According to the data of the new report “Main trends in international trade weapons in 2013 year ”, prepared by the Stockholm Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the total international arms trade in 2009 – 2013 years by 14 percent exceeded the same indicator of 2004 – 2008. The top five export leaders included the United States, Russia, Germany, China and France, and the largest importers were India, China, Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. Despite the stability of the world market, there are still some changes in the table of ranks. In particular, China has again raised its rating among the largest suppliers of weapons, pressed France and moved to the 4-place.
The report was prepared by SIPRI experts Simon and Peter Wesemany. During the period under review, arms shipments to Africa, both of America, Asia and Oceania, increased significantly, declined in Europe, and remained at about the same level in the Middle East.
Among the main exporters of military products (PPS) in 2009 – 2013, SIPRI identified 55 countries. The United States has a market share of 29, Russia - 27, Germany - 7, China - 6, France - 5 percent. Taken together, the top five account for 74 percent of world volume, which is 9 percent more than in 2004 – 2008 years, moreover, in the USA and Russia - 56 percent.
USA. Export of this country to 2009 – 2013 years decreased by 1 percentage compared to the period of 2004 – 2008-29 versus 30. Nonetheless, the United States retained leadership by supplying at least to the 90 countries of the world. The largest recipients of American weapons were Asia and Oceania - 47 percent of all shipments. This is followed by the region of the Middle East (28%) and Europe (16%).
“China again raised its rating among the largest suppliers of weapons, pressed France and moved to the 4-place”
In the American export, PVN dominates aviation equipment (61%), including 252 combat aircraft. According to European analysts, the volume will increase due to the planned deliveries of new fifth-generation F-35 fighters to Australia, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Turkey and the UK. It is these aircraft that will begin to dominate the aviation component of US exports, despite the fact that the F-35 program is the most expensive in the field of weapons. To date, only 590 out of XNUMX fighters have been exported. Some countries have reduced order sizes or are considering less sophisticated alternatives.
In addition, in the 2009 – 2013 years, the United States supplied long-range missile defense systems to Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Taiwan, and the United Arab Emirates and received delivery orders from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the Republic of Korea.
Russia. “Despite the crisis of the post-Soviet period, Russia has managed to achieve a high level of arms sales,” said SIPRI senior researcher Simon Weseman. In the period under review, Moscow supplied 52 drug stores to states. The most significant event was the sale of India to the aircraft carrier Vikramaditya, so the second place in the world ranking with 27 percent share did not surprise anyone. More than half of domestic exports accounted for India (38%), China (12%) and Algeria (11%). If we look at the regions, then 65 percent of Russian supplies of defense products are sent to Asia and Oceania, to Africa - 14, to the Middle East - 10 percent.
Arms Trade Grows
Andrei Sedykh collage
Russia has become the largest exporter of ships - 27 percent of all global shipments of naval equipment, including the Vikramaditya mentioned and the nuclear multi-purpose submarine for the Indian Navy. However, the main share of sales, as in the United States, was aviation equipment (43%), including 219 combat aircraft.
Although Germany maintained the third position among the weapon giants, its military exports in 2009 – 2013 over the same period of 2004 – 2008 fell by 24 percent. The main buyers of the German POT are the neighbors in Europe (32% of the total volume), as well as countries in Asia and Oceania (29%), the Middle East (17%), and North and South America (22%). Germany remained the world's largest exporter of submarines - nine ships for five countries. By the end of 2013, the national shipbuilders received orders for 23 submarines.
The second "horse" is also traditional - these are the main combat Tanks (MBT). Germany took second place after Russia in the ranking, putting 650 tanks to seven countries, including five outside Europe. By the end of 2013, the Germans had a portfolio of orders for more than 280 tanks, including 62 Leopard 2 for Qatar.
China, as noted above, has achieved the greatest success in the arms trade, displacing France from 4-th place. The volume of military exports to 2009 – 2013 years increased by 212 percent, and the share of the world market increased from two to six percent. During this period, Beijing has put PAs in 35 states, but almost total 3 / 4 was in Pakistan (47%), Bangladesh (13%) and Myanmar (12%).
The rapid development of China’s military technology is partly due to the fact that the country supplies weapons products to major importers, including Algeria, Morocco and Indonesia, in direct competition with Russia, the United States and European manufacturers. In particular, the People's Republic of China managed to win the tender for the supply to Turkey of the HQ-9 / FD-2000 anti-aircraft missile system (SAM), bypassing all the indicated rivals. Although the results of the competition have not yet been announced definitively, the victory in it is very significant, experts say.
