Military Review

Rosatom utilizes 70 decommissioned nuclear reactors

At one time, the USSR caught up and overtook the United States by the number of built nuclear submarines. In the Soviet Union was built about 250 ships of this type. At the same time, the service life of nuclear submarines is relatively short, on average 25 years, and the boats of the first series served even less. All of this Soviet "legacy" went to modern Russia. The disposal program for decommissioned nuclear submarines built in the USSR still continues in our country. At the same time, work on the disposal of decommissioned submarines is very important in terms of improving the environmental safety of our country.

The problem of handling reactor compartments and reactors of dismantled nuclear submarines in Russia is large-scale in nature and has existed since the atomic submarines, which had served their time, began to be mass deduced from the Navy. This problem requires non-standard approaches, since the reactor compartment of a submarine cannot simply be put into scrap metal, as is the case with other compartments today. For some time, the three-compartment units (reactor compartment + 2 of the adjacent compartment - to ensure the buoyancy of the structure) are kept afloat in specially designated places. This solution is intermediate and forced, in 1990-s it was used due to lack of money and time. However, now the situation is changing for the better.

In Primorye, the problem with the disposal of reactors decommissioned submarines of the Pacific fleet (Pacific Fleet) of Russia in the Robber Bay will be resolved by 2020. Currently, this bay has a long-term storage facility for the reactor compartments of utilized nuclear submarines. 54 reactors were already located in Primorye; 19 more will be delivered here from Kamchatka. Their disposal is carried out as part of the target program "Industrial disposal of weapons and military equipment", which is designed for the period until 2020. Disposal of spent reactors will be carried out using Japanese equipment that was transferred to our country on May 18, 2012.

Rosatom utilizes 70 decommissioned nuclear reactors

In May, Japan handed over 2012 to DalRAO - the Far Eastern Center for Radioactive Waste Management - floating dock “Sakura” with a displacement of 3500 tons, a sea tug Sumire and 2 port cranes with a loading capacity of 30 and 10 tons. The cost of equipment transferred by Japan amounted to about 2 billion rubles. The transfer of special equipment was carried out in the framework of existing intergovernmental agreements between Russia and Japan on the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. It is worth noting that Tokyo has been participating in various international programs that have been focused on the dismantlement of nuclear submarines in the Pacific region for the past 20 years. It should be noted that the Japanese side fulfilled all contractual obligations on time, despite the tragic events of March 2011 of the year in the form of the terrible tsunami that hit Japan. And this is not the last project between the two countries. Japan intends to provide financial assistance in the construction of a special workshop for cleaning and painting of tricycle blocks on the territory of Razboynik Bay, which will be delivered to the land.

According to the Director General of the State Corporation Rosatom Sergey Kiriyenko, in the next few years, fragments of submarines withdrawn from the Pacific Fleet will be processed in the territory of Primorye on the basis of the DalRAO enterprise. During his working trip to Primorye, Sergei Kiriyenko told reporters that at the moment we can say that there are no radiation-hazardous objects left in the Russian Far East. According to him, spent nuclear fuel was unloaded from all submarines that were withdrawn from the fleet. At the same time, the reactor compartments cannot be cut and disposed of due to the presence of residual background radiation. According to Kiriyenko, the reactor compartments will need to be brought to a safe storage condition: the reactor compartment is cut out and then installed on a solid foundation on land. This ensures complete reliability of its control and storage. These reactor compartments will be disposed of as residual radiation disappears.

If earlier cutting of nuclear submarine hulls was carried out at the Zvezda plant located in the coastal city of Bolshoy Kamen, then now all the relevant technologies are fully mastered by the Rosatom enterprise’s DalRAO team. Now this work can be carried out faster and cheaper. The first 3 three-compartment units on DalRAO have already been turned into single-compartment units; they were installed on the bank for long-term storage. At the same time, the 51 three-compartment unit is located on the basis of the enterprise, another 19 of such units will be delivered here from Kamchatka. At the moment, this is the entire volume of the submarines withdrawn from the Pacific Fleet, Sergey Kiriyenko stressed. According to the Rosatom general director, it is necessary to dispose of these 70 units as quickly as possible, since new submarines will soon be discharged from the Navy. Today, DalRAO faces the task of reaching the volume of processing of 8-10 blocks per year.

