Military Review

Between a jeep and a buggy

2

In the last period of the Great Patriotic War, great services were rendered to the troops of Ivan-Willis, as the Soviet SUVs GAZ-67 and GAZ-67B (also known as Bobik), and the Lend-Lease American all-wheel drive US-6 trucks called

The mechanical engine appeared in the army a long time ago, and the oldest task solved with its help is the supply of troops. Steam tractors delivered cargo to British troops even during the Crimean War. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a car with a gasoline engine came to the army, and by the end of the century the family of militarized “cars”, apparently not too similar to their civilian counterparts, had grown greatly.

On the eve of the First World War, a number of armies already had automobile units. It was still mainly about rear and headquarters motorization, although we had already planned to use cars for self-propelled radio stations and searchlights, for installing guns, for evacuating the wounded. Since the beginning of the war, they threw troops, towed artillery guns and various trailers, delivered to the place of repair. That is, even then the range of tasks solved by cars in the army was decided. In the interwar period, motorization in the form of a wide introduction of wheeled and tracked transport to the troops became one of the main concerns of all advanced armies, regardless of their chosen strategic concepts. The operations of the Second World War can no longer be imagined without the massive use of military motor vehicles (BAT).

Over the past six decades, several generations of BATs have changed, and the number and volume of tasks it has solved has grown in accordance with the development of means and methods of warfare. Modern military technology can be divided by type into special wheeled chassis and wheeled tractors, military tracked vehicles of a transport and traction class, multi-purpose vehicles, mobile equipment for auto technical maintenance (repair and evacuation vehicles, technical assistance vehicles, mobile workshops, operational support facilities). According to the same - on the wheel and caterpillar. All this is necessary for the diversity of troops formed in all countries in different ways. We will consider only certain types of army vehicles.

It is quite natural that the armed forces of the developed countries have in their armament domestic-made equipment, or at least the necessary service network for servicing BATs of foreign manufacture. The fleet of the Russian Army on the 2005 year was estimated at about 460 thousands of vehicles - Soviet and Russian production. As a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union, part of the manufacturers turned out to be in the “near abroad”, and the operation and repair of such a vast fleet cannot be made dependent on external conditions. I had to refuse, for example, from cars of the Ukrainian Kremenchug Automobile Plant (KrAZ). But Belarusian enterprises - the Minsk Automobile Plant (MAZ) and the Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant (MZKT) - managed to maintain close relations with the Russian armed forces. It has long been known that the BAT park requires as much unification as possible in order not to complicate the processes of delivery, training, procurement, maintenance and repair. Meanwhile, in a motorized rifle regiment, for example, 5 — 6 types of machines from different manufacturers with their own operational features are still used. Therefore, under the machine for various purposes (from small to large) tend to select a few basic chassis.


HMMWV M998A2 (4х4) - booking with hinged panels (1 - front armor plates, 2 - boot protection, 3 - underbody protection, 4 - armored doors, 5 - crankcase and fender covers). Mass without armor - 2,544 t, load capacity - 1,25 — 1,5 t, engine - diesel, 170 l. with., speed on the highway - to 113 km / h

Essential SUVs

The familiar phrase "heaped jeep" carries an internal contradiction. After all, initially "jeeps" are just alien to all kinds of "bells and whistles". Cars with a wheel formula 4х4 (that is, four-wheel drive with all-wheel drive for all) of the most simplified design, increased maneuverability and high "endurance" began service in World War II as commander, reconnaissance, ambulance, transport vehicles, mobile communications, tractors field guns and light trailers. About the origin of the word "jeep" for a long time arguing. According to one of the versions, this word comes either from the English abbreviation “G-Pi” - GP (“general purpose”), or from the designation of the GPW model “Ford” - an analogue of the MV “Willis”.



The cars that appeared shortly after World War II were the heirs of the first mass SUVs. To this day, veterans created in 1950 — 1960-e are widely used in various modifications, such as, say, the American M151 with a payload of up to 554 kilograms or the British Land Rover (up to 790 kilograms), or the Soviet UAZ-53 (two people plus 600 kilograms of cargo). But the ways of war are changing, and new generations of cars are required.

