Military Review

Alexander Kolchak: “The war is beautiful ...”

50
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak could not imagine life without the sea, and military service was his element.


After returning from the Japanese captivity to St. Petersburg after the Russian-Japanese campaign, he immediately with other Port Arthur officers set about creating the General Naval Headquarters, a body planning the country's naval strategy in order to prevent further defeats. He ardently upheld in the State Duma a plan to strengthen the Russian fleet and, in particular, the requirement to allocate money for the construction of four battleships.

Kolchak made a great contribution to the restoration of the domestic fleet. And the fleet met a new, First World War fully armed. In the first hours after the German attack on Russia, the Baltic Fleet, according to Kolchak's plan, closed the entrance of German ships to the Gulf of Finland, arranging the mine-artillery position of Porkkala-udd - the island of Nargen. At the beginning of the war, Kolchak fought as a flag captain, developing operational tasks and plans. He possessed the rare talent of a genuine military strategist and developed unexpected operations for the enemy, non-standard operations. The commander of the Baltic Fleet, Admiral Essen respected Kolchak and fully trusted him. Possessing a capricious character, Kolchak did not recognize any authorities, and he gave Essen his personal plans for approval. This quarrel Kolchak with senior officers, but gave him the opportunity to decisively monitor the implementation of the plan at all its stages, especially since he himself tried to lead the operation. His authority grew among both bosses, officers and sailors.

He was loved for honesty, for selfless dedication, courage. “Oh, and we have a strict commander! We still have nothing, but poor officers! ”Said the sailors.

In World War I the sea became more complicated. Defensive tactics acquired great importance, namely, the setting up of minefields and the construction of minefields against enemy ships. In the autumn of 1914, a plan for an offensive operation was drawn up at the headquarters of the Baltic Fleet. Kolchak went to approve him at headquarters. Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich, Glavkoverh Headquarters, the plan did not approve. Kolchak returned to the headquarters angry, nervously reported to Essen about the failure. He noted that Essen was disliked at the Stavka, and Kolchak himself did not like the Grand Duke for his fervor. Still, the sailors decided to attack the Germans, the German shores began to "fill up" with mines by the constant operations of the destroyers. Kolchak quickly became famous as the best specialist in the mine business. But the staff work did not satisfy the captain of the first rank, his ardent, purposeful nature sought to go to sea, into battle.

Mine fields near the island of Rügen, the banks of Stolpe, in the bay of Danzig were put under his direct supervision. Four German cruisers, eight destroyers, and twenty-three vehicles were blown up in minefields. The commander of the Baltic Fleet of Germany forbade his ships to sail at sea until they cleared the fields. For effective action, Kolchak was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 3 degree with swords.

In 1915, he is already the head of the Mine Division. Its headquarters is located on the destroyer "Siberian shooter." He does not let his ships sit in the harbor, they are all the time in the campaign. And victories become the deserved result of his activities. With fire from his ships, Kolchak suppresses enemy firing points and manpower on the shores of the Baltic Sea, helping to repel the attacks of the Germans of the 12 Army Radko-Dmitriev.

Then he began to lay mines in shallow water off the coast occupied by German troops. This ruled out the breakthrough of German submarines and blocked the way for the transports supplying the German army. The division under the command of Kolchak was engaged not only in setting up minefields, but also searched for and destroyed enemy ships, both combat and transports. Kolchak's impudence and prowess did not know the limit.

On one destroyer he broke into the port of Libavsk. The destroyer "Kronprinz" was sank there, the transport "Carlsbad" and, while the Germans shocked by the fearlessness of the Russians came to their senses, turned around and jumped out of the enemy harbor in full steam.

Russian ships practically blocked the supply channel of Germany with iron ore from Sweden, because of the constant loss of transports the Germans refused it.

Kolchak was a knight of war. Here are excerpts from his letters to his beloved Anna Vasilyevna Timireva.

“The eternal world is a dream, and not even a beautiful one, but on the other hand, you can see beautiful dreams in the war, leaving with regret on awakening that they will no longer continue” ...

“The war is beautiful, although it is associated with many negative phenomena, but it is always and everywhere good. I don’t know how She would react to my only and basic desire to serve Her with all my strength, knowledge, with all my heart and all my thoughts ”...

For Kolchak, war is a natural phenomenon of nature; it purifies the world, the earth, from the abominations of human existence, from the defilement of society. He considered that war is “one of the constant manifestations of social life, the most frequent forms of human activity, in which agents of destruction and annihilation intertwine and merge with agents of creativity and development, with progress, culture and civilization.” As for his beloved, he believed that Anna Vassilyevna was a deity given to him from above for severe military hardships ...

In April, the 1916 of Kolchak, by decree of Emperor Nicholas II, who became the Supreme Commander of the Russian Army, was awarded the title of Rear Admiral. Two months later, in June of the same year, he was prematurely promoted to vice admirals. The Supreme Commander General Headquarters appreciated the remarkable abilities of the forty-two-year-old admiral and appointed him commander of the Black Sea Fleet. Kolchak became the youngest fleet commander in the world.

Before leaving the admiral in Sevastopol, Nicholas II appointed him an audience and warmly addressed him in front of a new combat service.

The military situation there was deplorable, German cruisers and submarines ruled the sea.

Kolchak, as soon as he raised his flag and took command, immediately set sail on the battleship Empress Maria to meet the German cruiser Breslau and put him to flight. Kolchak stepped up the activity of the fleet, the ship exits into the sea became permanent. The superiority of our forces over the German and Turkish fleets became obvious. And when Kolchak installed a minefield near the Bosporus, and the German cruiser Goben was blown up on it, the Russian fleet established itself as the sole master of the Black Sea. The movement of transports was secured, the supply of our Caucasian army improved.

