Military Review

Landing on the Kuril Islands

39



Today, few people are surprised by the indisputable fact that historians in the ever-memorable Soviet times often hushed up the failures, but often immensely extolled the successes of our Armed Forces in various campaigns. Alas, we are already accustomed to the fact that nowadays chroniclers, on the contrary, are much more willing to analyze the real and imaginary blunders and shortcomings of the Soviet military command in conducting operations, rather than talk about deserved victories. Where is the truth? Its visible outlines begin to appear only when you evaluate events objectively, and not to please the conjuncture ...

Not even a quarter of a century has passed since the landing of the Soviet landing on the Kuril Islands in 1945 was officially called in all literature a natural and logical move, summing up a kind of outcome of the Second World War. But it seems that those who believe that no one has changed the course so much are right. storieslike the historians themselves: today this military operation is already loudly declared senseless and unjustified. A reasonable question: was that landing and a hot battle on the island of Shumshu really needed three days after the surrender of Japan?

“What is the name of the occupation of a foreign territory after the official signing of the act of surrender? - asks the researcher A. V. Chechulin. - That's right, theft. More precisely, it can be called international robbery - as you like. So we took away the South Kuriles without any bloodshed and resistance not from a strong and armed enemy in the Great War, but took advantage of the situation of helplessness in which Japan found itself, and stole what never belonged to us. " And this is a fairly well-known person who has serious speeches at scientific forums! However, he is not alone: ​​this opinion is shared by many scientists and journalists.

And therefore, for the sake of truth - a short excursion into history, which documentarily testifies: the first foot on the Kuril Islands was a Russian, not a Japanese, despite the fact that the Land of the Rising Sun is geographically closer to the South Kuril Islands. Although this is not surprising, since the Japanese rulers adhered to a policy of isolationism and, under pain of death, forbade their subjects to leave the territories of their principalities and even build large sea vessels.

Unfortunately, few people know that in the 1792th century, not only the Kuriles, but also the island of Hokkaido were not part of Japan. So, the head of the central government of Japan, Matsudaira Sadanobu, back in XNUMX, on the eve of the Russian-Japanese negotiations, reminded his subordinates in a special order that the Nemuro region (Hokkaido island) is by no means Japanese land.

Another confirmation of this fact is a curious petition to Catherine II, sent to her in 1788 by the head of the North-Eastern American Company I. I. Golikov, who asked “to prevent the attempts of other powers to build a fortress and a harbor on the 21st (Shikotan) or 22nd (Hokkaido) from the Kuril Islands for the establishment of trade with China and Japan and to the most capable discoveries and bringing under a high power "the empress" of the "neighboring islands, which we know for certain ... do not depend on any power." Catherine refused, but the point is different: no one in their right mind would offer to build on the transcendental land!

How did the Kuriles end up with the Japanese? It all started with the fact that in 1853 the Anglo-French squadron destroyed part of the Russian settlements in the South Kuriles. And after the sale of Alaska, the Russian-American company, which had been dragging out a miserable existence for some time, stopped fishing on the islands. As a result of this, having lost all interest in the Kuriles, the Russian government in 1875 presented them to Japan in exchange for the departure of the Japanese from South Sakhalin, who were trying to colonize the island.

However, even at the beginning of the twentieth century, if we turn to a fairly accurate and objective source - "The Military Encyclopedia", published in St. Petersburg in 1914, only 600 people lived on the islands, standing "at a very low level of development." Who exactly? The Aino, Kuril peoples, and Kamchadals in the north. And, mind you, not a single word about the Japanese! The latter only in the 30s and early 40s of the last century built many naval bases and airfields on the land donated to them - clearly not for peaceful purposes, for which they transferred thousands of civilian builders to the Kuriles - Japanese, Koreans, Chinese and representatives other nationalities. In addition, the population has also grown due to the fact that along with the servicemen their families arrived, for the service of which infrastructure was required - canteens, laundries, shops, schools, hospitals ...
Whether it was the peaceful development of new territory, as the Japanese often assert, or the purposeful creation of military footholds - judge for yourself. On the islands of Matua, Shumshu, Iturup and others, real underground cities have been erected, focused on military needs. But civil buildings are represented exclusively by wooden temporary barracks, and even small semi-handicraft fish processing and canning factories.

A case in point is the small island of Matua (Matsuwa), whose area barely exceeds 70 square kilometers. By the way, he did not experience the horrors of the war, since his garrison - which is almost 4000 people - surrendered to the Soviet paratroopers without a fight. And today the Japanese airfield at Matua is a masterpiece of engineering: the quality of concrete is impressive - there are almost no cracks on it, despite the fact that more than six decades have passed. It is interesting that the runways were heated by local thermal water, which was supplied through a special trench from the field, which was located, apparently, somewhere on the slope of the Sarychev (Fue) volcano. Consequently, in winter the Japanese had no problems with snow removal.