So, in the United States after the Vietnamese campaign they decided to abandon the descendants of the “old Willis” in favor of a fundamentally new car. The result was perhaps the most widely advertised military jeep HMMWV (abbreviation meaning “highly mobile multipurpose wheeled vehicle”) for the last quarter of a century, an order for which in 1983 was received by American Motors General. This machine is also known by the nickname "Humvee" or under the name "Hummer" ("hammer"), although "Hummers" generally call it commercial modifications. The military M998 HMMWV very successfully combined a powerful diesel engine, independent wheel suspension with wide-profile low-pressure tires and inserts for riding flat tires, a wide wheelbase, the ability to transfer large torque to the wheels, high ground clearance and a small height of the body of aluminum alloys. Also as advantages it is worth mentioning the minimum overhangs of the hull in front and behind the wheels, a four-seater cabin and a rather spacious cargo compartment. True, for the low silhouette had to pay the transmission tunnel, which occupied a significant amount of the cab. A characteristic requirement for the car is that the driver can drive it with the injury of one arm and one leg. This is facilitated by an automatic transmission and a set of controls. The air intake with air filter raised above the hood increases the depth of the ford to be overcome and improves work in dusty conditions (dry steppe, desert). The HMMWV family has 15 basic versions with a common chassis, engine and transmission: 8 of them are combat vehicles carrying weapons on board, the rest are sanitary, staff and so on. A total of 44 plug-in modules are used in the family. This made it possible to replace not only the main predecessor - the massive M151 jeep, which the HMMWV almost tripled in capacity - but also a number of cars and significantly unify the fleet of connections. Various modifications of the "Humvee" are more than in 30 countries, although this is perhaps the most expensive military jeep on the planet.



The armored versions of this car were modified as follows: originally, bullet-proof reservations were made for patrol cars using steel, Kevlar and polycarbonate armored glass. But in 1990-e began to strengthen the reservation - mainly as a response to the experience of the American soldiers from the next military campaign conducted by America in a particular country. After the events in Somalia, the M1109 appeared with anti-bullet and splinter armor. Then, on the heavy chassis HMMWV M1113 built M1114, in which the company O'Gara-Hess and Eisenhardt supplemented the anti-bullet mine protection. These cars were tested in Bosnia, the M1116 appeared behind them with even more enhanced armor protection: it was needed along with the M1114 in Afghanistan and Iraq. The press described, for example, a case in point when in Afghanistan the patrolman M1114 ran into an anti-tank mine, lost the wheels, the corps wrecked, but none of the four fighters in the cockpit was hurt - the booking worked "by five". Demand for such cars rose sharply in 2004 — 2005, when invaders' patrols in Iraq were bombarded so frequently that contract drivers allegedly even refused to travel, and army workshops intensified Humve’s booking with artisanal methods. In fairness it should be noted that the HMMWV was created with the expectation of several other tasks. Reservations, which can raise the chassis of the jeep, while maintaining mobility and acceptable load capacity, still will not protect against the cumulative RPG grenades and powerful land mines. This, incidentally, applies to a number of light armored personnel carriers. Well, on the streets of the city or suburb, on a mountain road, any car without cover will be too vulnerable - it is therefore not surprising to use other methods of protection. In “hot spots” you can meet, for example, jeeps with doors removed - the door still will not protect you from a grenade or a shockwave, but it may also hit the passengers and the driver, and there are much more chances to leave the attacked car without doors.


Ultra-low LuAZ-967M (4х4), aka TPK, USSR. Weight - 930 kg, load capacity - 320 kg + driver, engine - gasoline, 37 l. s., speed - up to 75 km / h on the highway, 3 — 4 km / h afloat, power reserve on the highway - 370 km

Nevertheless, the demand for booking multipurpose army vehicles, including jeeps, is growing. Here are some numbers: Armor Holding company from 1993 of the year to the middle of 2006 “hung” armor on about 17,5 thousands of Humveys, of which 14 thousands - after 2003 of the year (mainly in versions M1114 and М1116), and from January 2004 to June 2006 produced more than 1 800 removable armor sets for them.

