Military Review

Operation Jihad, Terrible, August 1996

Operation Jihad, Terrible, August 1996

“Jihad” is the code name of the operation to assault Grozny conducted by Chechen militants in August 1996. Along with Grozny, militants attacked settlements of Argun and Gudermes, the last federal forces surrendered without a fight. From a political point of view, the storming of the city ended in a victory for the militants, who actually achieved independence after the signing of the Khasavyurt agreements. From a military point of view, none of the parties to victory won. The first days of the assault remained behind the militants, when, guided by the effect of surprise, they managed to block the city’s garrison in places of deployment, disrupt command and communications with the units. However, having recovered from the initial strike and turned to decisive actions, the Russian troops actually returned control of the situation and completely surrounded the city, but they were no longer allowed to win.

The attack on Grozny was unexpected and sudden for many, for this reason there were rumors in society that they were going to surrender the city intentionally. At least, many participants of those fights think so, although direct evidence of betrayal does not exist. Many of the participants in the events swear confusion and disunity in the military leadership of the unified command. Parts of explosives and military units sometimes openly did not recognize each other, during the conduct of military operations between the parts there was insufficient interaction, often it was absent altogether.

On June 2, in the suburbs of the Chechen capital, a sabotage group of 5 militants from the Shamil Basayev detachment was captured. During the interrogation, it was established that this group had one more task besides conducting acts of sabotage and collecting intelligence. The group was supposed to ensure the evacuation of the family members of the militants fighting in the mountains before 10 June. And this group was not the only one. The militants took the removal of their families from Grozny with the expectation that the fighting in the city could take on a heavy and protracted nature, and their relatives could suffer during the clashes. They followed the same tactic in December 1994.

Bardak mess, but there were available operational data from the special services and law enforcement agencies, it was known about some secret rooms of militants, caches of ammunition. All the intelligence information obtained as a result of interrogations of the captured insurgents, from the existing agents, lay on the table of people who were to be responsible for making decisions.

Grozny's garrison consisted of 6000 people from the internal troops and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in addition, around 10 000, Defense Ministry troops were concentrated in Khankala and near the airport “Severny”. 22 checkpoints, 5 commandants and 2 commandant sites were deployed directly in the city. After the March events, when the militants had already made a raid on the city, a whole series of activities were carried out on the engineering equipment of the points of permanent deployment of troops. All the checkpoints were delivered ammunition, water and food. Objects that could become a target for storming, turned into strong points. However, at the same time, Grozny was and remains a fairly large city, which almost 130 roads flow to. Directly under the control of the federal forces there was only 33 of them, it was impossible to completely turn the city into a fortress.

In the early morning of August 6, 1996, the detachments attacking Grozny counted about 1,5-2 thousand soldiers, but over the week of fighting their number increased to 6-7 thousand, mainly due to the transfer of reinforcements from other areas of Chechnya and the transfer to their part employees of the "Zavgaevskaya" police. The garrison of federal troops outnumbered the militants, having absolute superiority in technology, artillery and aviation.

Aslan Maskhadov, who commanded the militants who stormed the city, imposed on the federal forces an extremely unfavorable tactic for the latter. The Chechen detachments entered Grozny from different sides, bypassing the checkpoints, commandant's offices and the location of the Russian units. Militants did not aim to capture or destroy all urban objects. Having concentrated in Grozny, they blocked the units of internal troops at checkpoints and commandant’s offices, isolating them from each other, leading a constant disturbing fire, demoralizing defenders. The bandits dealt the main blow at the complex of administrative buildings in the center of Grozny (Government House, Ministry of Internal Affairs and FSB buildings), where a decent number of journalists were surrounded by the military.