Landing on the Kuril IslandsAccording to an eyewitness, “bunkers and huge reinforced concrete bunkers, both machine-gun and artillery, hang over these bays everywhere. There are also wide, deep caponiers with a concrete base, on which coastal guns of large caliber stood ... The thickness of the concrete floors above the artillery pillboxes is almost one and a half meters, inside the walls are neatly laid out with huge boulders cemented together - this is even aesthetically pleasing. You are amazed at the volume of construction work done here. "

By the way, it was from the Kuriles, from a stop in Hitokappu Bay (now Kasatka Bay), that the Japanese squadron on November 26, 1941 began a raid on Pearl Harbor, and the naval bases of Kataon and Kashiwabara on the Shumshu and Paramushir islands were repeatedly used by the Japanese for actions against the Yankees in the Aleutian Islands. Of course, the Americans did not remain in debt and intensively bombed the Kuriles. However, they suffered serious losses. Over tiny Matua alone, about 50 American bombers were shot down. Near the same island in June 1944, the American submarine SS-233 "Herring" surfaced for several minutes to attack a Japanese ship on the surface, but was immediately sunk by coastal batteries. It is surprising that on August 26, 1945, when the Japanese surrendered Matua to our paratroopers, there was almost no artillery left on the island. It is still unknown where the cannons went - either they were drowned in the sea, or hidden in countless underground tunnels and labyrinths.

In February 1945, at the Yalta Conference, in response to urgent requests from the Americans, Stalin clearly outlined one of the main conditions for the entry of the USSR into the war by Japan - the transfer of the Kuril Islands to the Soviet Union. Every single one, not excluding Hokkaido. And there is reason to believe that this statement was based not only on the desire of the country's government to regain the primordially Russian territories, but also on reliable intelligence that the United States plans to occupy the Kuril Islands and place its air force bases there.

And the USSR fulfilled its obligations to the allies: after defeating the Kwantung Army, Soviet troops entered the operational space in Manchuria. However, even after a recording of the emperor's speech was broadcast on Japanese radio, where he announced the acceptance of the conditions of the Potsdam Declaration and his decision to end the war, the artillery cannonade did not subside: the fighting continued in Manchuria, and in Central China, and even in the Philippines. the capture of which the Americans hastened to inform the world a few weeks earlier.

A powerful final operation was needed, and on the night of August 15, the commander-in-chief of Soviet troops in the Far East, Marshal A.M. Vasilevsky, gave the order to seize the island of Shimushu (Shumshu). For the raid, two rifle regiments, two artillery units, a separate anti-tank destroyer battalion and a marine battalion of the Peter and Paul Naval Base were allocated, which were to land on the island from forty ships. Fire support was to be provided by the Kirov and Dzerzhinsky patrol ships, as well as the Okhotsk minelayer and the L-8 submarine. From the air, the operation was covered by the 128th mixed air division and six flying boats MBR-2.

In fact, this was all that the Kamchatka fortified area had at its disposal, parts of which, by the way, had never participated in such hostilities until that memorable day. Why Moscow did not deploy additional forces to Kamchatka in advance is anyone's guess. Most likely, this was prevented by the strictest secrecy requirements in preparing the operation. This explains the sad fact that the group was initially limping on both legs: frankly weak, without exaggeration - its symbolic artillery was to crush the enemy's powerful concrete defenses.

Suffice it to recall that the Americans in 1943-1945, attacking the islands, which were much less fortified than Shumshu, drove seven or more battleships with 356-406-mm guns (which was three times the caliber of the half-dozen guns, which the forces supporting the Soviet landing force had) , and several dozen cruisers. And then naval artillery and hundreds of heavy bombers ironed the island for weeks before the Marines landed.

The Kataoka naval base on Shumshu, adapted for the basing of almost any surface ships, had a strong anti-amphibious defense, consisting of several lines of an extensive system of anti-tank ditches, escarpments, as well as nearly 60 pillboxes and bunkers, connected by underground galleries. Almost all fortifications had reinforced concrete cladding, the thickness of the walls of the bunkers reached 3 m, and the depth of underground galleries - 70 m, which ensured invulnerability from artillery strikes and aviation... There were 8500 soldiers on the island, almost 60 tanks, about 100 guns of various calibers and more than 300 machine-gun points. Ammunition and food depots, hospitals, power plants, telephone exchanges and other auxiliary facilities were equipped in numerous tunnels. And all this power was aimed at defense to the last fighter ...