But the main goal was ahead! For the sake of this strategic task Alexander Kolchak was sent to the Black Sea. He, and only he, could translate this plan into reality, as the High Command believed in the Stavka and Nicholas II himself. This goal is to nail the shield on the gates of Constantinople, to capture Constantinople, this capital of ancient Byzantium, captured by the Turks. The Turks crossed Constantinople to Istanbul, and since then the Russian people have been eagerly wishing for the liberation of the Orthodox shrine from Muslim rule.

In 1878, Emperor Alexander II almost reached the cherished goal, but the intrigues of the “Englishwoman” stopped the Russian army near the outskirts of Constantinople. General Skobelev with his army stood in sight of the city. All Turkish armies were defeated, small detachments surrendered to the “white general” without a fight. Turkey was defeated. But the Russians did not enter Constantinople. The European powers stood up for a defeated Turkey, insisted that Russia soften the demands it made to make peace. Otherwise, England threatened with war and had already introduced a strong fleet into the Sea of ​​Marmara. England supported Austria and Germany. Russia had to give up ...

And now Russia was again close to fulfilling its dream. If successful, Russia seized the strategic straits of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, like a cork blocking the exit from the Black Sea. Kolchak with his characteristic determination and assertiveness got down to business. He was preparing the Bosporus operation, preparing ships and troops for the landing of the landing force on the Turkish coast. Kolchak was directly subordinated to a specially formed infantry division of fired-up reliable warriors under the command of General Svechin. This division was the first to land on enemy territory, consolidate and expand the springboard for the offensive of the troops following it.

Preparations for the assault on Turkish fortifications and the capture of Constantinople was nearing completion. The operation was scheduled for the spring of 1917. But the February Revolution that had begun, frustrated all plans.

Admiral Kolchak did everything to ensure that the revolutionary anarchy did not touch the fleet, that it remained a single whole organism, and that its ships, as before, carried a combat watch. Kolchak believed: he swore allegiance to the Tsar and the Fatherland. The king abdicated the throne and commanded to serve the new government. The king was gone, but the Fatherland remained. So, you need to serve the Fatherland! This line he firmly pursued in respect of subordinates. He believed that with the change of power, the course of Russia would not change, and she, faithful to the allied duty, would fight against Germany and its satellites. He tried his best to keep discipline in the units and on the ships.

And he succeeded. The Black Sea Fleet, surprisingly to the whole country, retained its combat capability, was controlled by Kolchak confidently, as always. Classes, training, operational work were not disturbed by anything, and the usual mode was not interrupted for one hour. The officers, commanders, workers, the population of Sevastopol and the Crimean peninsula trusted him unconditionally. First of all, Kolchak managed to unite around himself strong and determined people, and this was the key to stability. The fleet carried the usual service.

But the socialists, along with the Bolsheviks, continued to disrupt the armed forces. The revolutionary infection began to erode the Black Sea Fleet. Although the external order was observed, but it was felt that everything could be crushed. Kolchak fought. Being an excellent speaker, he did not miss the opportunity to speak to the officers and sailors. His speech at the circus in front of the team representatives was amazing. He spoke inspired, concise, bright. Admiral's words made a tremendous impression, provoked a patriotic uplift in those who listened. Many wept. Immediately, the teams selected the best sailors from their 750 environment to send to the front in order to influence the soldiers who had succumbed to the Bolsheviks' defeatist agitation. In a word and personal example, the envoys of Sevastopol were called soldiers of the front to battle with the German invaders, most of the sailors of the Black Sea delegation died the death of the brave in land battles. This weakened the sailors' committees and affected the state of the fleet. The best ones left and died ...

True to his oath, the Black Sea Fleet did not give rest to the commissars. A group of Baltic sailors with “mandates” from the Central Committee of the Baltic Fleet is sent to Sevastopol to “socialize” the units. That fleet, which practically ceased to exist, threw the front, the sailors of which, hit by the "virus" of the revolution, brutally killed their commander, Vice-Admiral Nepenin. They began to gather rallies, shame and reproach people of Sevastopol: “Comrades of the Black Sea, what have you done for the revolution? You have the old regime everywhere, you are commanded by the fleet commander, who was still with the king! Do you listen to the officers? Your ships go to sea and approach enemy coasts to annex them. The people decided to make peace without annexations, and your fleet commander sends you to conquer the enemy shores! We are not so on the Baltic ... ".

Propaganda gradually corroded the sailors' ranks. The sailors began to arrest the officers, rob them weapon. The admiral sent a radio message to the ships: “The rebellious sailors demanded that officers be taken away from their weapons. This insults the faithful and valiant sons of the Motherland, who fought for three years with a formidable enemy. Resistance is impossible, so in order to avoid bloodshed, I suggest that officers not resist. ”

A group of rebels entered the cabin to Kolchak, to take away his weapon. Kolchak drove them away. “Why does he need a saber? Hanging in the closet! - the sailors were perplexed, - puts it on only at parades. For parades we will give it. " The admiral went up to the deck, approached the board near the ramp. The whole team of the flagship "George the Victorious" froze.

In complete silence, Kolchak took off his golden St. George saber with the engraving “For Bravery”, raised high above his head, looked piercingly at the blue sea distance, said in a trembling voice: “This weapon of the brave gave me a sea, let it get him,” and on a large scale threw the saber overboard.