If we talk about liquid radioactive waste, then in 2013, the entire volume of LRW accumulated by the Russian TFO (of the order of 10 thousand cubic meters) was completely reprocessed. Liquid wastes were recycled due to the close cooperation of DalRAO with the Institute of Chemistry of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This year, Primorye should leave the last echelon with recycled nuclear fuel, which posed a danger comparable to the two Chernobyls. Due to this, following the results of 2014, in the Far East there will be no more spent nuclear fuel from nuclear submarines. The fuel unloaded from reactors of nuclear submarines is sent to the Chelyabinsk region to the specialized plant "Mayak". After resolving the issue of the most hazardous liquid waste in Primorye, they will come to grips with industrial and household waste with increased radioactivity.

To solve this problem, a special center for the conditioning and storage of solid radioactive waste is planned at ZATO Fokino, which can store up to 40 thousand cubic meters of such waste. The auction for the design and survey work on the construction of this center of the Rosatom Corporation was published on the official website of state procurement 14 in November 2013. The auction cost was 211 million rubles. According to the auction, a modern enterprise for the processing and long-term storage of radioactive waste, which was formed during the disposal of the nuclear submarine fleet, as well as the newly formed radioactive waste, will be built in the Closed Formation of Fokino in the coastal bay of Sysoev.

According to Sergey Kiriyenko, today the main task is to separate clean waste from polluted. Contaminated waste will have to be compressed and stored in safe sealed containers. Until recently, all this was stored in temporary trench repositories that could not guarantee the long-term safety of stored waste. At the same time, the head of Rosatom emphasized that no additional waste would be brought here for storage. But in a safe way to recycle everything that is in the territory of the Primorsky Territory - this is the task that DalRAO enterprise can cope with.

This statement was supposed to reassure the local community and environmentalists, who were anxious about news about the construction in the edge of the solid radioactive waste storage center. The acute public reaction to this news was largely due to the lack or lack of information from Rosatom about its plans. The lack of such information quickly gave rise to various speculations and prejudices. In turn, Nikolay Lysenko, director of DalRAO (the customer of the project of the storage of radioactive waste), held a personal meeting with environmentalists of the region, assuring them that no “nuclear repository” would appear in Fokine. To remove all doubts, Nikolay Lysenko agreed to sign a specially developed environmentalists memorandum, which guarantees the safety of the proposed facility for the life and health of residents of Primorsky Krai.

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  1. Dwarfik
    Dwarfik April 2 2014 08: 39
    It’s time to think about nature! you need to clean up after yourself, then the order and cleanliness will be!
    1. sancho
      sancho April 2 2014 10: 20
      This is a problem of problems!
      If the overseas "non-traditional partners" continue to put pressure on us economically, we will not have enough finance for scrap. And, on the other hand, there would be no nuclear submarine, we would now turn into "their" raw material base with a free slave. by force, incl. the world trash heap of the same city. on only "them".

      It is necessary to design submarines taking into account the most convenient disposal. But, this is to the designers!
      1. Ascetic
        Ascetic April 2 2014 10: 46
        Quote: sancho
        If the overseas "non-traditional partners" continue to pressure us economically, we will not have enough finance for scrap