On the evening of August 16, a caravan with a landing party left Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and, after more than a day of sailing, approached the island. While an artillery battery of 130-mm guns from Cape Lopatka fired on Fr. Shumshu, the marching headquarters on the patrol ship "Kirov" were forced to correct the coordinates of the landing due to the thick fog. As a result, the troops of the forward detachment landed on the shore not where it was planned, and even despite the command's prohibition, they opened fire on the enemy. Suddenness instantly ceased to be our ally, so the landing commander ordered the ships to begin shelling the enemy in areas, in other words, blindly. One of the shells hit the lighthouse at Cape Kokutan-Saki, which, having caught fire, became an excellent landmark for the attackers.

Despite a fairly strong return fire, which damaged several ships, by 7 o'clock in the morning the Marine Corps battalion and the 302nd Rifle Regiment managed to advance inland, occupy several dominant heights, gaining a foothold on them, and give, albeit small, but still the main landing forces. The Japanese tried to counterattack the vanguard, but, having lost 15 tanks and about 100 infantry, retreated to their original positions. But their artillery did not stop for a minute, knocking out one ship after another (in total, during the landing, five ships were sunk and about ten more were seriously damaged) and cutting holes in the combat formation of the paratroopers. Under its cover and with the support of tanks, the enemy launched a second counterattack, this time successful, significantly squeezing the forces of the vanguard. And a couple of hours before noon, Japanese planes appeared in the air, alternately bombing the transport, firing machine guns at the soldiers. Unfortunately, because of the fog, our aviation was unable to establish cooperation with the landing force in the landing area and limited itself to several strikes at the naval bases of Kataoka (on Shumshu) and Kashiwabara (on Paramushir).

It took several hours for parts of the main landing force to approach the positions that were stubbornly defended by the forward detachment, and, having united, the Soviet troops went on the offensive. It was then that Sergeant-Major Nikolai Vilkov performed the feat, covering the embrasure of the enemy bunker with his body. The heights passed from hand to hand three times, but by nine o'clock in the evening, the landing finally took possession of them.

All night, while the infantry was digging in on the busy line between the Kokutan-Saki and Kotomari-Saki capes, under the fire of three Japanese batteries, the unloading of artillery, armored vehicles and vehicles on the coast continued, which was completed only in the afternoon.

In the morning, alarming intelligence was received: about three dozen Japanese ships were moving towards Shumshu Island. Several attempts by our troops to develop the offensive were unsuccessful. However, as it soon became clear, it was no longer important. At 16.30, the commander of the Japanese troops in the Kuril Islands sent an envoy to the command of the Soviet landing party with a proposal to stop hostilities and begin negotiations on the terms of surrender, the act of which was signed just an hour and a half later.

The ink on the document was barely dry when the order came from the commander fleet "Together with the commander of the Kamchatka defensive region, occupy the northern part of the Kuril Islands to the island of Shimushiro-To [now the island of Simushin] until August 25 ... Independently communicate with the Japanese command and establish the procedure for receiving and disarming enemy troops." It was also decided to consider any actions of the Japanese, not coordinated with the Soviet side, as a violation of the act of surrender and take appropriate tough measures. In particular, the submarine commanders received an order to prevent the evacuation of the Japanese from the Kuril Islands, after which, for example, the L-8 submarine, which covered the landing, took a combat position in the Fourth Kuril Strait in readiness to torpedo any Japanese ship departing from the Shumshu Islands and Paramushir along the east and west coast.

According to the terms of surrender, the Soviet ships, accompanied by a Japanese pilot, were to arrive on the island and occupy the Kataoka naval base. In the early morning of August 20, a detachment consisting of the Okhotsk minelayer, the Kirov and Dzerzhinsky patrol ships, the T-525 minesweeper, the Emelyan Pugachev transport and the Polyarny hydrographic vessel under the general command of Captain 1st Rank D. G. Ponomarev arrived at the appointed place at the appointed time. Time passed, but there was still no pilot, and then Ponomarev decided to follow to Kataoka on his own.

But as soon as the ships entered the Second Kuril Strait, they suddenly found themselves in the epicenter of shelling from the islands of Shumshu and Paramushir. As a result of three hits, Okhotsk was damaged, people were killed ... Covering themselves with smoke screens and firing in return, the detachment retreated into the sea, where it was immediately attacked by a Japanese torpedo plane, which was soon put to flight by the naval artillery.