Strictly speaking, the militants of Grozny did not storm, they just entered it. Rare checkpoints of the federal troops could not prevent it. The events of August 1996, hardly had analogues in the world stories. From the moment of the Battle of Stalingrad there existed such a military term as “layer cake”, which meant that the forces of the opposing sides were mixed and were very close to each other. The Grozny situation, guided by this terminology, could be called the “Olivier salad”. From 6 in August, numerous checkpoints and commandant's offices fought in the city, special forces GUINA from Yekaterinburg and non-run Chechen militiamen in the MIA building who were guarding the hotel in the center of Grozny fought back. The building of the Coordination Center was defended by soldiers of the special division of the Russian Interior Ministry "Rus".

At the same time, the units of the Ministry of Defense, stationed at the airport “Severny” and at the base in Khankala, reacted rather sluggishly to the incident. Army generals did the calculation that the militants themselves would leave the city, and were in no hurry to go to the aid of "allied" from the Interior Ministry. The first attempts to somehow change the situation in the city began to be undertaken by them only in the second half of the day on August 7, when the first armored columns were sent to help the besieged. Thus, precious time was missed. A part of the Chechen detachments managed to organize ambushes on the way of nominating convoys of federal forces. The militants did not experience a shortage of weapons, the day before at the railway station in Grozny, they managed to seize several weapons cars, including a whole car of anti-tank grenade launchers. As a result, armored vehicles of the Russian army became fairly easy prey for mobile, lightly armed militants.

Subsequently, on the streets of the city one could meet a large number of burnt equipment with a white square in a circle, marked 205 by a motorized rifle brigade, which ultimately played a decisive role in breaking through to the surrounded. But even these deblocking operations cannot be attributed to the storming of the city, their main goal was only to create corridors that would connect the surrounded to military bases on the outskirts of the city. Only on 6-th day of battles, 11 August 1996, one of the columns from the 205 motorized rifle brigade was able to get into the central part of the city to the complex of government buildings, as a result of which the wounded, journalists and corpses of dead servicemen were taken out.

The situation was significantly corrected only by 13 in August, when the federal forces managed to unlock most of the surrounded objects, only 5 checkpoints were not unblocked. The bold and at the same time adventurous operation "Jihad", prepared by Aslan Maskhadov, was close to failure. Militants themselves had serious losses and were trapped in the city. A group of 58 army units gradually increased around Grozny. However, they did not receive the order to conduct the final operation to eliminate the militants that had broken into the city. Frustrated by the failures and the current critical situation at the initial stage of the assault, many times intensified in the media, the Russian leadership decided to negotiate with the militants who were instructed to lead General Alexander Lebed. 31 August negotiation process ended with the signing of the Khasavyurt agreements. The first Chechen war came to an end, the Russian troops left the republic, until the beginning of the 2 campaign of the Chechen 3 year remained.


As a result of the fighting in Grozny from August 6 to 22, federal forces lost 2083 people (494 killed, 1407 wounded, 182 missing). On the streets of the city were burned 18 tanks, 61 infantry fighting vehicles, 8 armored personnel carriers, 23 vehicles, 3 helicopters were lost. It’s quite difficult to name the exact losses of the militants. According to the publication "Soldier of Fortune", the losses of the militants exceeded the Russian ones by 2-3 times, the official publication of the Ministry of Defense of Russia, the newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda, wrote that on some days of the assault, the losses of the militants reached 100 people killed.