Kolchak tremblingly, as a deity treated cold weapons. He brought two ancient saber blades from Japan and carefully kept them. This is what he wrote to Anna Vasilyevna: “I, it seems, wrote to you about the Japanese blades. The Japanese saber is a highly artistic work, not inferior to the masterpieces of Damascus and India. Probably, in no country has cold arms received such significance as in Japan, where the British call the cult of cold steel existed and still exist. This is really a cult of cold steel, symbolizing the soul of a warrior, and the embodiment of this cult is a blade welded from soft steel magnetic iron with a blade striking in its properties to steel, accepting the sharpness of a surgical instrument or razor. In these blades is a part of the “living soul” of a warrior, and they have the property to exert a special influence on those who treat them accordingly. ”

The sailors were discouraged by the admiral. They knew him as an honest, courageous military leader who had often gone on military campaigns with them, looked death in the eyes, and respected him. They knew that Kolchak received a golden weapon for bravery during the Russian-Japanese war. Sea divers, sinking to the bottom, raised their St. George's saber from the depths. The delegation of the ship handed it to the admiral.

Kolchak sent a telegram to the government that after the rebellion that had occurred he was unable to command the fleet. Admiral Kolchak was leaving Sevastopol. Sailors, residents of the city came to see him off. When he got up into the car, one of the officers loudly admonded the admiral: “Courage and valor, consciousness of duty and honor at all times served as an adornment of peoples. Hooray!". The mighty Ur-ra-a and locomotive horn merged into one farewell symphony.

We had officers mainly in the Guards regiments, the General Staff, - said Alexander Vasilyevich about the collapse of the fronts and the agony of Russia. - but they were few and lacking in numbers for such a war; for two and a half years, they saved the Motherland, giving their lives to it, and they were replaced by a new type of “wartime officer” ... Did the discipline exist in such an environment, with such leaders - but without discipline there is not first of all the courage to participate in the war, not to speak of courage ...

Arriving in Petrograd, Kolchak delivered a report on the current situation in the Black Sea Fleet at a meeting of the Provisional Government.

He openly declared to Kerensky that it was his fault that his army and fleet were decomposing, the fronts were laid bare, and Russia was losing its positions without a fight.

He demanded that the troops abolish criminal agitation, banned the soldiers and sailors' committees and again introduced unity of command. He insisted on returning the death penalty in order to restore discipline in the units. But the Provisional Government did not listen to the admiral. Kerensky, whom Kolchak called the "talkative high-school student," remained true to himself and continued to contribute to the destruction of Russia. And it is clear that after this the admiral was not offered any position. A patriot of Russia, who had served the Fatherland faithfully and faithfully for a quarter of a century, did not need a new government ...
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  1. gfs84
    gfs84 26 March 2014 21: 47
    +3
    Russia needs a real naval force on which the inviolability of its maritime borders could be based and on which an independent policy worthy of a great power could rely, that is, a policy that, if necessary, receives confirmation in the form of a successful war.