The situation was immediately reported to the commander of the Pacific Fleet and the commander of the front. There was a temporary lull: the Japanese were clearly delaying the surrender, our side did not want to ask for trouble. And then Moscow intervened. On the morning of August 21, the command of the landing on Shumshu received a message from the headquarters: “The Supreme Commander-in-Chief authorized the suspension of the offensive to clear the Shimushu Island and the actions of the fleet to seize the port of Kataoka for one or two days. This additional period should be used by you for detailed preparations for the offensive to clear the island of Shimushu by the morning of 23 August. By this time, General Grechko is obliged to strengthen his troops on the island of Shimushu by transferring two rifle regiments from Kamchatka. The operation to take possession of the Paramushir island should be carried out immediately after the cleansing of the Shimushu island, based on the latter. "

Without waiting for the implementation of the measures prescribed by J.V. Stalin, the commander of the Japanese troops on the northern islands of the Kuril ridge, Lieutenant General Tsutsumi-Fusaki, on August 22, accepted the terms of surrender and withdrew his units on the Shumshu island to the places indicated by the Soviet command for surrender. About 14 thousand Japanese soldiers and officers were disarmed, 45 tanks, artillery pieces and other military equipment were captured. And on August 23, Soviet troops occupied Shumshu Island and the northern part of Paramushir Island without firing a single shot. For participation in this operation, nine people were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, many were awarded orders and medals.

In total, almost 50,5 thousand Japanese soldiers, officers and generals were disarmed and captured on the Kuril Islands, over 300 guns and mortars, about 1000 machine guns were captured ...

“We took away the South Kurils without any bloodshed or resistance from a strong and armed enemy,” A. Chechulin and his associates say. Is this a delusion, a denial of the obvious, or a fashionable tribute to the conjuncture? According to the Central Naval Archives, we lost 1567 people killed and wounded, although local historians believe that the number of deaths was much higher. And it was not a lightly armed people's militia that opposed our troops, but a powerful group, for the further use of which the Japanese government had very aggressive plans: the captured Japanese officers were found to have maps of Kamchatka with the most important state and military objects marked on them, and in some cases - with diagrams our antiamphibious defense.

And one more thing: can one call a senseless military operation, after which many Japanese garrisons in the Kuril Islands surrendered to the Soviet paratroopers without resistance? Of course no. Nevertheless, the seizure of the rest of the Kuril Islands was not a fun walk. But that's a completely different story ...
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  1. tttttt
    tttttt 8 May 2013 09: 05 New
    26
    In general, this: ours is the earth, and the point.
    1. Canep
      Canep 8 May 2013 10: 50 New
      11
      In contrast to their demands for the southern Kuril Islands, show the Japanese the rights to the island of Hokkaido.
      In February 1945, at the Yalta Conference, responding to the urgent requests of the Americans, Stalin clearly outlined one of the main conditions for Japan to enter the war in Japan - the transfer of the Kuril Islands to the Soviet Union. Every single one, not excluding Hokkaido.
      1. smile
        smile 9 May 2013 02: 55 New
        +3
        Canep
        Guys ... exhale ... the bulk of the Japanese understand perfectly all the hopelessness of the claims .... they understand very well that the game of their politicians does not cost anything ..... but they need to be crushed ... otherwise they will get sick ... such is the psychology. ... but for now .... you can’t even imagine that they have a 5th column ... Russian patriots of Japanese descent, and to hell .... there are none like that anywhere else, in any other country ..... which they love our culture .... and preach it among their own .... and to them side of Habomai ... such a funny story here ....
    2. antiaircrafter
      antiaircrafter 8 May 2013 17: 41 New
      +5
      Quote: tttttt
      In general, this: ours is the earth, and the point

      They owe us more Hokkaido.
    3. datur
      datur 8 May 2013 20: 56 New
      +3
      [quote = tttttt] In general, like this: ours is the earth, and the point .-- as Putin said to the Antimal Samurais !!!! wink good yes
  2. Boris55
    Boris55 8 May 2013 09: 20 New
    11
    “What is the name of the occupation of foreign territory after the official signing of the surrender?

    If the owners of Chechulin signed the Act of Surrender, Russia and Japan still do not have a peace treaty. All his further conclusions do not deserve attention.
  3. erased
    erased 8 May 2013 09: 38 New
    +9
    Nonsense is not translated, especially since there is top dressing from behind a mound. Well, let them yap while they can. But the counter-propaganda should be carried out, as well as talk about the events of those years.
    Glory to the Soviet soldiers!
  4. omsbon
    omsbon 8 May 2013 09: 47 New
    +7
    What is taken from the battle is holy!
    Old wisdom, but relevant today.
    1. rumpeljschtizhen
      rumpeljschtizhen 8 May 2013 18: 29 New
      +2
      I definitely agree they want to let them try to pick up by force
      1. smile
        smile 9 May 2013 03: 13 New
        0
        rumpeljschtizhen
        that gang that was previously called self-defense forces has now grown greatly .... and, perhaps, they are quite capable of chopping off the island .. instantly and with minimal losses .... for a while ... and then we will return ... and the Japanese they know this better than ours ... in any case, they say so .... and many think ...
    2. smile
      smile 9 May 2013 03: 01 New
      +1
      omsbon (2)
      Golden words ... you will laugh ... but the bulk of Yap just thinks so ....- the islands of those who could keep them ... we could ... in general, they are by no means monolithic and relate to us by -differently ... some are very good .... even too much .... :))))
  5. Fuzeler
    Fuzeler 8 May 2013 10: 02 New
    +2
    The article correctly noted: during the storming of such islands, our American allies actively used heavy ships and aircraft, and the Soviet Navy could cope without such support ... Willingly had to (well, we had no battleships at the Pacific Fleet), but our people did it.
    1. Shadowcat
      Shadowcat 8 May 2013 11: 09 New
      -3
      The article hides how they screwed up on o.Kiska
      1. Shadowcat
        Shadowcat 8 May 2013 19: 04 New
        +1
        Quote: ShadowCat
        The article hides how they screwed up on o.Kiska