Sources used:
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. djon3volta
    djon3volta April 20 2013 08: 18 New
    if 2 young Chechens have lifted Boston to their ears and proliferated the 5 millionth city, then what can 100-200 such guys with America do? After all, Chechens, like Russians, do not give up, Americans perfectly understand the mentality of Russians and non-Russians who have the roots of Russia. Reagan said that if a war begins with the Russians, I won’t be amazed that tomorrow the airborne assault forces will take over the White House. Americans are not just for the sake of visibility supposedly afraid of us, they REALLY are afraid of Russians (Tatars, Udmurts, Chukchi, etc.). America, mother do not grieve, lawlessness! how they were afraid of him, that even the CIA had just connected to isolate him.
    1. kosmos84
      kosmos84 April 20 2013 09: 54 New
      not fair
    2. воронов
      воронов April 21 2013 19: 15 New
      [quote = djon3volta] because Chechens, like Russians, do not give up
      Chechens surrender and still surrender, and when you put AKMS in his mouth, these "mountain eagles" surrender both mom and dad, and friends and neighbors
  2. George
    George April 20 2013 08: 40 New
    They could have covered everyone in one place. If it weren’t for a couple of well-known personalities (unfortunately for the deceased, they left the court), then that was all.
    1. Lech from ZATULINKI
      Lech from ZATULINKI April 20 2013 16: 29 New
      Let's say it directly, they were YELTSIN Chernomyrdin and BEREZOVSKY-TROIKA, people who caused the death of many of our people.
      1. wecher75
        wecher75 April 24 2013 14: 22 New
        I agree to all 100%.
    2. Hon
      Hon April 21 2013 09: 32 New
      If they had lived 300 years, all the same, there would have been no court, they are untouchable, they are called by the library by their names, and monuments are being erected.
      1. George
        George April 21 2013 14: 10 New
        You are right. Monuments set.
  3. Maks111
    Maks111 April 20 2013 09: 21 New
    The militants did not lack weapons, the day before, at the railway station in Grozny, they were able to capture several weapons cars, including a whole car of anti-tank grenade launchers.
    What a strange combination of circumstances. Is not it? Given the fact that the railway was probably completely controlled by the feds.
    The militants themselves suffered serious losses and were trapped in the city. Around Grozny, a grouping of 58 army formations gradually increased.

    Frustrated by the setbacks and the critical situation at the initial stage of the assault, which was amplified many times by the media, the Russian leadership decided to negotiate with the militants
    These three points show very well that there was a betrayal and where did all this grow legs.
  4. Foamas
    Foamas April 20 2013 09: 39 New
    and the transition to their side of employees of the "Zavgaev" police

    It was with the help of these "employees" that the militants were seeping into the city, the notorious mess in the interaction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Army was only aggravated, just because of the interaction with the local security forces, in 1994/95 it was also with the Gantamirovsk police
  5. gorkoxnumx
    gorkoxnumx April 20 2013 11: 12 New
    If Chechnya fought in Afghanistan, it would have long been gone !!!
  6. Dr. Manoff
    Dr. Manoff April 20 2013 11: 50 New
    If there wasn’t a mess, then the militants wouldn’t even have poked their hands on us, not to mention the war.
    1. smile
      smile April 20 2013 19: 25 New
      Dr. Manoff
      Oh, damn it, if ... if ... if there weren’t a mess, then the militants would not even have appeared ...
  7. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya April 20 2013 12: 07 New
    One person had to command the operation (regardless of structure), and there should be a complete interaction of forces, it’s not our soldiers who know how to fight (our soldiers are the best in the world), but their command is shit, and the command is in general uniforms. If there had been no such betrayal in the highest echelons of power, everything would have been the first Terrible to end, and the Maykop brigade would have been alive.
    1. smile
      smile April 20 2013 19: 29 New
      Prapor Afonya
      And what do you want if the Chechen meat grinder is the result of the destruction of our country ... the result of betrayal, moreover, the people who were at the helm of the country themselves and actively destroyed the country ... and I would not become all of our generals and senior officers to smear with Mr. - many of them had children who fought and died there ... and a mess in the Army is a consequence of a common mess in the country ...
      1. Rider
        Rider April 21 2013 11: 19 New
        many of them had children who fought and died ...