    Words worthy of the Russian Officer!
    1. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ 27 March 2014 06: 15
      +2
      Admiral Alexander Kolchak is a complex historical figure. An outstanding polar explorer, the magnificent Admiral of the Russian fleet, but a mediocre politician who fought against the people in the Civil War.
      This contradiction is captured on the monument to A. Kolchak in Irkutsk, on a pedestal two soldiers crossed their bayonets: a Red Army man and a White Guard. Thanks to the incompetent anti-people’s policies of the tsarist monarchy, Russia has split into two irreconcilable worlds.
      The monument is located next to the church in which the young Kolchak was married and next to the place of his death - the execution on the ice of the Angara River.
      That's fate.
      1. DimychDV
        DimychDV 27 March 2014 07: 53
        +1
        The church in which he was married found Kolchakoved Simonov from Vladivostok - this is in the near suburbs of Irkutsk. In the war year of the Russo-Japanese War, and in Irkutsk, and when sent to the front, the fleet lieutenant, even Kolchak himself, was not easy to find an unoccupied temple for the wedding. But that little church really stands to this day. Even the floors are the same - from oak blocks.
        She also talked in Paris with Kolchak's son (or grandson). But - on the phone, he avoided meeting: "That Russia no longer exists, and with THIS I do not want to have anything in common." But he warmly thanked for the address of the temple where his mother (or grandmother) was married to Kolchak.
        My friend is from Altai residents. His grandmother testified that the Kolchakites were hangers and executioners, in every village they hated them. Simonova objects: who else should he pass for? In the very cold partisans blocked the Trans-Siberian. And at dead ends at the stations of Yekaterinburg and its environs, 270 thousand refugees — raznoshintsy and noblemen, women, children, and the elderly — froze in cars. He ordered all the reds caught to hang along the Trans-Siberian Railway.
        The officer could not pass by the beaten Russia. But he got into his own business - and did not cope with those who did it. Roughly like the boxer who was sewn about ***** with a spring from "Belarus".
        This is how Russia should be angered so that it breaks the backbone of its own army - the most invincible in Europe ...
        And soon the last whites froze to death on an ice hike across Lake Baikal. Only the military there were up to 100 thousand. And another fifty thousand civilians. They went to the ice, and after them the red ones from the cannons beat them. A few hundreds of people completed the transition alive. The emigrant Severny wrote about this in the 20s and 30s in Harbin, he left for China through Ulan-Ude, or whatever it was called then. The story "Icy Laughter" - the face of a freezing man, withered from thirst, bares his teeth in a smile, he himself saw it.
        However, after the war he returned to Russia. I talked with his son - he was a pioneer, a Komsomol member on the virgin lands, an airborne paratrooper and even a test of space equipment, Beregovoy's spacesuit was circling around.
  2. sigdoc
    sigdoc 26 March 2014 21: 50
    .
    Kolchak was pro-English shit
    1. Wiruz
      Wiruz 26 March 2014 21: 59
      +14
      Maybe so, but at least he was not a Dumb Troll!
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    3. FREGATENKAPITAN
      FREGATENKAPITAN 26 March 2014 22: 35
      +14
      Kolchak was an outstanding naval commander, a polar explorer, a genius of mine productions! Fate decreed that he lived at that time, the time of revolution, civil war ................... It was his personal tragedy and the tragedy of all of Russia ...... ........... brother to brother, father to son .............. Not everything is clear ............... ..... Who was right, the Red cavalrymen of Budenovites whom we considered heroes from childhood, Chapay and Petka, or the White Army officer regiments where the officers who swore once went like ordinary soldiers to a bayonet perishing - For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland! ???? .............. So that life is not always as it is seen on the surface ...................... And A .AT. Kolchak was a patriot of Russia!
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    6. zeleznijdorojnik
      zeleznijdorojnik 28 March 2014 09: 13
      0
      Well, in a revolution - yes. So - a normal officer, but his acceptance of US citizenship before returning to Russia after the revolution is a betrayal. Even those officers who transferred to the Bolsheviks the citizenship of countries that had tarnished themselves with intervention did not - Brusilov himself.
  3. de klermon
    de klermon 26 March 2014 21: 50
    +25
    A talented polar explorer, a talented miner, a talented staff worker, a talented commander ... Russia will forget about everything that he did for her over 25 years of service for 70 long years, not because he is an admiral and a White Guard, but because she will meet with Kolchak for the second time in the snows of Siberia with the support of the Entente, Japan and America: even the most outstanding hero loses his luster when he brings the boots of a foreign soldier to his homeland to solve political goals, whatever these goals would be! ..
    PS Nicknames yes our demshizu science!
  4. polite people
    polite people 26 March 2014 21: 51
    +4
    Eternal glory to the heroes of RUSSIA! soldier soldier soldier
  5. Ulairy
    Ulairy 26 March 2014 21: 55
    +11
    The patriot of Russia, who served the Fatherland faithfully for a quarter of a century, was not needed by the new government ...
    No. Come on?! The new government was in great need of talented commanders of the 1st World War. He did not want to negotiate with her, nor did he want to go to the service. Tukhachevsky, Rokossovsky, and many who swore allegiance to Russia, served the country and people, restoring discipline and customs in the army, not paying attention to the regime. The uncompromising Kolchak could not do this, even realizing that the White movement is doomed without the support of that very people. (And before the war he was a polar scientist and a cartographer, and this is not gu-gu)? A strange article, contradictory and incomplete ... retiring, at a loss.
    1. Turkir
      Turkir 27 March 2014 00: 02
      +3
      More precisely, the article is unfinished. The Siberian epic is not described. And therefore weak.
      Being a brave and honest officer, which Kolchak undoubtedly was, probably he was not a smart officer. I mean, he did not know his people at all. He knew sailors, soldiers and thought that he knew the people. Caste limitation, narrow views, for which he paid with his life. The people are not a line of soldiers.
      1. Luga
        Luga 27 March 2014 01: 55
        0
        Quote: Ulairy
        retiring, at a loss.

        Quote: Turkir
        More precisely, the article is unfinished.

        I agree.
        I’ll add that it’s incomplete. smile
        However, the author probably did not set himself such a task as describing all the merits of Kolchak. Based on the title of the article, it was assumed that only certain aspects of his leadership in combat operations would be affected, and for some reason only in the 1 world.
        But, all the same, the feeling of bewilderment and incompleteness remains.
      2. mamont5
        mamont5 27 March 2014 04: 23
        +3
        He was a good MARINE officer, but was not an administrator. This, to a large extent, ruined the white movement in Siberia. Well, there was little strength. It was Denikin’s officer regiments when the officers went as privates, while Kolchak, on the contrary, had few officers. Really worthy was not enough. Such as Drops were generally units.
  6. alex47russ
    alex47russ 26 March 2014 21: 55
    0
    I agree! There are not enough of them now! It is necessary to educate the youth !!! soldier
  7. kasper
    kasper 26 March 2014 21: 56
    -3
    One of the greatest people in the history of Russia!
  8. Jarserge
    Jarserge 26 March 2014 22: 00
    +13
    Admiral Kolchak is a very controversial person. Youth is a dashing military officer, engaged in science. And then .... changed the oath to the emperor, changed the oath to the Provisional Government, being the leader of the white movement in the East, he filed a petition for admission to the English service, where he was enrolled. Filled with blood Siberia and the Far East, it was so necessary to lead so that Siberia did not accept, did not support the Bolsheviks (except for a narrow strip of depots and workshops along the Trans-Siberian Railway), in a short time began to fight partisan armies with Kolchak.
    1. Committee
      Committee 27 March 2014 00: 20
      +5
      Quote: Jarserge
      Bloodshed Siberia and the Far East
      Yes, we have an eternal flame in Yekaterinburg in memory of his victims, who were killed only because the tsar was shot in this city. And in the Urals, the saying is still alive - "Kolchak passed" - it means nothing alive. A talented person, tell me? Yes, but the hand of their compatriots, civilians to kill did not flinch. By the way, Hitler was also a talented artist, his paintings are still selling well, this is not a criterion.
      1. DimychDV
        DimychDV 27 March 2014 08: 24
        0
        270 thousand evacuated nobles and commoners frozen in Yekaterinburg - this is the reason for the appearance of Kolchak the Hanger. He was perhaps the first to understand what it means to "destroy the exploiters as a class" - and responded with terror to terror. In the Crimea and in St. Petersburg, too, you see, he saw enough of sailors.
        In the 30th year "as a class" - that is, to the last person - began to destroy small-scale agricultural producers - that is, those very peasants who fed Russia immediately after the Civil War. Not everyone was called a fist in the village, but only the most mercenary and cruel tyrant owner. And the Soviet power in the kulaks and in the podkulachniki immediately recorded all who did not go to collective farms. Near even the most greedy fists, no one died of hunger. But THEM - were evicted together with children and old people in the burnt tracts of Siberia, under the cordon of guard regiments, where they could only eat the land. Those who did not run away - died of hunger.
        It is clear that the victory in the Great Patriotic War was the victory of the collective method of agricultural production over small-scale goods. But why was it to spread rot before death? Few islands in Russia and uninhabited places? These are peasants, the salt of the earth, these are working hands, these are large families, they did not expect pensions. This is the knowledge of land and agriculture, now lost. This is the common sense of the farmer, and not the subdued submission of the Kombedovsky gouging, ready to sow even in the snow, if only on command. And at least dig it back. The people will die out - women will give birth! ..
    2. mamont5
      mamont5 27 March 2014 05: 18
      +2
      Quote: Jarserge
      And then .... changed the oath to the emperor, changed the oath to the Provisional Government, being the leader of the white movement in the East, he filed a petition for admission to the English service, where he was enrolled. Filled with blood Siberia and the Far East, it was so necessary to lead so that Siberia did not accept, did not support the Bolsheviks (except for a narrow strip of depots and workshops along the Trans-Siberian Railway), in a short time began to fight partisan armies with Kolchak.