        I'm talking about the Yankees
        http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Операция_«Коттедж»
  6. avt
    avt 8 May 2013 10: 03 New
    +4
    “What is the name of the occupation of foreign territory after the official signing of the surrender? - the researcher A.V. Chechulin asks a question. - That's right, theft. More precisely, it can be called international robbery - as you like. So we took the South Kuril Islands without any bloodshed and resistance not from a strong and armed adversary in the Great War, but took advantage of the helpless situation in which Japan found itself and stole what we never owned. ”------ How these liberoid nits got it !!! am And here you are, this nonsense also needs to be explained to people that white is white and black is black, and what to do request Democracy and Tolerance.
  7. Shadowcat
    Shadowcat 8 May 2013 10: 11 New
    +7
    Delusional.
    Firstly, it would not have been possible to transfer all the experienced combat units from the European front, even spitting on secrecy. Railway bandwidth too low.
    Secondly, those combat and firing units were sent against the Quantum group (about a million soldiers) that needed to be defeated. So the ratio is difficult to take what and much better. Yes, and do not forget that it’s easy to say now, and there ... it was smooth on paper, but they forgot about the ravines.
    In the third, Soviet intelligence knew the facts that the allies were preparing an interesting operation (plan "Unthinkable") in a still not quieted European theater, and it was very stupid to withdraw experienced troops from their positions, in particular, that they could be opposed by fired on German and allied armies.
    Fourth, the Japanese troops turned out to be checked out with rottenness - while declaring their surrender, they could have blundered in the back from a machine gun, how can one believe such people here?
    In general, so that various bastards would not write, We won, and Nazi Germany, and Fascist Japan. And after the fight, they don’t wave their fists, so shut up the whole sales clique because you only disgrace yourself, those who won and led to victory to shame is pointless. They covered themselves with such glory that all your attempts are nothing more than dirt on boots.
  8. Pavlov A.E.
    Pavlov A.E. 8 May 2013 10: 26 New
    +6
    The main thing is that our leadership of the country does not squander that our grandfathers deserve blood.
  9. individual
    individual 8 May 2013 10: 42 New
    +5
    Where blood was shed Russian soldier. Where the Russian flag developed, then the Soviet flag and now the Russian flag - was and will be our territory.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 8 May 2013 13: 11 New
      +3
      Quote: individ
      Where the blood of a Russian soldier was spilled. Where the Russian flag developed, then the Soviet flag and now the Russian flag - was and will be our territory.

      But what about the Crimea and the city of Dalniy?
  10. Hort
    Hort 8 May 2013 11: 43 New
    0
    What is the name of the occupation of foreign territory after the formal signing of the act of surrender? - the researcher A.V. Chechulin asks a question. - That's right, theft. More precisely, it can be called international robbery - as you like. So we took the South Kuril Islands without any bloodshed and resistance, not from a strong and armed adversary in the Great War, but took advantage of the helpless situation in which Japan found itself and stole what we never owned. ” And this is claimed by a rather well-known person, whose assets are serious speeches at scientific forums! However, he is not alone: ​​many scientists and journalists share this opinion.
    And in my opinion, quite rightly. It is a pity that Hokkaido has not yet been attached to the heap.
    But why the Chinese were given Manchuria was always interesting. Now our CER would be ...
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. minimum
    minimum 8 May 2013 11: 55 New
    -4
    Once again, without proper cover from the sea and air, they threw people at random, lost a bunch of people, who, instead of living, procreating children, are forced to rush into embrasures and die. The Soviet generals are so sad. No matter how anyone here feels about the "cowardly" tactics of the Americans to minimize losses, bombing by hundreds of bombers, battleships and cruisers, against the background of these tactics ours looks simply disastrous. The end of the war, and people rush to the embrasures. perform a "feat", although this is the woeful result of the bungling of the "strategists" that they cannot provide the landing party with proper fire support. It's crazy how many people have lost because of this.
    1. Fuzeler
      Fuzeler 8 May 2013 13: 38 New
      0
      If the Pacific Fleet had the same capabilities as the US Navy, then, of course, would use both aircraft and heavy ships. Our high command did not consist of round idiots and understood everything. And the losses, despite the lack of proper support, were not so high. Just compare the number of Japanese garrisons on the island, and the number of our paratroopers. And the islands had to be taken; they were of strategic value. So do not whine. After all, in Japan they don’t whine about, for example, that killed Japanese soldiers on Hassan or in Khalkhin Gol could spawn children, etc. No, the Japanese simply honor the memory of their ancestral aggressors and are proud of them.
    2. Prometey
      Prometey 8 May 2013 13: 52 New
      0
      minimum
      And I agree with you. I, too, bitterly read about the recklessness of throwing at embrasures - why, for what? How can human flesh resist metal? The outcome of the war is clear, what's the difference when the Japanese garrison surrenders - today or tomorrow? The fact that the troops landed is right. But reckless death, when the end of the war is sad.
    3. Cheloveck
      Cheloveck 9 May 2013 00: 39 New
      +1
      Quote: minimum
      Once again, without proper cover from the sea and air, they threw people at random, lost a bunch of people,