        During the war in Chechnya in 1994-1996, sons died: Lieutenant General ANOSHIN Gennady Yakovlevich; Major General NALETOV Gennady Afanasevich; Lieutenant General SUSLOV Vyacheslav Fedorovich; Lieutenant General of PULIKOVSKY Konstantin Borisovich; Major General Anatoly Mikhailovich FILIPENK; Colonel General Shpak Georgy Ivanovich. The sons were seriously injured: Major General ALEXANDROV Vadim Fedorovich; Colonel-General KAZANTSEV Viktor Germanovich; Lieutenant General TARTYSHEV Alexander Tikhonovich. In 1999, the son of Lieutenant General SOLOMATIN Viktor Alexandrovich was killed in Chechnya.
        The son of the Minister of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, A. Kulikov, fought in both wars in Chechnya. Worthily fought in the Special Forces, was wounded. And this is normal and inspires respect for both fathers and sons. Over the years, the sons of nine generals and fifty-five colonels have died in Chechnya.
        1. don.kryyuger
          don.kryyuger April 21 2013 18: 39 New
          It is a pity that not these people made key decisions.
  8. ed65b
    ed65b April 20 2013 13: 39 New
    And the best guys in Russia died because of the sluggishness of the "generals". And how many of these scum in their uniform remained unknown. And mothers did not wait for their blood at home. Already spite takes without punishment without consequences, let go and forget. And they also judge.
  9. MAG
    MAG April 20 2013 14: 59 New
    The company commander said that before the assault, one third of the blocks were removed by order! 2 DONs from the march (Krasnodar Territory) was sent to unblock people who came through the private sector because the roads were controlled by Czechs. From his story, they walked beautifully by the evening, almost reached the blocks, but the order came at night not to fixate but to move back to the outskirts, and now, when we left, losses began! The company commander said that the city was surrendered and the Czechs were given time to finish it off, and I believed and believe him because he is a real WARRIOR and MAN !!!
  10. Lech from ZATULINKI
    Lech from ZATULINKI April 20 2013 15: 45 New
    The militants did not lack weapons, the day before, at the railway station in Grozny, they were able to capture several weapons cars, including a whole car of anti-tank grenade launchers. As a result, the armored vehicles of the Russian army became fairly easy prey for mobile, lightly armed militia units.[/ Color]

    how so - maybe someone specially framed these cars for the Chechens, it’s some kind of madness.
  11. Grin
    Grin April 20 2013 17: 00 New
    There were traitors by any means, I hope I hope they know them and someday they will punish them.
    It’s still interesting, did people live in Grozny at the time of this attack? In newsreels and photos, something is not to be seen. And that raises a bunch of questions.
    1. smile
      smile April 20 2013 19: 32 New
      Really. during the first Chechen period, our counterintelligence uncovered a lot of cases of selling arms and military equipment to Czechs, transmitting information, and personalities were established ... but, something I didn’t hear about high-profile trials of traitors ... everyone was mostly braking ... questions. .. questions ..
    2. Zhaman-Urus
      Zhaman-Urus April 20 2013 19: 49 New
      They lived, either ordinary Chechens who did not have authoritative relatives (the authorities had taken their own before the war, either to the mountains or even to Russia) and the Russians abandoned by everyone and the authorities and relatives. And for those Russians, I’m just ashamed that nobody in Russia needs a mother and father in Russia, even there are practically no kindred ties among us. The shots of crying hungry Russian old people in Chechnya are just a knife in my heart.
  12. crasever
    crasever April 20 2013 17: 10 New
    The "two hundred drunken" brigade fought skillfully and cruelly - the enemies were afraid of it. The men did not drop the honor of the Russian Soldier ...
  13. Ulysses
    Ulysses April 20 2013 17: 28 New
    The surrender of Grozny and the ensuing Khasavyurt are the links in the chain of betrayals of the highest echelon of state power of Russia of that time.
  14. MG42
    MG42 April 20 2013 17: 29 New
    Frustrated by the setbacks and the critical situation at the initial stage of the assault, which was amplified many times by the media, the Russian leadership decided to negotiate with the militants, who were commissioned by General Alexander Lebed.