France rolled back to 5-e place in the list of the world's leading retailers, reducing the share in the global market from nine to five percent, while its exports decreased by 30 percent. In 2009 – 2013, military supplies were supplied to 69 countries, including 42 percent to Asia and Oceania, 19 percent to Europe, 15 percent to Africa, 12 percent to the Middle East, and to 11 percent to both Americas.
China has managed to "squeeze" 13 percent of French exports mainly due to the licensed production of helicopters, in particular the version of the Z-9 AS-565 machine. The main recipient of French products should be India. Already ordered 49 fighter "Mirage-2000-5", six submarines "Skorpen", preparing the signing of a contract for 126 aircraft "Rafale".
In contrast to the stable list of export leaders, the five largest world importers of defense products have changed several times since 1950. Only in recent years, their rating has more or less settled, and the first places in the periods of 2004 – 2008 and 2009 – 2013 are now occupied by India and China.
Following 2009 – 2013, SIPRI considered 152 countries that purchased military products. In addition to India and China, Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia are in the top five. The share of all five accounted for 32 percent of the total purchases of weapons. The main sales region is Asia and Oceania (almost 50% of the total). This is followed by the Middle East (17%), Europe (15%), North and South America (11%), Africa (9%).
African countries increased imports by 53 percent. The main buyers were Algeria (36%), Morocco (22%) and Sudan (9%). In sub-Saharan countries, 41 is the percentage of the total continental import of defense products. Especially popular are weapons and equipment to ensure safety at sea. This is primarily due to the military-political situation. Say, Sudan and Uganda are involved in a number of conflicts and they account for 17 and 16 percent of arms supplies to the countries south of the Sahara.
In 2009 – 2013, Sudan increased its purchases by 35 percent over the previous cycle. Acquired 44 attack helicopters Mi-24 from Russia, four attack aircraft Su-25 and 12 front-line bombers Su-24 from Belarus, 170 tanks T-72 and T-55 from Ukraine. These systems were used in the border conflict with South Sudan, as well as in the province of Darfur, despite the UN embargo on the use of weapons there.
Uganda’s military imports in 2009 – 2013 increased by as much as 1200 percent compared to 2004 – 2008. The main reason is the purchase of six Su-30 and 44 T-90С tanks in Russia, as well as four C-125 anti-aircraft missile systems in Ukraine. Some of these weapons were used in the civil war in South Sudan in 2013.
Америка. The volume of deliveries of conventional weapons to both continents increased by 10 percent, but in the global volume of imports of defense products decreased from 11 to 10 percent. The United States was the largest supplier of conventional weapons in 2009 – 2013 and 6 in the list of importers. Venezuela showed high activity in the markets, becoming the largest buyer in Latin America, the second largest in both continents and 17 in the world list.
For several years, Brazil has been looking for opportunities to gain access to foreign technologies through arms procurement to strengthen its national defense industry. In 2012, this strategy began to yield first results. Military imports increased by 65 percent. Despite normal relations with neighboring countries, Brazil has embarked on several large arms procurement programs.
In particular, after a long waiting period caused by financial constraints, in 2013, this country, following a tender, selected 36 Swedish JAS-39 Gripen-E fighters for a total of 4,8 billion dollars. She also ordered one nuclear multipurpose and four non-nuclear Scorpins from France for 9,7 billion dollars, began licensed production of Italian armored cars Guarani 2044, signing a contract with Italian Iveco for 3,6 billion dollars.
Colombia continues to import weapons to combat illegal armed groups (IAFs). The United States delivered to Bogota Pawway bombs that were used to eliminate the leaders of the illegal armed groups, as well as the 35 UH-60L transport helicopters, some of which were refined for the use of Israeli Spike-MR guided missiles. Israel sold Colombia additional precision weapons, including 13 Kfir combat aircraft with Griffin guided bombs, Hermes-900 and Hermes-450 reconnaissance drones.
Asia and Oceania. The volume of supplies of defense products to this region during the period under review increased by 34 percent. In total, its states accounted for 47 percent of the total volume of imports of defense products, while in 2004 – 2008 - 40 percent. South Asian countries received 45 percent of regional volume, East Asia - 27, Southeast Asia (SEA) - 23, Oceania - 8 and Central Asia - one percent. All three of the world's largest PVN importers in 2009 – 2013 were from the Asian region - India, China and Pakistan.
New Delhi’s military purchases increased by 111 percent, making the country the largest arms importer on the planet in 2009 – 2013. The share was 14 percent of world imports of defense drugs, which is almost three times higher than the figures of the PRC or Pakistan, its regional rivals. The largest trading counterpart of India was Russia, which supplied 75 percent of the total imports of defense products, the rest of the producers were far behind: the US had 7 percent, and Israel had 6 percent. Over the same period, Pakistan’s military acquisitions increased by 119 percent, with 54 percent of imports accounted for by China and 27 percent by US.