      Quote: minimum
      No matter how anyone here feels about the "cowardly" tactics of the Americans to minimize losses, bombing by hundreds of bombers, battleships and cruisers, against the background of these tactics ours looks simply disastrous. The end of the war, and people rush to the embrasures. perform a "feat", although this is the woeful result of the bungling of the "strategists" that they cannot provide the landing party with proper fire support. It's crazy how many people have lost because of this.

      So, dear, ask at your leisure how many people the Marykans put during a rehearsal of the landing in France.
      Note that in its territory and in the complete absence of enemy forces.
      Hmm, and to this day, "friendly fire" gives the Yankees an indelible pleasure.
  13. Reserve buildbat
    Reserve buildbat 8 May 2013 12: 50 New
    +3
    Chechulin just absolutely does not understand the subject or paid for by the same yapsami.
    And thanks for the article. Very informative.
  14. Aleksys2
    Aleksys2 8 May 2013 13: 09 New
    +1
    The formal surrender was signed on 2 of September 1945 of the year in 9: 02 Tokyo time on board the American battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay. From Japan, the act of surrender was signed by Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu and Chief of the General Staff Yoshijiro Umezu. From the Allied Powers, the act was first signed by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, US Army General Douglas MacArthur, and then other representatives, in particular, Admiral Chester Nimitz from the United States, Bruce Fraser from the United Kingdom, Lieutenant General K. N. Derevyanko from the USSR.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 8 May 2013 13: 15 New
      +1
      Quote: Aleksys2
      First, the Allied Powers act was signed by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur, and then other representatives, in particular, Admiral Chester Nimitz - from the United States, Bruce Fraser - from the United Kingdom, Lieutenant General K. N. Derevyanko - from the USSR.

      Feel the difference in attitude towards Japan as an adversary? The act of surrender of fascist Germany was adopted by Marshal Zhukov, and from Japan only a little-known lieutenant general laughing Was it deliberately done or were more important people busy with more important things?
      1. Aleksys2
        Aleksys2 8 May 2013 15: 46 New
        +4
        Quote: Prometey
        just a little-known lieutenant general