During the Iraq war, their HMMWV reservation option was offered in South Africa, focusing on protection against high-explosive mines. What was logical - in South Africa, considerable experience was gained in the mine protection of wheeled vehicles, and for HMMWV it became almost the main problem.



The sign of the times - the LMV multi-purpose light machine (weighing, by the way, 6,7 tons) of the Italian company Iveco has mine protection already in the basic configuration.

In the United States, the HMMWV and HEMTT LHS trucks were recently scheduled to be replaced, and several companies began developing two related programs — FFTS UV with a payload of up to 2,5 tons and FFTS MSV — up to 11 tons. In addition to the greater capacity, the new SUV was presented with the requirements of a reinforced suspension (so that it could withstand a set of removable armor), as well as a more powerful electric generator for powering radio and optoelectronic equipment. But navigation, observation, reconnaissance and communications are also components of the “defense”. Large-caliber machine guns and sniper rifles, hand-held anti-tank grenade launchers, portable anti-tank systems sometimes make low visibility, high mobility and modern observation devices in a much more important parameter of light machines than their armor.

Jeeps - dual-purpose equipment. Most military jeeps have civilian modifications, often more numerous. Evidence of this - and the German family of "Mercedes" G-class, and "Hammer", and the Soviet UAZ-469, originally developed in the military and "economic" options.


Car GAZ-64

"Tigers" and "Leopards"

The first serial military SUV 4х4 appeared in the USSR in the year 1941 in the form of GAZ-61, followed by GAZ-64, -67 and -67Б. However, during the Great Patriotic War, the Lend-Lease "Willis", "Ford", "Dodge three-quarters" in the troops turned out to be much more. In 1953, the launch of GAZ-69 began. Interest in off-road vehicles has steadily increased - if in the 1956, the USSR produced 5 of various basic models, then in the 1970, already 11.

Between a jeep and a buggyThe shock FLYER R-12 buggy of the Singapore production, is applied in the USA. Weight - 2,47 t, crew - 3 person, engine - diesel, 81 l. with., speed - up to 110 km / h, power reserve - 500 km

In 1972, the Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant began production of the UAZ-469, which is a worthy employee to this day. The test runs covered by the UAZ-469 are very indicative - along the Great Silk Road, the Sahara, the Karakum Desert, Siberia. During their run across the Caucasus in 1974, UAZ even climbed (well, almost) to Elbrus, climbing 4 000 meters. A caustic joke, “what the Russians don’t invent, so as not to build good roads,” is just about them. But the army is not going to act only along the roads. The military modification of the UAZ-469 differs from the civilian with additional wheel reduction gears, which made it possible to increase the ground clearance and increase the maneuverability by starting preheater, shielded by electrical equipment. In various modifications, the UAZ has hit more than 80 countries of the world. Noticeably inferior to many foreign SUVs in comfort, very shaky on the go, it had the most important quality for a “jeep” - throughput, reliability and maintainability. Lieutenant-General Yu.P. Prischepo, for example, recalled how in Ethiopia, in overcoming the “wadi” - the bed of a low-flowing river with sand and silt - the Land Rover (very good cars) firmly sat down, and the UAZ, after a break in stunts, nevertheless passed and the Land Rover helped by a tug.



In the course of production, various changes were made to the car. In 1985, the UAZ-469 managed to modernize (modification UAZ-3151), installing the engine in 80 l. with. (against 75 — 77 in the previous UAZ-469) and made a number of changes to the transmission, chassis, and controls. Later, more changes were made, in general, improved driving and performance of the machine. Military modifications of this brand included a general-purpose vehicle, a command and control vehicle, a radiation and chemical reconnaissance vehicle, and others. Among the special equipment to it can be mentioned a road induction mine detector and a set of railway “passages” for driving a car on a railway track with a wide domestic gauge in 1 520 or “Stefenson” in 1 435 millimeters.

In 1990, a number of attempts to modernize the old “goat” UAZ-469 (UAZ-3151) were made primarily for the commercial market. But the military tasks were not forgotten - the conflicts in which the Russian army participated, simply did not allow them to be forgotten.