    They don't negotiate with terrorists, as for the media, I remember, for example, I can say that the unhealthy attention of NTV then belonged to Gusinsky, an earlier episode of the storming of the presidential palace, did they take it? >>> every news release began with this, and the negotiations between Chernomyrdin and Basayev are nonsense a later episode of the hostage-taking in Budenovsk, and the musical Nord-Ost in Moscow, this is all a consequence of the fact that this shameful peace was signed in Khasavyurt.
    Eloquent footage of the storming of Grozny
  15. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya April 20 2013 17: 53 New
    Quote: Lech from ZATULINKI
    The militants did not lack weapons, the day before, at the railway station in Grozny, they were able to capture several weapons cars, including a whole car of anti-tank grenade launchers. As a result, the armored vehicles of the Russian army became fairly easy prey for mobile, lightly armed militia units.[/ Color]

    how so - maybe someone specially framed these cars for the Chechens, it’s some kind of madness.

    And how was it that they captured the warehouses of spirits, and there they were 95 rounds of ammunition and weapons, and sometimes one that wasn’t in our units, the officers worked shitty, and so I think if you open this boil, you can put many on the wall!
  16. Zomanus
    Zomanus April 20 2013 18: 08 New
    In short, a shameful war. Constantly Europe and America pulled us, did not allow us to turn around. They constantly checked whether the rights of the rebels were violated ... And how many traitors in the Duma were screaming about the unfortunate Chechens ... And the price of these games was the lives of soldiers.
  17. Krasnoyarsk
    Krasnoyarsk April 20 2013 22: 11 New
    You just had to cut out all Chechens to the last baby, and that’s it!
    1. MAG
      MAG April 21 2013 14: 51 New
      Come there and try the keyboard hero
      1. dmb
        dmb April 21 2013 18: 12 New
        But you rightly said, for which you received a minus. The jerk played enough in the computer and decided to show his "coolness". It is these illiterate idiots who show their "courage". attacking in a flock on one in a dark alley. In this they are no different from those jackals they are going to cut out. Such "heroism" and "patriotism" immediately disappears when a strong adversary appears.
        1. Yarbay
          Yarbay April 21 2013 19: 28 New
          Quote: dmb
          Such "heroism" and "patriotism" immediately disappears when a strong adversary appears.

          You are right as always !!
    2. salman5151
      salman5151 April 21 2013 20: 17 New
      A point does not tear?
  18. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya April 21 2013 00: 48 New
    Quote: smile
    Prapor Afonya
    And what do you want if the Chechen meat grinder is the result of the destruction of our country ... the result of betrayal, moreover, the people who were at the helm of the country themselves and actively destroyed the country ... and I would not become all of our generals and senior officers to smear with Mr. - many of them had children who fought and died there ... and a mess in the Army is a consequence of a common mess in the country ...

    I would never have dared to put all the officers (and the rest of the military from the rank and file) in one row, for more than one year of my service I saw all sorts of people: both true heroes and experts, and complete traitors and!
  19. brush
    brush April 21 2013 01: 35 New
    The article is full of errors. But the main thing I will say: Operation Jihad was developed and commanded by Shamil Basayev. Aslan Maskhadov was out of business here.
    1. Zhaman-Urus
      Zhaman-Urus April 21 2013 18: 20 New
      Maskhadov is a Soviet colonel, and a literate colonel, albeit an enemy. But Basayev could not develop a military operation simply due to the lack of education, it is not in the maternity hospital to hide behind pregnant women. So, as far as I know, the operation "Jihad" and the blocking and destruction of the Maikop brigade, as well as the plan for the defense of Grozny, his business. They taught colonels in the Soviet army conscientiously.
      1. воронов
        воронов April 21 2013 19: 53 New
        Quote: Zhaman-Urus
        Taught in the Soviet army colonels in good faith.