During 2009 – 2013, India and Pakistan made significant investments in strike aviation. In particular, recently New Delhi has received 90 from the ordered 222 Russian Su-30MKI, as well as 27 from 45 deck MiG-29К / KUB for their aircraft carriers. In addition, there is an agreement on the 62 Russian MiG-29CMT and 49 French fighter "Mirage-2000-5". India has also chosen, but has not yet placed an order for the fifth-generation T-144 and 50 French Rafale Russian 126 aircraft.
Pakistan received 42 JF-17 combat aircraft from China and ordered even more 100 aircraft of this type. Islamabad has also bought new 18 in the USA and expects from Jordan 13 used F-16C.
In 2013, the relationship between the DPRK and the Republic of Korea (RK) again escalated. Pyongyang is under the influence of UN sanctions on the supply of weapons, so it concentrated its efforts on building its own ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons as the main combat weapons. Seoul uses its economic opportunities for the constant modernization of the armed forces.
Although the Republic of Kazakhstan has significant potential for its own production of weapons, it became the 8 of the world's largest importer of defense products in 2009 – 2013. 80 percent of purchases came from the United States, with some of them aimed at expanding the capabilities of detecting and destroying ballistic missiles.
In particular, the country received an F-21K fighter with guided bombs and missiles from the USA during this period from the USA. Last year, Seoul decided to purchase four reconnaissance high-altitude UAVs with a long RQ-15A Global Hawk and 4 fighter aircraft with regular take-off and landing F-40A, and in Germany - Taurus KEPD-35 X-guns.
Europe reduced imports of defense products by 25 percent. Great Britain stands out with 12 percent of the total regional volume, followed by Azerbaijan (12%) and Greece (11%). Many European countries have chosen used weapons to replenish their arsenals.
Azerbaijan, leading a territorial dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, increased purchases of defense products by 2009 percent in 2013 – 378. Mostly from Russia, which accounted for 80 percent of supply. In addition, weapons and military equipment were purchased in Ukraine, Belarus, Israel and Turkey.
Greece in the list of the world's largest importers of drug products in 2004 – 2008 occupied the 5-place. But then the country was gripped by a deep economic crisis and defense programs had to be reduced by 47 percent. The delivery of four submarines ordered in Germany before the crisis began was significantly delayed. In 2013, corruption was investigated during the conclusion of military deals, and their results raised serious questions about the influence of decision-makers on arms purchases.
Middle East increased imports of weapons by 3 percent. In 2009 – 2013, 22 percent of the total volume in the countries of the region went to the UAE, 20 percent came to Saudi Arabia and 15 percent went to Turkey. Remaining under UN sanctions on arms imports, Iran received only one percent. In the Middle East, US manufacturers dominate, making 42 a percentage of all supplies of MPP.
In the 2009 – 2013 years, the UAE was the fourth largest global importer of weapons and equipment, and Saudi Arabia took the 5 place, having risen significantly from the 18 position in the previous period. Both Arab monarchies have large orders for the supply of drugs for various purposes and extensive plans for the future. For example, activity in Saudi markets will increase due to the additional supply of Typhoon aircraft from the UK, as well as the receipt of X-NUMX F-48SA fighters from the United States since 154. In 15, the kingdom placed an order in Canada for armored combat vehicles worth 2015 billions of dollars.
We should also note the countries in conflict. Egyptian events in July and August 2013 led to the restriction of the export of MPP to this country by some manufacturers. In particular, Spain interrupted the planned sales of military transport aircraft C-295. The United States suspended the planned delivery of X-NUMX F-12 fighters, M-16-1 and 1 fighters to the AN-10D helicopter, but sold at the end of the 64-th Corvette. At the same time, Russia handed over to Egypt 2013 helicopters Mi-14В-17 and continues to push its weapons here, and Germany continues to build two submarines of the 5 project.
Syria in the field of defense procurement mainly depends on Russia, but the planned deliveries of MiG-29 fighters and C-300PMU-2 anti-aircraft missile systems in 2013 were again postponed.
Iraq is rebuilding its armed forces, receiving major MPPs from several trading partners. At the end of the 2013, the first four attack helicopters of the Mi-35 from Russia arrived here, other types of Russian weapons and military equipment are expected. In addition, Baghdad had previously ordered the South Korean 24 training / training / combat T-50IQ aircraft, and this year supplies from the US of the first 36 F-16C aircraft should begin.