        Kuzma Nikolaevich Derevyanko, from the 1922 of the year - in the Red Army, where he received his main education: Kiev, and then Kharkov military schools, after 10 years - the military academy. At the Kharkov school of military elders, Kuzma Derevyanko became interested in the Japanese language and already spoke and wrote Japanese before graduating from school. In the 1933 year, entering the Military Academy. M.V. Frunze, he chose to study English and Japanese.
        Being only a captain in 1936, K. Derevyanko had advanced in the service by the beginning of the war with Germany, carrying out a number of important special assignments.
        In 1936-1938, Captain Derevyanko carried out a secret operation to supply arms to the Chinese troops who fought with the Japanese, for which he received the Order of Lenin, which was personally handed to him in the Kremlin by the "All-Union Warden" M. I. Kalinin.
        During the Soviet-Finnish War (1939 — 1940), volunteer Major K. Derevyanko was the chief of staff of the Separate Special Ski Brigade. It was a reconnaissance and sabotage unit, formed mainly from students of the Leningrad Institute of Physical Culture named after Lesgaft. Derevyanko himself was engaged not only in planning. When the ski detachment of the master of sports V. Myagkov (posthumously Hero of the Soviet Union) was ambushed by the Finns and was defeated, Derevyanko, at the head of another detachment, carried out the wounded and dead. During the Finnish war, Derevyanko was awarded the Order of the Red Star and out of turn became a colonel.
        Since August 1940, K. Derevyanko is the deputy head of the intelligence department of the Baltic Special Military District.
        In January-March of 1941, he performed a special task in East Prussia, and from 27 of June 1941 of the year he was the chief of the intelligence department of the headquarters of the North-Western Front. As such, in August 1941, he led a raid behind the rear of German troops, during which about two thousand captured Red Army soldiers were freed from a concentration camp near Staraya Russa, many of them joined the front.
        During the war, Derevyanko was the chief of staff of several armies (53, 57, 4 Guards). He participated in the Battle of Kursk, in the battle for the Dnieper. He made a significant contribution to the successful completion of the Korsun-Shevchenkovsky operation. His headquarters organized the rout of the enemy in the Iasi-Chisinau operation. He participated in the liberation of Budapest and Vienna.
        May 4 1942 of the year Derevyanko was appointed chief of staff of the 53 Army of the North-Western Front and was awarded the Order of the Red Star. At the same time, he was awarded the title of Major General (according to the recommendation of the headquarters NF Vatutin and the Deputy General Staff A. Vasilievsky). 19 April 1945 years - he is already a lieutenant general.
        He finished the war in the West, General Derevyanko, chief of staff of the 4-th Guards Army (commander - Lieutenant-General Zakhvatayev N. D.) of the 3-th Ukrainian Front. For some time he represented the USSR in the Federal Council for Austria.
        In connection with the upcoming war with Japan, he was transferred to the Far East to a similar position as chief of staff of the 35 Army. But in August (in Chita) he received an order to leave the train and arrive at the headquarters of the commander in chief of the Soviet troops in the Far East, Marshal Vasilevsky. There he was handed a telegram from Stalin and the chief of the General Staff Antonov on the appointment of General D. MacArthur as representative of the High Command of the Soviet Forces in the Far East.
  15. Semyon Albertovich
    Semyon Albertovich 8 May 2013 13: 27 New
    +5
    Such "historians" as A.V. Chechulin should be given the title of "honorary Japanese" - he masterfully justified Japan's claims to Russian soil. The USSR won the war, the Kuril issue was resolved in 1945, and no one needs these empty discussions except revanchists.
  16. Prometey
    Prometey 8 May 2013 13: 35 New
    +2
    In general, thanks to the author for the historical review. Such articles should be sent to the Kremlin talkers, who are familiar with the history of the territorial development of Russia a little more than nothing.
    And another reference - the history of Japan, especially the Middle Ages, is full of dark spots. There are suggestions that, historically, the Japanese nation that originally inhabited the Japanese islands was conquered and partially assimilated in the period of 15-16 centuries. Hence the aggressive sharp division of Japanese society into the class of conquerors and disenfranchised peasant populations. At the very least, it is very difficult to find examples where the ruling class can chop the heads of the population with impunity and with such ease to the left and right (unless in ancient Sparta, when the Spartans also acted with helots). Who could conquer the Japanese islands? One of the versions is the Jesuits - the Portuguese and Spaniards, who subsequently merged with the ruling class of the indigenous population. And it is not in vain that at the end of the 16th century the country was closed for foreigners. After the Meiji revolution, the history of Japan was revised and polished. The invasion of European conquerors on the Japanese islands was pushed back a couple of centuries ago and replaced by an attempt by the Mongol (heh, where did the Mongols fleet in the 13th century laughing ) conquest. They also added a beautiful legend about the divine wind of Kamikaze.
    So, the expansion of the Japanese has distinct Western European roots.
    1. Selevc
      Selevc 8 May 2013 19: 49 New
      0
      heh, where did the Mongols fleet in the 13th century

      I think that this is not the Mongolian fleet, but the Chinese one - since at that time the main part of the Chinese tariffs was conquered by Genghis Khan ...
      1. Prometey
        Prometey 8 May 2013 21: 45 New
        0
        Quote: Selevc
        I think this is not the Mongolian fleet but the Chinese

        Where did this Chinese fleet go, and most importantly, shipyards and related infrastructure after 200 or 300 years? And the famous Chinese sailors in the period from the 13th to the 18th centuries are unknown to the world. The Chinese were never seafarers and even under duress could not build the numerous fleet needed to transport several tens of thousands of people across the sea.
        1. Selevc
          Selevc 8 May 2013 23: 56 New
          0
          Quote: Prometey
          The Chinese were never seafarers and even under duress could not build the numerous fleet needed to transport several tens of thousands of people across the sea.