      The emperor abdicated, so that the oath to him became invalid, the oath to the interim government ... I do not know ... for that it is temporary. He went to the English service even before the leadership of the white movement, because believed that he should continue the war, in accordance with agreements with the allies and asked to send him to the front in any rank. Well, the fact that he was a poor administrator and could not create a normally functioning government is what I have already said. It was his misfortune. And White’s power was overthrown precisely by numerous guerrilla groups that rose against mobilization, requisition, etc. By the way, soon the same partisans rose against the Reds, protesting against the same mobilization, food surplus, etc. But only the Reds were able to suppress these actions.
  9. DPN
    DPN 26 March 2014 22: 02
    +8
    As a naval commander, he was a good specialist, but when he got into politics he became a scoundrel how many people didn’t kill him and the civil war would have ended earlier. Visilnik - of the Russian people!
    1. mamont5
      mamont5 27 March 2014 05: 28
      -1
      Quote: DPN
      Visilnik - of the Russian people!

      Well, brutality then sufficed on both sides. Civil war so that it ...

      By the way, it struck me that in Spain, General Franco, having won the Civil War, erected a monument to all the victims of the Civil War in Spain. Why aren't we capable of this?
      There are cases when even the Germans, admired by the valor and courage of our fallen soldiers, officers and generals, buried them with honors, for example, Lieutenant General Petrovsky. And ours, in 1945, having come to Harbin destroyed the grave of General Capel.
  10. allavlad
    allavlad 26 March 2014 22: 04
    +4
    On the role of the personality in history: a true personality is always reflected in history regardless of regimes and ideology. For decades we have not talked about the giftedness of the commander Kolchak in the Soviet period, but the paradox is that we all know his name ...
  11. konvalval
    konvalval 26 March 2014 22: 08
    +6
    I respect the sailors for their independence. Before the Second World War, from the commanders-in-chief only the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, Admiral Kuznetsov disobeyed Stalin, brought the Fleet on full alert and did not lose it.
    1. Snoop
      Snoop 26 March 2014 23: 41
      0
      Have you read the memoirs of Kuznetsov himself? On the evening of June 21, Kuznetsov was in his office, in the People’s Commissariat of the Navy, located next to the building of the People’s Commissariat of Defense:

      “... I called the People’s Commissar of Defense. “The People’s Commissar has left,” they told me. The Chief of the General Staff was also not in place. I decided to contact the fleets. He first spoke with the commander of the Baltic Fleet, V.F. Tributsom, then with the chief of staff of the Black Sea Fleet I.D. Eliseev, with the commander in the North A.G. Golovko. Everyone was in place, everything seemed to be in order. Command posts have been deployed, the fleets have been supporting operational readiness No. 2 for two days now. Only a limited number of Red Navy men and commanders are allowed to land ... ” Around 11 pm, the telephone rang. I heard the voice of Marshal S.K. Timoshenko:

      - There is very important information. Come to me ...

      Our people's commissariats were located in the neighborhood. We went outside ... A few minutes later we went up to the second floor of a small mansion, where S. K. Timoshenko’s office was temporarily.

      Marshal, walking around the room, dictated. It was still hot. Army General G.K. Zhukov was sitting at the table and was writing something. In front of him lay several filled sheets of a large pad for radiograms. It can be seen that the People's Commissar of Defense and the chief of the General Staff worked for quite some time.

      Semyon Konstantinovich noticed us, stopped. Briefly, without mentioning the sources, he said that Germany’s attack on our country was considered possible.

      Zhukov got up and showed us the telegram that he had prepared for the border districts. I remember it was voluminous - on three sheets. It laid out in detail what should be done to the troops in the event of an attack by Nazi Germany.

