284 April 3 2014 10: 44
    Unfortunately, the war has a female face ...
  11. Ratibor
    Ratibor April 3 2014 11: 09
    Valkyrie! Glory to the Wars
  12. wax
    wax April 3 2014 13: 30
    Valkyrie! Glory to the WARRIORS! Glory to the Stalinist youth, who crushed the fascist reptile in its den!
  13. 52
    52 April 3 2014 18: 01
    Eternal Glory !!!
  14. vladstro
    vladstro April 3 2014 18: 55
    Yes, the classic Lermontov involuntarily comes to mind "
    - Yes, there were people in our time,
    Not that the present tribe:
    Heroes are not you! "But I think there will be enough of them in our computer age.
  15. demotivator
    demotivator April 3 2014 19: 16
    From the report of Rosa Shanina:
    I report that the first squad of a female sniper platoon destroyed 6 fascists in 32 days. All snipers opened accounts of revenge against the German invaders. Destroyed by the Nazis: Sasha Ekimova-4, Masha Klimova-2, Taisiya Kotelkina-2, Anna Kuznetsova-2, Olga Mokshina-2, Kaleria-3 Petrov, Valya-4 Nikonova, Eva-2 Novikova, Masha-3 Tomova, Masha Rozhkova - 2, Shanina Rosa - 6.

    In the photo - the commander of the 85th Guards (Riga) division, Hero of the Soviet Union, Major General Basan Gorodovikov and his subordinate girls snipers.
    1. smile
      smile April 3 2014 20: 19
      You read the report ... you come across words - .... Tomarova Masha - 3, Rozhkova Masha - 2 .... Ekimova Sasha - 4, Klimova Masha - 2 .... and a lump in the throat. Not Maria or Alexandra, but Masha and Sasha .... girls, just girls ....
  16. demotivator
    demotivator April 3 2014 19: 21
    And here is an interesting video about the heroine of this article - Rose Shanina.
  17. Kupez
    Kupez April 3 2014 21: 22
    Bless on war
    Save and save the house.
    So going on a hike
    Military people of Russia.
    So, from the beginning of time,
    Grace is given to the soldier
    With God is safer to live,
    It is easy to die with God.
    How much strife and confusion
    Veda Mother Motherland,
    How they wanted to bend us
    How they tried to break us.
    How many jackals and dogs
    Rocking around
    To the gold of our breads
    On the gold of our icons.
    What the fathers collected
    They taught us how to protect
    Faith of the home side
    Song, prayer and sword.
    So led from the roots
    The military service is
    Everyone at their turn,
    Monk, warrior and buffoon.

    Eternal memory to all the soldiers who have fallen for our Fatherland of all time.
  18. Roman 57 rus
    Roman 57 rus April 4 2014 03: 12
    Glory to the Warriors!
  19. Akimichs
    Akimichs April 4 2014 06: 23
    for the program download office computers
  20. Antibrim
    Antibrim April 4 2014 14: 38
    Everything rests on such people! it’s a pity that she died, a true hero of the Fatherland!
  21. demotivator
    demotivator April 5 2014 12: 59
    It is a great pity for all those who in those years gave up their lives for us to live today. And our duty is to remember this, remember their deeds for the sake of us today. Near each of us live veterans who have already aged and lost their health - let us be attentive at least to them! After all, they need so little, only a little of our warmth, attention and care. And then, they really will be "Twenty Years Forever"!
  22. Mista_dj
    Mista_dj April 5 2014 20: 45
    Bright memory!
    And the famous and the unknown defenders of the Fatherland!