        Yes, they taught them conscientiously. Guard Colonel Aslan Maskhadov graduated from the Tbilisi Higher Military Artillery School, graduated from the Academy of Armored Forces and Artillery, the last position in the SA was the chief of artillery of the southern group of forces, whose units were stationed, incl. in Czechoslovakia, Major General of Aviation Dzhokhar Dudaev in 1966. Graduated from the Tambov Higher Aviation School of Pilots, in 1974. command faculty of the Gagarin Air Force Academy, 1980-1982 commander of the 1225 heavy bomber aviation regiment of the Trans-Baikal Military District, in 1986-1987. took part in the war in Afghanistan as part of the 132nd heavy bomber air regiment of long-range aviation, on board the Tu-22M3 bomber personally performed combat missions and carried out carpet bombing of enemy positions, for which he was awarded the "Order of the Red Banner of Battle", in 1987-1991. Commander of the strategic 326th Tarnopol heavy bomber division of the 46th Strategic Air Army (headquartered in Tartu, Estonian SSR). Many former SA soldiers with combat experience in Afghanistan fought militants, so it is quite possible to say that the Russian "democratic and liberal" army was opposed by well-armed, fully combat-ready, with high morale, units of the former union, SA, Ministry of Internal Affairs, KGB
    2. воронов
      воронов April 21 2013 19: 59 New
      Quote: brush
      Operation Jihad was developed and commanded by Shamil Basayev.

      Basayev never developed military operations, he had no brains on it, he had enough to attack hospitals, seize passenger buses with hostages and kill the civilian population
  20. Combitor
    Combitor April 21 2013 02: 44 New
    I am not a military man and do not understand the intricacies of military science. I think there are many reasons for the failure of both Chechen campaigns. In addition to the illiteracy of the Russian military leadership, theft and betrayal, it seems to me that an important role was played by the fact that every more or less significant commander in that war imagined himself to be a great strategist and decided to put his ambitious thoughts into practice. Everyone wanted to get their own order, paying for it with the lives of Russian soldiers. Not using intelligence data, conducting hostilities without organizing interaction between units, the opposite of the decisions of the commanders of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the army - isn't that criminal? Yeltsin's generals were haunted by the "laurels" of Zhukov, Rokosovsky, Chuikov. We are witnesses to what this led to.
  21. Prometey
    Prometey April 21 2013 08: 21 New
    By the way, the photos in the article have nothing to do with the events described - this is the first assault on Grozny.
  22. Rinatgoi
    Rinatgoi April 21 2013 12: 59 New
    Neither Chechens, namely Russians, occupied the Caucasus.
    "You just had to cut out all the Chechens to the last baby, and that's it!"
    It is necessary to cleanse the Earth from the likes of you and all! It will become easier to live in a world.
  23. optimist
    optimist April 21 2013 15: 13 New
    There is no doubt: the 1st and 2nd Chechens are a continuous series of betrayals by the Russian authorities. But no one says something about the present day. For some reason, the "defeated" live much better than the "winners", and only at their expense? "Allah" (in the form of our "guarantor") generously pours dough to them for absolutely everything! More than half of Czechs do not work anywhere at all. I had to go there on business trips: solid "houses" for 7-10 lyamas with an official average salary of 3-4t.r. It turns out that the Czechs have achieved their goal: they have delivered cancer to Russia ... In military language, this is called an indemnity paid by the defeated. I'm not even talking about the unbelted ramzank, who at one time killed ours. Yes, and his fellow tribesmen behave very "modestly" in the vastness of our vast. In short, some unanswered questions ...
    1. Zhaman-Urus
      Zhaman-Urus April 21 2013 18: 26 New
      You don't have to pay and not create jobs there if you are ready to take the AKM and take part in the Third Chechen War. It seems to me that the GDP does everything right. The Chen issue can be solved either with a lot of blood or with a lot of money. Chechen society is now stratified into the very poor (the shepherds contemptuously call them their own) and very rich Chechens (teip Tsentoroi and others like them), but the principle "Divide and rule has not yet been canceled."
      PS In general, probably if the Third Chechen begins, the Fourth will never be NEVER.
      1. optimist
        optimist April 21 2013 19: 07 New
        Dear, what kind of jobs? Why are they a nation that considers war, trade and crime the only worthy occupation for itself? Unforgettable Joseph Vissarionovich found a solution to this problem as early as 70 years ago. Feed the nation of bandits, above stupidity and betrayal! And what will happen when the money runs out?
  24. Rinatgoi
    Rinatgoi 13 May 2013 15: 30 New
    General Sleptsov, 1844:
    “What right do these savages live on such a beautiful land? With the finger of the Lord of the worlds, our August Emperor ordered us to destroy their villages, all men who can carry weapons, destroy crops, and cut pregnant women to cut their bellies so that they do not give birth to bandits .... "