      This telegram did not concern the fleets directly. ... "In general, the admiral immediately transferred by telephone the order to transfer the fleets from combat readiness No. 2 (high) to combat readiness No. 1 (full) and where is it contrary to Stalin?
  12. alone
    alone 26 March 2014 22: 09
    +12
    War is terrible grief, blood and ruined lives. And there is nothing beautiful in it. Trust the person who saw a lot in this life. hi
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 26 March 2014 22: 38
      +2
      I agree. Kolchak lice in the trenches did not feed.
  13. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 26 March 2014 22: 18
    +6
    I do not know what to say. Of course, his merits before the Russian Empire can not be taken away, but here's something very confusing:
    In July 1917, at the head of the naval mission went to the USAwhere I stayed
    before the October Revolution in Russia ...
    ... in October 1918 with the English general A. Knox arrived in Omsk and 4
    November was appointed military and naval minister of the "Siberian government".
    And already November 18, 1918 with the support of White Guard officers and interventionists staged a coup and established a military dictatorship, accepting the title of "Supreme Ruler of the Russian State" and the title of supreme commander in chief
    (until January 4, 1920) ....

    These "friends" are now ready to "help" anyone to tear Russia apart.
    1. DimychDV
      DimychDV 27 March 2014 08: 38
      0
      In the United States, he was spared by Kerensky. The British for him were allies - officially. And what did he understand about them in himself - God really knows. I think that after the Russo-Japanese War, I knew well who is hu. And the coup in the Directory - yes you imagine small-scale politicians of the Omsk poshiba and their rants, uninterrupted since February 17th. There who wants to go mad from verbiage. I think Kolchkak was chosen as a banner by those who wanted to stealthily steer themselves. About how now they are moving Yulia Tymoshenko in Ukraine. Kolchak could not answer the call addressed to his glory. Well, the officer could not be inactive in such a situation, there was no option for him to refuse. And the headquarters, with someone little known, was also not a solution.
  14. konvalval
    konvalval 26 March 2014 22: 41
    +2
    He loved and revered the war. The war for the Fatherland is one thing, a war against one’s people, especially a peaceful one, is another. He did both. Information for consideration.
  15. parus2nik
    parus2nik 26 March 2014 22: 44
    +4
    sailors struck by the "virus" of the revolution, brutally killed their commander, Vice Admiral Nepenin Let’s clarify that they killed on March 4, 1917, the February Revolution was in full swing, led by liberals and democrats .. Having organized a terrible massacre, these sailors were not affected, everything happened with the tacit consent of the Provisional Government, there was no investigation and the Provisional Government allowed the creation of a Central Bolt ... eeeeeet Cetrobalt .. as early as March 1917. The first staff of the Centrobalt included 33 people, including 6 Bolsheviks and 4 sympathizers .. of 33 .. Very interesting .. is it true? A patriot of Russia, who faithfully served the Fatherland for a quarter of a century, was not needed by the new government ... liberal-democratic .. But then, he leaned on the suggestions of the allies to become the Supreme Ruler of Russia, who then, in fact, surrendered him and to whom the Socialist-Menshevik Political center .. Moral, do not get fooled by the promises of foreigners .. have to pay ..
    1. Mih
      Mih 26 March 2014 23: 06
      +1
      For the Admiral +100000
    2. DimychDV
      DimychDV 27 March 2014 08: 51
      +1
      FACT. Although I don’t know for sure, he turned to the direct promises of foreigners, or already here he was persuaded by his bourgeois in Siberia. But he did not have a chance to refuse. Remember how a very authoritative cavalry general was riddled with in Kiev or somewhere nearby in those years. The force either acts, or another force is found on it. Well, he could not become a kind of Max Kammerer, over the battle. What I thought to be Do-It-It did. And a lot, I think, and they worked for him. Although he tried to check for himself what the adjutants drummed about him. He really did not know the people. He relied on a service man - but perhaps a roar. sailors did not undermine his faith? I got into a fight - and went to get denticles. And in response - a slap in the face does not fight back. We must grab the dagger, get a karamultuk ...
  16. Mih
    Mih 26 March 2014 22: 52
    -3
    The admiral is an officer, and that’s it.
    The duty of the soldier and officer is to observe the oath.
    Kolchak is a standard of military duty. A person can be considered from different points of view, but as the fulfillment of military duty, the oath is an example of serving the fatherland.
    During the Second World War, most of the soldiers and officers of the Red Army fulfilled their duty beyond what was possible.
    This is not understood by geypop.
    Russia is invincible.
  17. Old warrant officer
    Old warrant officer 26 March 2014 22: 58
    +5
    Quote: kasper
    One of the greatest people in the history of Russia!

    During the reign of this greatest man in Siberia and the Far East, terror against the peasantry reached unprecedented power! According to the memoirs of my already deceased grandmother, Kolchakites confiscated food, provoking hunger, executions, mass flogging, and savage tortures! It is precisely for this reason that the partisan movement in Siberia and the Far East gained such a scope! The people hated him.
  18. Mih
    Mih 26 March 2014 23: 17
    +1
    about the memories of my already deceased grandmother, Kolchak residents confiscated food, provoking hunger.

