The assault detachments of the party of the German National Socialists, SA, appeared 3 August 1921 of the year as a tool to seize power. Initially, the abbreviation SA was deciphered as Sportabilt, a department of sports, but Hitler’s gymnastics was of little interest. The party paper "Völkischer Beobachter" wrote: "The SAs must be engaged in military-patriotic education and protect the leaders of the party."
In November, the 1921 of the year SA was not called Sportabilt, but Sturmabteilung (assault troops). Hitler recruited his supporters among former front-line soldiers left without means of subsistence. They did not want to return to peaceful life. In the assault squads, they found what the republic had deprived them of. These soldiers would hardly have obeyed the retired corporal, Hitler, if he had not been patronized by the captain Ryom, who distinguished himself in the war.
When in Munich no one had heard of the retired corporal Adolf Hitler, Captain Ernst Röhm was already widely known. He was a soldier to the bone, a blunt and brutal man. The defeat of Germany in the First World War put an end to his military career. He could not accept it and gathered like-minded people around him.
The little secret of his associates was that they were united not only by political interests. Ernst Rome did not hide his homosexual inclinations, flaunted them. And his entourage adhered to non-traditional sexual orientation. A special homoerotic atmosphere arose in the circle of young men in military uniform. Homosexual erotica played an important role in the formation of the militarized wing of national socialism. Captain Rome and led the army, which got the leader of the national socialists, Adolf Hitler.
Stormtroopers in brown shirts became a symbol of the Nazi movement. They marched through the streets with a song:
Thrust a knife into the throat of a Jew
You will say again -
the world is good!
The marching columns of attack aircraft seemed to the Germans to be the personification of order and tranquility, although in reality there were many real criminals among this rabble. The attackers demonstrated the power of the Nazis and, building fear on the townspeople, dispersed and killed their political opponents. Before each encounter, a detachment of storm troopers received instructions from Hitler:
- You have to prove your commitment to work. Nobody leaves until it ends. Is that you will make your feet forward. If I see a coward among you, with my own hand I will tear the bandage off the swastika.
He is no longer needed
The first months after taking power in January, 1933 was the best time for attack aircraft. They began to learn new positions and get rich. Ernst Röhm becomes the second man after Hitler. Sometimes it even seemed that the party had two leaders.
The chief of staff of the assault detachments appeared at all public ceremonies next to the Führer. Ernst Röhm was needed by Hitler for total pressure on his enemies, because German President Hindenburg and his aristocratic arrogant environment prevented the Führer from gaining all power. Ryoma was in possession of a four millionth stormtrooper army. Ryom's birthday - 28 November 1887 of the year - was celebrated as a national holiday.
“I once drove into the headquarters of the assault detachments,” one of the prominent Nazis recalled. “I saw a luxuriously furnished room: tapestries, expensive paintings, amazing crystal mirrors, lush carpets. It looked like a public house for millionaires. The door of the main hall swung open. And from there Reeling, Ryom appeared, with his plump cheeks and a cigar in his hand. "
Ryom was a sincere admirer of Hitler. But at the same time he was a masterful man who defended the exclusive right to command attack aircraft and did not want to share this power with anyone. He believed that the Führer should be involved in politics and propaganda, and military affairs entrusted to him.
So far, comrades-in-arms ... On the left - one of the leaders of the SS, Kurt Daluege, Heinrich Himmler (center) and Ernst Rem.
Rome felt so confident that he wanted to subjugate the army. But this Hitler did not want. He did not like the fact that the chief of staff of the assault detachments was coming out of obedience. The four millionth stormtrooper army really presented danger as a horde that demanded its share and hated those who were in power and received wealth. The attackers adhered to primitive socialist views, demanding that they deal with the aristocracy, the army elite and the big bourgeoisie. Hitler stormtroopers were no longer needed, and the army was needed. And Rome set up an army against himself.
At a meeting with the leaders of the assault detachments, Rom declared:
- Attackers will not clean the streets for noble gentlemen!
Prominent Nazis asked Hitler to part with Rem, because the dark shadow of accusations of homosexuality fell on the Fuhrer. Hitler had a highly developed instinct for self-preservation. Getting rid of Ryom at once solved too many problems for Hitler to get rid of this thought.
"Dead Head" enters
5 June 1934, the year Ryom spent five hours with Hitler. He left in confidence that he could count on the Führer, that they were still like-minded people and comrades. Hitler subsequently assured that he gave Rehm a beating, scolded him for scandalous behavior, and ordered that order be established among the attackers, who are plotting a "national-Bolshevik revolution." According to Hitler, Ryom promised to fix everything and asked for leave. Hitler allowed the chief of staff of the SA to rest on the lakes.
From this holiday, Ryom will not return.
Hitler entered Ryom himself, he had a whip in his hand. Behind him were two policemen with pistols in their hands.