    General Tsitsianov, "Conquered Caucasus", 1804:
    “I will destroy you all from the face of the earth, I will go with flame and burn everything that I can’t borrow with troops; I’ll cover the earth of your region with your blood and it will turn red, but you, like hares, will go to the gorges, and I will get you there, and if you don’t get it from the sword, then you will die from the cold ... ”

    Griboedov, who was in Velyaminov’s detachment, in 1825 in a letter to Begichev:
    “The name of Yermolov is still terrifying; God forbid that this charm is destroyed ... We will hang and forgive and spit on the story. "

    Decembrist Lorer:
    “In a conversation with Zass, I noticed to him,” he wrote, “that I do not like his system of war, and he answered me at the same time:“ Russia wants to conquer the Caucasus no matter what the cost. With peoples, our enemies, what to take if not fear and a thunderstorm? .. Philanthropy is not suitable here, and Ermolov, hanging mercilessly, robbing and burning auls, was only in time more than ours. ”

    General Bulgakov, 1810, report on the results of the campaign in Kabarda:
    “Until now, the Kabardian people never had such a loss ... They lost a lot of property that was burned with two hundred villages.”

    Nicholas I - Count Paskevich (1829, after the end of the Russian-Turkish war):
    “Having thus finished one glorious thing, you will have another, just as glorious in my eyes, and much more important in the discussion of direct benefits — the pacification of the mountain peoples forever or the extermination of the rebellious.”

    Pushkin, 1829, "Journey to Arzrum":
    “We drove them out of the free pastures; their villages were devastated, entire tribes destroyed. ”

    General Tsitsianov, 1804, "To the Owners of the Kabardian ...":
    “The blood in me is boiling, like in a cauldron, and the members all in me are shaking from greed to give your land the blood of disobedient people ... wait, I tell you, by my rule, bayonets, cores and the shedding of your blood by rivers. "Not muddy water will flow in your rivers, but red, your families are dyed with blood."

    Fonville, "The Last Year of the Circassian War of Independence, 1863-1864":
    “From all the places successively occupied by Russians, the inhabitants of the auls fled, and their hungry parties crossed the country in different directions, scattering the sick and dying in their paths; sometimes whole crowds of immigrants froze or drifted with snowstorms, and we often noticed, passing, their bloody tracks. “Wolves and bears raked snow and dug out human corpses from under it.”

    Berger, “Eviction of Highlanders from the Caucasus”:
    “We could not retreat from the business we had begun just because the Circassians did not want to submit. It was necessary to exterminate the Circassians in half to force the other half to lay down their arms. The plan proposed by Count Evdokimov for an irrevocable end to the Caucasian war by destroying the enemy is remarkable for its deep political thought and practical fidelity ... ”

    Venyukov, “Caucasian Memoirs (1861-1863)”:
    “The war was fought with inexorable merciless severity. We advanced step by step, but irrevocably, and cleared the land of the mountaineers to the last man. Mountain villages were burned in hundreds, crops were etched by horses or even trampled down. The population of the villages, if it was possible to take him by surprise, was immediately taken under military escort to the nearest villages, and from there they went from the shores of the Black Sea and further to Turkey ... The villages of the Abadzekhs on Fars burned for three days, filling the bitter space of versts for 30. Relocation was extremely successful ... "

    Now it’s clear where this hatred of Russians in the people of Caucasian nationalities comes from.