Hammer-like GAZ-29752 "Tiger" (4х4), used by riot police and internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. Weight - 5 t, load capacity - 1,5 t (or up to 10 people), engine - diesel, 197 or 205 l. sec., speed - up to 125 — 140 km / h, power reserve - up to 1 000 km

The Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant installed a new 137-strong engine with electronic injection in combination with an 5-speed gearbox, gear axles, front spring and rear spring suspension on the car. A new model appeared - UAZ-3159 “Bars”. The Zashchita Corporation supplied the Barça, intended for the army and the Ministry of the Interior, with hidden or open local booking of the cabin.


UAZ-3159 "Bars"

Based on the Barça, an enlarged track gauge has been created by the UAZ-2966, supplied to the troops from 2004 of the year and also having the option of booking. By the way, the separation of the wheels in width is connected not only with the stability of the car on the move, “fitting” into the track or layout of components and assemblies. It also contributes to the protection - when hitting a mine, there is less likelihood that the severed wheel will hit the cabin, and the explosion itself takes place farther from the crew and passengers. In Chechnya and Dagestan, the Russian army was faced with the same problems of mine warfare and shelling from automatic weapons and rocket launchers, as the Soviet in Afghanistan. But local booking bore fruit. You can recall the case described in the press. The “Bars” of the Ufa riot police in Chechnya came under fire from the gangsters, one of the bullets landed in the engine, immobilized the car, which was immediately fired at an RPG, the grenade exploded in the rear wheel well. After the fight, the car counted more than a hundred and fifty hits. But everyone in the cabin survived.



An interesting development is the Gorky Automobile Plant and its affiliate Industrial-Computer Technologies of a heavier GAZ-2975 Tiger jeep with a payload of up to 1,5 tons (close to the Humvee) using BTR-80 units, an independent torsion wheel suspension. In addition to greater reliability, it gave the car excellent permeability, which is facilitated by a very solid ground clearance in 400 millimeters (in the army UAZ-469 - 300), and a system for regulating air pressure in the tires. True, the wheels and manual transmission took imported. The export version of the "Tiger" also received the American Cummings diesel engine with turbocharging, but the GAZ-562 engine (produced under license from the Austrian Steyr), also turbocharged, can be put in 197 horsepower for delivery to the native armed forces. So equipped with "Tigers", put in the riot police. They have a reservation that protects against pistol and small-caliber assault rifles. Before us is something between a jeep and a light armored personnel carrier for police operations in dangerous areas. From analogs, you can bring the British armored vehicle "Shorlend" on the chassis "Land Rover Defender."

Battle Gnomes

For other branches of the military, high-mobility and compact machines are required as tractors and conveyors. For the airborne troops, for example, such a need was clear from the moment they appeared. It is not surprising that they were created jeeps, which can be called ultra-small, their main advantages are the possibility of transfer by any military transport aircraft and transport helicopter, landing on light parachute platforms, low visibility on the ground. This could include the American M274 "Mechanical Mule" with an 21 engine in horsepower, the French "Laure Fardi" FL 500 with a 28-strong engine. A very original Austrian "Steyr Pooh" 700 AR "Haflinger" with the engine in 22 — 27 horsepower was intended for operations in the mountains. The original move was made by the Bundeswehr of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1970-s, adopting the airborne and mountain parts of the Kraku 640 Fawn car with an opposed two-cylinder engine and a folding frame, originally created as an ... agricultural motoblock. Nevertheless, Krakä served as both a conveyor and a platform for installing heavy weapons - recoilless guns, anti-tank missile systems (ATGW) Tou or Milan, 20-mm automatic gun Rh202. However, in the end, the Krak had to be replaced by heavier vehicles and small airborne aircraft.


Light chassis (4х4) "Faun" KRAKA 640, Germany. Weight - 1,61 t, load capacity - 0,75 t (or up to 6 people), engine - gasoline, 26 l. with., speed - up to 55 km / h, power reserve - about 200 km

In the USSR, the development of an ultra-small SUV began in 1950-ies with the task of creating a low-profile “front-line conveyor” (TPC); however, an agricultural career was also assumed for him. In the 1960-ies in the Soviet Army appeared floating SUV LuAZ-967 production of the Lutsk automobile plant with a squat hull-pontoon and a four-cylinder air-cooled engine. TPK served for the evacuation of the wounded, the supply of ammunition, military equipment, as well as the installation of certain types of weapons - ATGM "Competition" or "Metis", an automatic grenade launcher AGS-17. The driver could drive a car lying down. Small dimensions and weight, combined with good maneuverability and buoyancy, made TPC comfortable for the assault forces, the winch and removable walkways increased the maneuverability, it was possible to pull loads and wounded people with a winch. Nevertheless, the agricultural modification of TPK was received - in the form of non-floating cars LuAZ-969 and ZAZ-969.