          But how could it not be - if all trade in the East Asian region has been conducted with China for centuries. The Chinese actively traded with the Middle East, with India and with the islands of Indonesia ... Marco Polo mentions large Chinese ships in his book ...
          Perhaps after 200-300 years, China no longer had that naval power that existed in the 13th century - since this country was constantly subjected to invasions of the conquerors and sometimes experienced serious economic and political difficulties ... And the competition between Japan and China probably counts not one thousand years ... These are two regional superpowers - eternal rivals ... And of course, it was profitable for the Chinese to deal with their old enemies with the help of the Mongols ...
          1. Prometey
            Prometey 9 May 2013 19: 54 New
            0
            Quote: Selevc
            Perhaps after 200-300 years, China no longer had that naval power that existed in the 13th century - since this country was constantly subjected to invasions of the conquerors and sometimes experienced serious economic and political difficulties ... And the competition between Japan and China probably counts not one thousand years ... These are two regional superpowers - eternal rivals ... And of course, it was profitable for the Chinese to deal with their old enemies with the help of the Mongols ...

            Until the end of the 19th century, water trading with local countries in the Far East was coastal swimming. What are vessels with a small displacement not intended for access to the open sea? The Japanese, Chinese and other Koreans learned about gunpowder and the ability to sail across the ocean only from Europeans. Otherwise, Vasco da Gama would have met oncoming Chinese expeditions near the Cape of Good Hope.
            Well, your passage about regional superpowers smiled. This regional superpower, the Qing Empire, did not even dare to put forward territorial claims against Russia at the end of the 17th century, when the latter had no more than 5000 soldiers throughout Siberia.
    2. smile
      smile 9 May 2013 17: 49 New
      0
      Prometey
      oh ёёёё ..... by the 15th-16th centuries they took shape ... an unreasonable assumption .... by that time there weren’t any spots there anymore ... but about headaches, they have a different psychology and the whole business .... the Japanese themselves, by the way, recognize that everything they have, they borrowed ... iron., silk ... even, damn it, sugar they got from China-Korea .... in the 15-16 centuries, by the way, there were about the same number of Japanese as Europeans .... we should rejoice at that. that their expansion was aimed mainly at Korea - China ... the challenge is Maximum ... it was in the 16th century that their attitude took shape - who owns China, owns the World .... the guys were raving about world domination .... you will laugh, but they are still not averse .... but there are few psychos among them ... :)))))
      1. Prometey
        Prometey 9 May 2013 19: 55 New
        0
        Quote: smile
        there were about the same number of Ponzos as there were Euro-Ukrainians .... we should rejoice at that. that their expansion was mainly directed to Korea - China ...

        Sorry, are you serious?
  17. George
    George 8 May 2013 19: 17 New
    +2
    Hello all.
  18. Selevc
    Selevc 8 May 2013 19: 41 New
    +3
    “What is the name of the occupation of foreign territory after the official signing of the surrender? - the researcher A.V. Chechulin asks a question. - That's right, theft. And more precisely, it can be called international robbery - as you like. ”

    Complete nonsense - I think that the accession of the Kuril Islands to the USSR was agreed in advance with the allies and this was one of the conditions for the USSR to enter the war with Japan ...

    I don’t understand why Russia is generally interested in Japan’s claim to the Kuril Islands. Why does anyone care about signing a peace treaty with Japan or not? In 1905, when Japan took away South Sakhalin from Tsarist Russia, they probably had little interest in such issues !!!
  19. avt
    avt 8 May 2013 21: 17 New
    +1
    Quote: Selevc
    Complete nonsense - I think that the accession of the Kuril Islands to the USSR was agreed in advance with the allies and this was one of the conditions for the USSR to enter the war with Japan ...

    YES ! And I think much more, for example, Hokaido, well, surely had to get into the USSR occupation zone. But the post-war game began and the amers decided to limit us to the Kuril Islands, which was recorded in the post-war agreement, forcing the Japanese to sign a renunciation of claims to the islands of the Kuril ridge! And they signed it! And the fact that there is no USSR signature is NOT LEGALLY INFLUENCED on the document, ALL Japanese IN THE WRITTEN FORM themselves abandoned the islands. And to talk about the right of the Japanese to the islands can either villains or traitors!
  20. Takashi
    Takashi 9 May 2013 06: 26 New
    0
    good article. reveals the essence of our operation in Kamchatka and the islands. And what was on Sakhalin?
  21. smirnov
    smirnov 10 May 2013 13: 09 New
    +1
    My grandfather died there, returned home in May, stayed home for two weeks and called again. So he didn’t come back ...
  22. Apologet insane
    Apologet insane 13 May 2013 09: 27 New
    0
    It generally surprises me that someone is serious about the demands of the Japanese =) After all, for their politicians such demands are the same as for our Zhirinovsky, his circus performances. Just populism, designed for primitive cheers-patriotism, no more. Even Yeltsin missed the ears of the Japanese calls, let alone the GDP - he would never allow this. Therefore, it is not necessary to harass the Japanese political circus. And our fighters - honor and glory!