On 9 in the morning of 28 on June 1934, Hitler drove up to the Junkers-52 aircraft waiting for him at the Tempelhof airfield. The plane flew to Essen. Despite heavy rain, the Fuhrer was greeted by a huge crowd. Hitler flew to the wedding of the local Gauleiter Josef Terboven. The groom was in party uniform, the bride was in a white dress. Hitler witnessed the wedding.
Hitler called Ryome, who was resting at the Hanzelbauer Hotel on the Bad Wiessee lake, promised to arrive in the evening on June 30 and asked to assemble the leadership of the assault detachments.
The list of attack aircraft to be destroyed, has already been compiled. This engaged in the SS. Division bodyguards Hitler got the name - Schutz Staffel (security detachments), abbreviated SS.
The SS took young people aged 23-25 years, physically strong, healthy, non-drinkers. Himmler wanted his people to look impressive. The model house of Hugo Boss, who is not as famous as it is now, provided the SS with a black uniform with silver stripes. An image of the skull appeared on the caps, which meant: "loyalty to death."
The Reichsführer SS became Heinrich Himmler. But Himmler obeyed the imperious Ernst Rehm, and dreamed of independence!
The selection unit of the Bavarian SS "Adolf Hitler's Life Standards" and the "Dead Head" battalion, formed for service in the first Nazi concentration camp Dachau, were loaded onto trucks provided by the army and moved in the direction of Bad Wiessee; their instructed: possible rebellion among attack aircraft.
Only Edmund Hines, the leader of the assault detachments in Silesia, was worried. He traveled to Bad Wiessee and tried to warn Ernst Ryom, but the chief of staff, who relaxed and rested in good company, did not believe him. He fully trusted Hitler. Haynes picked up a young guy and went to sleep with him.
29 June Hitler spent inspecting labor camps in Westphalia. Already knowing that he would shoot his comrades-in-arms tomorrow, he enjoyed the evening concert of the amateur performances of the local Hitler Youth organization. It was already June 30, when at two o'clock in the morning Hitler's plane took off from the Hangelare airfield near Bonn. In the morning 4.30 aircraft landed in Munich.
The personal driver of the Führer, Erich Kempka, told after the war:
"At night, light rain came and the grass glistened in the morning sun. When Hitler came down, two Reichswehr officers approached him. He took them aside and gave some order. We were waited by three cars that were called by radio from the central committee garage I paid attention to the hardness of the Fuhrer’s voice. His face became even more serious than during the flight.
I got behind the wheel. He ordered:
- Kempka, first we go to the Ministry of the Interior. "
It was about the Bavarian ministry, where Hitler arrested the head of the Munich police, Obergruppenführer SA, August Schneidhuber. He was a member of the Reichstag, the leader of the assault detachments and a man close to Rehm. Schneidhuber shot.
From Munich they moved to the resort of Bad Wiessee, where Ernst Röhm and his friends had already fallen asleep after a merry feast. Fuhrer, they waited only in the evening ...
Weapon stormtroopers: award dagger CA from Ernst Rem.
Hitler sat down next to the driver. When they arrived, Hitler ordered:
- Kempka, we will approach the hotel "Hanzelbauer", go quieter. You will see the guard post of attack aircraft, go by - straight to the entrance to the hotel.
And after a pause, he added a phrase that startled his driver:
- Rom is going to make a coup.
Flock of sheep
Hitler first jumped out of the car. He was accompanied by SS. Policemen climbed out of the other car and were taken from Munich. Kempka turned the car around so that you could immediately drive off, and flew into the hotel with a pistol in hand. In the hall, I saw an unarmed standard ı SA SA Julius Ül, chief of security Ryom. He was taken to the laundry room, where they were locked up by attack aircraft, who were guarding their superiors.
On the second floor, Edmund Haines was discovered in bed with an eighteen-year attack aircraft. The police officer reported to Hitler:
- My Fuhrer, he refuses to dress.
Hitler flew into the room of Obergruppenführer Haines and shouted:
“Hines, if you don’t dress for five minutes, I’ll order you to be shot right here!”
Haines was taken out, in front of him a disheveled youth was taking over.
Hitler entered Ryom himself, he had a whip in his hand. Behind him were two policemen with pistols in their hands. The Fuhrer said:
- Ryom, you are arrested.
He could not wake up. He was given the opportunity to dress. Ryom left his room in a blue suit and a cigar in his mouth. Hitler looked at him, but said nothing. Two policemen escorted the chief of staff of the assault detachments down, where he collapsed into a chair and demanded coffee.
The leaders of the assault detachments slept after drinking. No one resisted. Hitler asked everyone a question:
“Are you involved in Ryom's plot?”
Everyone answered no, but it didn’t help them, everyone was arrested.
Hitler ordered to send the arrested to Munich. And suddenly a truck appeared! It was filled with armed stormtroopers who filled the courtyard. It was a well-armed personal guard Ryom. But they did not know what to do, because their commander had already been arrested. But they were not going to leave either. Stood with guns in their hands.
To the left of the standard-bearer Heinrich Himmler is the commander of the SA attack aircraft, Ernst Rem.