        The Americans do not process unloaded fuel from nuclear submarines at all. It is stored in special storage facilities in the Department of Energy in Idaho along with other highly radioactive waste from the US military nuclear program. That's because it does not bring them economic benefits. They are waiting and hoping when technologies will be invented that will allow the disposal of this radioactive waste.
        We have encountered the problem of overfilling of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities in the fleets since the mid-80s of the last century. Naturally, after the collapse of the Union, no one was fully engaged in it, the money was allocated according to the residual principle, which gradually turned it into a state-wide national problem. The fact that they finally tackled it cannot but rejoice of course ...
        1. jjj
          jjj April 2 2014 11: 57
          Yes, the states have blocks in rows in the desert. And in the beginning, we generally kept them with five cutters. The transition to three compartments was considered a great thing. And for disposal, there was a project to store blocks in the North in tunnels cut into the rocks
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. tilovaykrisa
      tilovaykrisa April 2 2014 16: 59
      I agree with you, you just need to sell them to the Balts or scrap metal to the Poles, and we have a lot of waste from the nuclear power plant, it’s also time for our grandmothers to build plants like our Mayak somewhere far beyond the hill and let them utilize our waste there. We will help Europe, as they say, how can we have the same crisis after all.
  2. Reks
    Reks April 2 2014 09: 20
    This Kirienko has always annoyed him. Such a hmyr. And is it really such a direct whole nuclear scientist in the "fifth generation"? Somehow they showed "bypassing" Medvedev "of the object." So Kiriyenko, and even the specialists did not have time to say am He pushed Medvedev to the impudent and everything because he wanted to kiss ... Yes, yes .... I don’t like him, finally !!
    1. sub307
      sub307 April 2 2014 09: 55
      Yes ... er with him with Kiriyenko, nrvit, do not like ... tfu, that he is a "girl" or something Not essentially, sorry "finally". The point is that there is a long-standing problem that needs to be solved (with or without Kiriyenko). And if Russia is going to continue to be engaged in the construction of nuclear submarines, then it is necessary that the disposal system works like a "Swiss clock", or better. "Shitting on your head" (and right under your feet) is somehow wrong.
      1. theadenter
        theadenter April 2 2014 11: 54
        Yes it is. If the "cleaner" (in this case Kiriyenko) wants to clean up and improve environmental performance, let her do it. If it cleans up successfully, look and rise in our eyes.
        1. Dikson
          Dikson April 4 2014 09: 18
          "Kindersurprise" is certainly not a fifth-generation nuclear scientist ...)) And the attitude towards him, upon his arrival at Rosatom, was very definite, but we must pay tribute, Kiriyenko is a sane person, and was able to sort out many problems in a short time. Waste utilization and SNF reprocessing, construction of new power units in the country and abroad .. - the industry is developing! And then he wants to yak - let him yak ..
    2. The comment was deleted.
  3. Dezinto
    Dezinto April 2 2014 14: 45
    Just to be noted, the updated data on the facilities buried in the Kara Sea speak of 17000 flooded containers with radioactive waste (RW), 19 vessels with RW, 14 nuclear reactors, five of which contain spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The information also refers to 735 units of radioactive structures, and the flooded K-27 nuclear submarine with two reactors with unloaded SNF.
    1. iCuD
      iCuD April 2 2014 14: 52
      Honestly - nothing surprising. After all, a nuclear testing ground on new land. I am sure that the United States has no less such waste.
      PS Since childhood, looking at the map of Starn, I dreamed of visiting this archipelago. But apparently not fate sad
      1. ssskalinin
        ssskalinin April 9 2014 03: 59
        Join the Arctic cleaning program and you’ll not visit such places
  4. propolsky
    propolsky April 2 2014 18: 43
    Disposal of spent reactors will be carried out using Japanese equipment
    Let the children of the rising sun sort through their reactors, pour water into the ocean, soon the chupocabras will begin to swim. But it is necessary to dispose, it is our health, or rather the health of our descendants.
    1. apollo
      apollo April 3 2014 01: 30
      Waiting for Godzila in Japan! :)
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. siberalt
    siberalt April 2 2014 21: 42
    Yes, take them to Japan closer to Fokushima and the fence. There will definitely not be worse. laughing
  7. Glagol
    Glagol April 2 2014 22: 20
    The progress made in just 20 years is important. In the mid 90s
    Russia has Ukrainized the world community "oh, we are here with this
    and we will not rake it in a century ", but now routine serious work is underway
    according to the principle "we correct the old, we will cope with the new". Of course help
    Japanese on the Far East relevant and honest ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt April 2 2014 23: 38
      I agree. Actually, they are the first to know the fusion in their own skin. But will they want to rewrite school books that this horror came from America? Will they remove pi ndosovskie bases aimed at Russia from their territory? That is the question. Therefore, I do not mind them. Somehow we can do without the Pacific radioactive herring.
  8. ssskalinin
    ssskalinin April 9 2014 04: 02
    Has anyone ever been to Sayda-Guba? There, the complex is already working normally. It built everything in order