It would seem that by now, small-sized jeeps have completed their military career. However, they recently recalled the US Marine Corps. The MV-22 vertical take-off and landing aircraft can hardly fit the HMMWV, which means that the landing party is left without vehicles and heavy weapons. As an option, it was proposed to use a lightweight “Grauler” jeep, created on the basis of aggregates of the old M151 jeep - a curious turn of the career of the Willis heirs. The name "Grauler" turns out to be quite appropriate here, because the so-called "old-fashioned four-wheeled cab driver" is called.

Shock buggy

Cars armed with machine guns or automatic cannons were designed at the very beginning of the 20th century. Their real samples found combat use in the course of two world and a number of local wars. For example, during the Second World War, the Red Army and the American Army used the “Willis” armed with machine guns in battle, and the British “commandos” successfully used jeeps heavily armed with machine guns in North Africa. Not to mention the numerous anti-aircraft machine-gun installations on the car chassis.

Panar SPV car on the G270 CDI chassis for French special forces. Mass - 4,0 t, capacity - 6 — 8 man, engine - diesel, 210 l. s., speed - up to 120 km / h, power reserve - 800 km, mine protection of the bottom

A new surge of interest in high-mobility armed off-road vehicles occurred in 1970 — 1980-ies in connection with the formation of “light” formations and rapid reaction forces, the expansion of the use of special forces and airborne forces. The machines assigned the tasks of reconnaissance and patrolling, the destruction of manpower and military equipment, laser targeting of high-precision ammunition, raids and search and rescue operations in the rear of the enemy. The lack of armor should compensate for the mobility (due to the high specific power of the engine, independent wheel suspension, low specific pressure) and low visibility, which provided a low silhouette and low noise noise. The average transport helicopter was supposed to carry two cars with crews inside. It is clear that there armored vehicles could not compete with unarmored. Since then, there are already several generations of shock cars.

Great interest in the quality of the chassis of such a car caused a buggy - a light sports car, characterized by very small size and weight, high speed, maneuverability and stability. An example is the FAV, LSV and ALSV Chinout machines that have been successively tested by Americans. ALSV at speeds up to 130 kilometers per hour and acceleration from standstill to 50 kilometers per hour in 8 seconds can carry 3 — 4 man, 12,7-mm (M2HB) and 7,62-mm (M240G) machine guns, that is, weapons comparable to “Hammy ". It has a commercial diesel engine and transmission, an electronic control system, communications and navigation. The Jordanian shock machine AB3 "Black Iris" is distinguished not only by the 4x2 wheel formula and hull squat, but also by the frame aft for transporting a light motorcycle.

The original drum machine "Desert Raider" presented at the turn of the XXI century, the Israeli company AIL. The car looks like an elongated buggy, but with the wheel formula 6х6 - two front wheels with independent suspension and four rear wheels, suspended in pairs on balancers. The crew is located a diamond - the driver along the axis of the machine, on the sides behind the machine-gunners, another 1 — 2 of a man with weapons or property being transported can be placed on the platform behind the driver. Strange, but the layout of this large insect resembles a Soviet tracked combat vehicle landing. An important feature of the "Desert Raider", which managed to get the army name "Tomer" - the location of the engine and exhaust system, reducing the thermal and acoustic visibility of the machine. Weapons can include 2 — 3 (Negev) caliber 5,56 or 7,62 (MAG) millimeter machine guns, as well as one anti-tank missile system.

Speed ​​or armor?

Buggy and chassis like the “Desert Raider”, related to small car shock, good for driving on sandy soils, besides their ability to transport ammunition, fuel and lubricants and food supplies are limited. Much more versatile and reliable shock vehicles "medium" (up to 4,5 tons) and "heavy" (up to 6 tons) class based on army jeeps and even all-wheel drive trucks.