    I did not know about it. Sorry, excuse me. I didn’t want to hurt you.
    Everything was, I understand, but it is difficult to justify the death of people. How all is confused !!!
    1. Jackyun
      Jackyun 26 March 2014 23: 46
      -2
      And the red detachments with their food surplus sowed the good, the bright, the eternal? Or maybe the grandmother forgot the selection of spikelets on the field and the term for hiding the spikelet. My mother did not forget.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  19. Old warrant officer
    Old warrant officer 26 March 2014 23: 39
    +3
    The Bolsheviks were closer to the people, they were their own. That is why they won. But Kolchak and his ilk brought the interventionists to their land, with the help of foreign bayonets they destroyed their people.
  20. Jackyun
    Jackyun 26 March 2014 23: 43
    -1
    To the greatest regret, it should be noted that the Bolshevik past in our country has not yet been completely eradicated. Admiral Kolchak, as well as generals Koledin, Brusilov and many others, not deservedly forgotten by the Russian military commander, are not familiar to our children. Kolchak did not change his oath, and I bow low to him for that. In the recent past, I personally saw those for whom the oath was an empty phrase. But, I personally knew the officers with a capital letter. These are the heirs of the great officer corps of the Russian army. They really went through all the hardships and deprivations of military service (Charter of the internal service of the Armed Forces of the SA) and remained faithful to themselves and the Fatherland.
    1. Turkir
      Turkir 27 March 2014 00: 19
      0
      We remember Kaledin, he participated in the Brusilovsky breakthrough.
      We remember Brusilov, he also taught after the revolution in the Academy.
      Ignatieff you still forgot.
      Those who did not know anything about them forgot about the Russian heroes. And still does not want to know.
      Now, if they forgot in the Military Academies, then this is a guard, and we are intelligent shuttles, we all remember. Of course, still alive.
  21. A1L9E4K9S
    A1L9E4K9S 26 March 2014 23: 49
    +2
    Friends, this is what I think, it was a difficult time, dashing, contradictory. It is difficult for us to judge now after so many years of these people: red, white, green, each of them had their own truth. The Reds fought for the world revolution, for there were no rich people. The whites were dying for Russia, in their minds against the raging crowd. Let's imagine ourselves for a moment at that time, but what would we do in their place, what would we do? In the twentieth century, Russia got a hard time, a lot of blood was shed by external enemies, and they spilled on their own. Well, Kolchak, he was a man of his time, he also believed that he was fighting for Russia. We guys would have to figure out their time. If I wrong, write.
    1. Jackyun
      Jackyun 26 March 2014 23: 57
      -2
      I had a choice. And I did not change the oath. And all this crap about the world revolution made me vomit in my second year at the school in lectures on Marxism-Leninism.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  22. Old warrant officer
    Old warrant officer 27 March 2014 00: 03
    +6
    [quote = Jackyun] Or maybe the grandmother forgot the selection of spikelets on the field and the term for hiding the spikelet. My mother did not forget. [/ Qu
    My grandmother worked all her life on a collective farm in the Primorsky Territory, gave birth and raised 8 children, one of them a full cavalier of the Order of Labor Glory, experienced hunger and cold, lost her husband at the front in 1943 - but at the same time she never TALKED ABOUT HIS COUNTRY! There were plenty of tyrants in places always and everywhere.
  23. Old warrant officer
    Old warrant officer 27 March 2014 00: 06
    +3
    Quote: Jackyun
    Kolchak did not change his oath, and I bow low to him for that.

    If consent to work for British intelligence, as confirmed by documents, is not treason, then what is treason?
    1. creak
      creak 27 March 2014 10: 34
      0
      You can tell by what specific documents Kolchak’s work on British intelligence is confirmed (links please), if you saw them - then call, if you can’t - then do not go down to the level of gossip ...
  24. Mareman Vasilich
    Mareman Vasilich 27 March 2014 00: 17
    +7
    Article minus. The author deals with inappropriate sentimentality. Either say everything in this case, or nothing at all. I have nothing against Russian officers, and I’ll go to defend my homeland like everyone else, but why did Kolchak sit waiting for enemy money, and instead go to the Bolsheviks instead? After all, he knew that the British were deliberately strangling the white movement, but at the same time he was waiting for the weather by the sea. No, brothers, as you wish, but I'm glad that the Bolsheviks defended power. If their whites won, then by power they would be shortsighted and naive, because of which they would lose, and there was no need to press the tsar with detachment from the very beginning. Everything is natural and, I think, they themselves are to blame, and they paid for the fact that the country was not defended and the king was betrayed. But imagine that on June 23, 1941, the General Staff would come to Stalin and force him to surrender power, instead of defending his homeland? What to call it?
  25. Cossacks
    Cossacks 27 March 2014 02: 30
    +4
    He can canonize him for fighting on the side of hucksters against the people. In a word - speculators from all countries unite. ETOGES it is necessary to trash your brains like that. If it goes on like that, then such clever men will declare the Red Army bandits and will brand them in the image and likeness as did the Bandera and Chukhons. Or is it just a clinic.
  26. Ruswolf
    Ruswolf 27 March 2014 05: 03
    +2
    Cossacks
    He can canonize him for fighting on the side of hucksters against the people.