Hitler approached the eldest of the attack aircraft and ordered:
- Immediately return to Munich.
Reluctantly they got into the car. But at some point they stopped and again took up arms. Hitler's life hung in the balance. But without commanders, the attack aircraft turned out to be just a flock of sheep ... And Ernst Rehm was drinking the third cup of coffee. He apparently could not understand what was happening. He silently got into the car, and he was taken to the Stadelheim prison, from which he would not leave.
At five o'clock in the evening, on the orders of Hitler, the shooting of the attack aircraft’s leaders began. This was done by the SS of the units "Dead Head". On the same day, Hitler returned to the capital. Goering and Himmler were waiting for him with a list of future victims.
Ernst Röhm was placed in the prison of Stadelheim. Two SS officers from the security camps at the Dachau concentration camp, Theodor Eike and Michael Lippert, were sent to him. Hitler asked to give Ryome the opportunity to adequately die.
Prison Chief Stadelheim told how it all happened:
"On Sunday, July 1, two SS men arrived and demanded that they be escorted to Ryom. That was 9.30 in the morning. They gave Browning to Ryom. He demanded a conversation with Hitler. They ordered him to shoot himself. If he does not comply, they will return in ten minutes and kill him ... When the time was out and they entered the cell, Ryom was shirtless. One of them shot him. Ryom collapsed. He was still alive, and he was shot dead at close range. The bullet went through his body and was stuck in the floor cameras. "
Shot Ryoma Theodore Eike. He was a rare bandit even among the Nazis. For crimes against his own party comrades, he was declared insane, expelled from the SS, but later returned, because Himmler needed pathological sadists. Ryom's murder helped him in his career. Theodor Eike received the title of Obergruppenführer and led the management of concentration camps in the main administrative and economic department of the SS.
At the request of Hitler, a government spokesman called President Hindenburg and said that the revolt riot had been suppressed. Hindenburg quite noticed:
- The one who wants to create historyshould not be afraid to shed blood.
On July 2, Hitler received from an elderly president, who, due to his state of health, apparently did not quite accurately assess what was happening, a welcoming telegram:
"Your decisive and courageous intervention suppressed in the bud all treacherous intrigues. You saved the German people from grave danger, so I express to you my sincere thanks."
On Sunday afternoon, Hitler arranged a meeting of old Nazis in the imperial office. He invited the veterans of the movement, offered them tea and cakes. He wanted to show that nothing changed for the party, only those who deserve it are punished. July 3 Hitler held an extraordinary government meeting. He told his ministers that "Ryoma’s clique tried to blackmail him openly." Hitler said that Ryom’s fate must explain to everyone: "everyone who opposes the current regime risks his head."
Reichswehr Minister General Werner von Blomberg congratulated the Fuhrer on his successful action. The government approved the actions of the Chancellor as necessary to "protect the state."
Between 30 June and 2 July 1934, 200 people were killed
Speaking at the Reichstag 13 on July 1934, Hitler took charge of the murders of his recent comrades. He spoke with contempt about homosexuality and the luxurious life of Ernst Röhm and other storm troopers, as if he did not know about it before. The fact that there was a cruel Maccabiellian conspiracy in the struggle for individual power was seen as a step necessary to eliminate the internal threat, to eliminate corruption and immorality.
“If someone asks me why I did not send these cases to court,” said Hitler, “then I can explain that at this crucial time I was alone responsible for the fate of the German people and I was the only judge!” And because he ordered to shoot the leaders of the traitors!
Few have condemned the notorious lawlessness and massacres. Most Germans approved the actions of Hitler, eradicating evil, dangerous to society. “Thanks to energetic actions,” it was said in one party report, “the Führer won the masses, especially those who are still suspicious of the movement. They are not just admired, he becomes an idol.”
Across the country, the police and the SS were looking for people on the list: Hitler eliminated anyone who could be a threat to him. They were shot indoors by the Gestapo or in the SS barracks in Lichterfeld.
The recent main rival of the Fuhrer within the party, Gregor Strasser, dined at home when the five Gestapo men appeared. He was taken to the Gestapo, where he was placed alone. Here and shot. The widow received an urn with ashes that read: "Gregor Strasser, 31 was born on 1892, died 30 on June 1934, in the Gestapo building in Berlin." The widow was forbidden to talk about the death of her husband, he officially committed suicide.
It was not possible to establish exactly how many people were liquidated between June 30 and July 2 of the year 1934, when the order came to complete the action. Probably, we are talking about two hundred dead.
On the morning of August 2 1934, President Hindenburg passed away. Hitler proposed the government to adopt a new law on the head of state: he becomes the "Führer and Reich Chancellor" and assumes all the duties of the imperial president, including the main post of the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. All civil servants, including the military, must swear allegiance to him.
Hitler called for a national referendum on August 19 regarding the abolition of the presidency and the transfer of all powers to him. 84 percent voted in the referendum voted in favor. Hitler became the sole master of the country.