Car M-626 / G "Desert Raider" (6х6), Israel. Weight - 2,6 t, engine - gasoline, 150 l. s., or diesel, 107 l. with., speed - up to 110 km / h, power reserve - 600 km

For example, remember the cars of British special operations forces. During the Falkland War, they used traditional Land Rover jeeps. But the C-130 could take no more than two such cars on board, and up to seven cars with crews were required. For the 22 British SAS regiment, lightweight LSVs were manufactured. They were let into the 1991 year in the Persian Gulf. However, there the British still preferred the much more spacious old Pink Panther jeep on the chassis of the long-range Landrover - besides weapons and a few people, he carried smoke grenade launchers, fuel and water canisters, navigation equipment, and mounted roof racks for the property. They were used in combination with Canon motorcycles and support vehicles on the chassis of the German Unimog truck. British patrols move in good old Land Rovers in Iraq.

In the version of the "shock" and offered the American HMMWV, which was put in different versions - bend the fingers - 40-mm automatic grenade launcher MK19, 7,62-mm machine gun M60, 12,7-mm M2HB, 12,7-mm multi-lined GAU-19 / A mm ASP (R) -30 cannon, Tou ATGM. But the basic HMMWV was heavy. Therefore, its modification HMMWV / SOV for special operations forces has a shortened and “narrowed” base, open top, safety arches and installations for automatic armament. For the UK, a reduced-width HMMWV ECV chassis has developed a Shadow car with the option of installing a stabilized platform with automatic small arms, a recoilless rifle or an ATGM. At the same time, the United States Marine Corps adopted the IFAT “high-speed assault vehicle” on the German GDT 30 German chassis, capable of transporting fully equipped 290 fighters, as well as the M6HB mm 12,7 mmX2G or 7,62 -ph machine gun -gun -tif -fn. And most importantly - IFAT perfectly fits in an average transport helicopter.


Impact buggy ALSV, USA. Weight - 2,35 t, crew - 3 person, engine - diesel, 140 l. with., speed - up to 130 km / h, power reserve - 500 km

On the G270 chassis of the same G-series Mercedes in Germany, they built shock cars LIV and LIV (SO) weighing 2,55 — 3,3 tons of modular design. Four portable jack supports make it possible in field conditions to supply a combat module with a missile complex, a protected module for transporting soldiers, reconnaissance equipment, a fuel tank, a set of repair and evacuation equipment, and an electric generator. You can install an automatic gun or automatic grenade launcher.


Naturally, the shock machines also decided to provide a light booking. In front of the same ALSV can be mounted non-metallic armored panels. Impact jeeps can carry fire resistant tires, a set of mine protection, removable bulletproof armor. That is, the development of off-road chassis, on the one hand, and the means of armor and destruction - on the other hand, nevertheless, the shock vehicles of the middle and heavy classes with light armored vehicles brought together. Contributed to this and interest in automatic guns caliber 20 — 30 millimeters as a group weapon units. The British, say, on the Unimog chassis put the Vector GAI 20 gun, and the Land Rover Defender 110 chassis can be equipped with a stabilized WMIK platform with 20- or 30-mm gun or twin 12,7 and 7,62-mm machine guns.

UAZ-469 with machine guns was used by Soviet special forces in Afghanistan. On the basis of the Russian UAZ-3159 with an extended track, the “Scorpion-2” car is presented with enlarged doors (to make it easier to leave the car), a turret for installing a machine gun with a caliber from 7,62 (PKTM) to 14,5 millimeter (CPVT).

Finally, it is difficult to count the number of makeshift "strike machines" generated by local wars. For example, Afghan dushmans used Toyota, Semur, Datsun jeeps and heavy machine guns or recoilless guns for raids and as nomadic firearms. There are also curiosities like the one offered by Ukrainian manufacturers of MLRS on the chassis of an old LuAZ… aviation a block of unguided missiles.
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  1. dred
    dred 29 November 2011 14: 48
    0
    The last option looks good.
  2. tpanichkina
    tpanichkina 11 June 2012 12: 12
    0
    The last option is good, but you can’t book it properly!