    It is not a matter of canonization or color — red or white.
    There was a civil war and one and the other killed each other. The people killed the people! That is, they killed themselves!
    And Kolchak opposed those who came to power through a military coup.
    We still condemn the Maidan for this. And Kolchak's guilt that he remained faithful to the oath is not. We do not blame those 1,5 thousands of Ukrainian soldiers who left for Kiev.
    This is all the filth of a civil war. When, in order for someone to come to power, a people must kill each other regardless of kinship, faith or anything.
  27. 020205
    020205 27 March 2014 07: 06
    +1
    What can I discuss, Kolchak is one of the historical figures I respect! Yes, he took money from the Entente, the Bolsheviks took money from the Germans. And about the Far East, there was such an ataman Semenov (whom Kolchak called an arrogant scoundrel), and he fought with Japanese money and for the most part, he is guilty of the majority of atrocities in the Far East! In general, I think that during the Civil War no one was particularly merciful to the enemy, neither white nor red nor the rest were colored. As my grandmother said, white people come and kill, red people come and kill robbed, the people didn’t see much difference. And all by the fact that during that war, they got out such moral values ​​... like modern Muzychki, Yaroshi, etc. I think that it is necessary to pay tribute to the white and red victims of that war , and not as one-sided as the Soviet regime did. As they say, God did not paint anyone with paint!
    1. Ruswolf
      Ruswolf 27 March 2014 07: 54
      +2
      Gregory hello!
      Agree with you! Civil war is a severe test for everyone, and not just for officers and soldiers.
      By the way, in the Kolchak clan they always honestly performed their duty.
      During the reign of Elizabeth Petrovna Kolchak received Russian citizenship, the nobility and the coat of arms, and since then the Kolchakov clan served their new homeland not for fear but for conscience. During the reign of Paul I and Alexander I, Lukyan Kolchak, in the rank of centurion of the Bug Cossack army, participated in the wars with the Turks and was awarded a land allotment in Ananievsky district of the Kherson province for valor.
      Ivan Lukyanovich Kolchak had three sons: Vasily (father of the legendary admiral), Peter and Alexander. All served in the navy. Peter died in 1903 with the rank of captain of the first rank. Vasily took part in the defense of Sevastopol, about which he later wrote his memoirs ("War and Captivity (memory of what he experienced)", "Malakhov Kurgan"). After the war, the Knight of St. George, Vasily Kolchak graduated from the Mining Institute and rose to the rank of Major General of the Fleet, becoming a famous specialist in the field of metallurgy and large-caliber artillery, even wrote "The History of the Obukhov Steel Plant in Connection with the Progress of Artillery Technology" ... By the way, it was at the Obukhov Plant and his son, the future Supreme Ruler of Russia, was born. Vasily Ivanovich's wife Olga Ilinichna also came from a military family. Her closest relatives - Rear Admiral Sergei Andreevich Posokhov and Major General Andrei Andreevich Posokhov - will be able to emigrate after the revolution. The family of Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak will come to them in France later.

      Vasily's younger brother, Alexander, was also a major general of the fleet and a specialist in naval artillery. His biography deserves a whole novel: in the Crimean War, he was in the Baltic, on the redoubt of General Den, made long voyages along the Amur, on the clipper "Horseman" cruised off the coast of the United States in 1868-1871, again served in the Baltic on floating batteries "Don't touch me "and" Kremlin ". The son of the major general, Alexander Alexandrovich, followed in his father's footsteps: he graduated from the Naval Cadet Corps, defended Port Arthur (it is curious that three Kolchaks passed through the Japanese captivity: Captain 1st Rank Alexander Fedorovich, Lieutenant Alexander Vasilyevich and Warrant Officer Alexander Alexandrovich), was awarded Order of St. Anne, 4th degree with the inscription "For Bravery".
    2. The comment was deleted.
  28. DimychDV
    DimychDV 27 March 2014 09: 17
    +1
    Take our Arsenyev (this week we found the grave of his first wife, Anna Konstantinovna, at the old Nakhodka cemetery, she died in 1963). If it were not for the class struggle, the world fame of Russian Livingstone would have awaited him: 30 years of studying nature, its reserves - and the peoples of the Far East. We say that he was "lucky" to die in 1930, before the "Kirov" and "Bukharin" repressions. His second wife was shot for being a general's daughter. And her father, General Solovyov, was simply a fortifier, a "state reception" of the Vladivostok fortress. Daughter from the age of 18 was taken to the Sakhalin camps. Got cheated, washed down, rewound two terms, died in 1970. But in 1938, she managed to transfer the archives of Arseniev to the Society for the Study of the Amur Region. From his notes, the Udege are now restoring the vocabulary of their language ...
    And only in 2006, one of the grandchildren was not too lazy to take an official certificate from the FSB that the Arsenyev family was no longer to blame for their homeland. And then a hundred thousand were brought to their father in Altai exile in the 58th in the middle of the night - a fee for V.K. books Arsenyev. And they said that an error occurred. Volya Arseniev did not stay a day in Altai.
    After all, they did NOT FORGET him that he was drafted into the Kolchakov Army in the 18th and survived two demonstration shootings, which the Japanese arranged in 1920 in Ussuriysk. And not only in 1928 they were not forgiven, excluding from the Eastern Institute in Vladivostok. And not only in 1939, instead of VDNH, driving an honest arborist into exile. But even after the war they didn’t forgive, although he stuttered and was not recruited after executions. He volunteered, was an artillery reconnaissance officer, returned in 1944 with severe wounds ... But even the war did not cancel his service in the Kolchak units - and then it was the NRA of the Far East Republic.
  29. Ruswolf
    Ruswolf 27 March 2014 10: 39
    +2
    Relatives of Kolchak, who did not immigrate to France, live in St. Petersburg. We fought on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War, in the navy. As they say, everything is changing: the system, politics, and Russia, the Navy, and People devoted to their homeland and the sea are ETERNAL

    Father A.V. Kolchak - Vasily Ivanovich Kolchak. Major General Fleet
  30. RoTTor
    RoTTor 27 March 2014 13: 13
    +1
    A worthy man, a wonderful polar explorer, a promising scientist who gave up his scientific career in vain, an excellent naval officer and commander of an operational-tactical link.
    Alas, there was no politician, he got involved (got him involved) in his own business and, unfortunately, could not do anything sensible, he died prematurely and ingloriously, and did not realize his potential. In other areas.
    Deep respect and sincere regret about his fate.