Military Review

It is necessary to restore the Ministry of Defense

The agency will oversee the development, development and production of conventional weapons, all types of ammunition, explosives, means of initiation, pyrotechnics, powders, solid rocket fuel

Before becoming the Deputy Minister of Mechanical Engineering and Defense Industry of the USSR in 1980 – 1991, 14 worked for years at the Yakov Sverdlov Plant in the city of Dzerzhinsk in the Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod) region. The role of this plant in ensuring the country's defense capability has been and remains high. Suffice it to say that the company during the Great Patriotic War produced 25 percent of all ammunition supplied to the Red Army. Here Puzyrev went from master technologist to deputy chief engineer, so he knows almost everything about these products.

- What is the role of ammunition in solving military tasks?

- It is not an exaggeration to say that all types of weapons are guns, Tanks, planes, ships without ammunition remain just beautiful targets for the enemy. After all, the target strikes ammunition, and the rest of the weapons are only a means of delivery. In no case do I belittle the role of weapons, but even ultramodern models can fulfill the task only with the use of weapons. My philosophy is as follows: weapons and ammunition are a single whole and the absence or deficiency of one negates the significance of the other.

The whole course of the Great Patriotic War speaks of the invaluable role of ammunition. In the 1941, the Red Army had all the necessary weapon, and there was not enough ammunition - the Germans bombed the warehouses in the first days of the war, 40 percent of the factories were in the occupation zone. We had nothing to shoot - neither cartridges, nor shells. For example, only three shells per day were supposed to be on the cannon. So we started the war.

Each ammunition plant produced products almost until the arrival of the Germans, and only three days before the expected occupation, the equipment was completely dismantled, loaded into trains, and together with the workers and their families were sent to the Urals or beyond. Everything that could not be loaded and removed was blown up on the spot. And there was no case for the Germans to be able to use our factories for their intended purpose. They got empty production buildings or even ruins.

But in the first half of 1943-th industry already provided the army with the necessary amount of ammunition. From this moment begins the turning point in the war, and then the path to victory. By the way, to understand the role of ammunition, you need to know that during the war 50 percent metal was used to make them. By the 1944 – 1945 years, we not only fully satisfied the needs of the active army, but also managed to create reserves in the warehouses of the Far East and Transbaikalia for the rapid defeat of Japan.

- What did industry look like at the peak of the Soviet power?

- This period was the most significant in the development of the industry. The tense situation, the likelihood of military conflict forced the state leadership to pay special attention to it. And after the war, it carefully studied the experience of hostilities and, realizing the importance of the industry, decided to modernize it. On the basis of the plants began to create research institutes (SRI). They appeared 15, and before the war there were only five. At the same time, four sites were built to test almost all types of ammunition and weapons. Polygons are preserved today. Also, the Soviet government established four design institutes where work was carried out in the interests of research institutes and enterprises. To carry out fundamental research in the field of high-energy materials, explosion physics, the processes of burning powders and solid rocket fuels, institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR were involved. Now these institutions practically do not work for the defense industry.

It is necessary to restore the Ministry of DefenseAs a result of the targeted policies of the party and government, the level of military equipment grew rapidly. So, for the post-war period until 1985, we managed to update the entire ammunition load of the army three or four times fleet. We have created such a military potential that the armies of the rest of the world find themselves in the role of catching up. At this time, Dmitry Fedorovich Ustinov was at the helm of the defense complex.

By the 90 years, our industry has achieved impressive results. Highly mechanized and automated lines for the production of shells of all types of ammunition, explosive devices, equipment and assembly of products were created and mastered. In highly dangerous chemical industries, that is, explosives, gunpowder, solid rocket fuel, pyrotechnic compositions, automated workshops with remote control, technological process and the complete withdrawal of people from dangerous areas appeared. In our research institute Dzerzhinsk, for the development and manufacture of automatic control systems (ACS), an automation department was allocated and an experimental plant was built for the production of ACS.

Of course, the search for an industry management model was not easy. After 1946, enterprises many times changed the departmental affiliation along such a chain: the Ministry of Agricultural Engineering - the Ministry of Defense Industry - the newly created Ministry of General Engineering - the Ministry of Defense - economic councils - again the Ministry of Defense Industry. In November, 1967 appeared a special government agency for the production of ammunition - the Ministry of Engineering of the USSR. The Council of Ministers, by its creation, emphasized the exceptional importance of work in the field of ammunition on a modern scientific basis.

The head of the new department was appointed Vyacheslav Vasilyevich Bakhirev. He graduated from Moscow State University 1941 of the year, went from design engineer to director of Kovrovsky Plant No. 2 named after V. A. Degtyarev, and in 1965 – 1967 he worked as first deputy minister of the defense industry of the USSR. This is due to his talent, high responsibility for the assigned task and understanding of the state importance of ammunition for the country's defense capability, our industry was recognized as one of the most important, determining the power of the Motherland.

As for me, for six years I was the director of a large factory in Chapaevsk for the production of explosives and ammunition equipment. Then I was appointed head of the main department of the Ministry of Mechanical Engineering for the production of explosives, equipment and assembly of ammunition. In this capacity, he oversaw 18 plants and three research institutes. And when I became a deputy minister, I was in charge of 30 plants and five research institutes.

- Now it is often claimed that the private owner is more effective than the state director. Do you agree with this statement?

- No private owner can ever be compared with a state leader, because he is motivated only by his own interest and profit. And the state set before us a task that we simply had no right not to solve. We had a huge burden of responsibility to the country. Especially in such an important sector as ammunition, on which the defense capability of the state depends. Not a single leader, if he were at least seven spans in his forehead, could single-handedly solve enormous tasks. But then the most powerful Soviet party-state system operated, all issues were resolved in a comprehensive manner. As a factory director, I relied on state and party bodies. Everything worked like a clock, clearly and harmoniously.

In addition, the director of a Soviet enterprise was to be responsible for social issues, no less, and even more so, than for production. We resettled people in good-quality houses from barracks built during the war during the evacuation of defense factories from west to east and the construction of new defense enterprises, provided with kindergartens. In 70, the kindergarten problem was completely resolved. Due to the construction of new schools, they made single-shift studies. Practically at all the factories, pioneer camps, sanatoriums, sports halls and stadiums appeared. All social sphere lay on the head. Thus, the scope of responsibilities of the Soviet director was immeasurably greater than any current top manager, and we coped.

- There is an opinion that the military-industrial complex lay a ruinous burden on the country's economy. What do you think?

- Not everyone knows that military-industrial complex enterprises engaged in the release of civilian products in huge volumes. There was an iron rule: an enterprise must produce consumer goods (consumer goods) for at least one ruble per ruble. That is, the salary of workers of the complex was fully covered by civil production. Nearly a million people worked in our industry. For one ruble of wages, we produced 1,6 rubles for consumer goods. Considering the fact that the salary in the military industrial complex was higher than the national average, you can imagine the enormous volumes we created civilian products, the highest, often world-class.

- How do you feel about the ever-increasing purchases of military equipment abroad?

- Another iron rule of the Soviet gunsmiths stated: it is forbidden to buy ammunition and equipment for industry from foreigners. At each factory there was a shop of non-standard equipment, in which about 500 people worked. They designed and created all the necessary technological equipment. I think this is the wisest decision. After all, the import of technology for the defense industry leads to dependence, which is fraught with dangerous consequences. Russian products in caliber do not fit with NATO, which means we will have to buy all the weapons from our sworn friends who, in the event of a conflict, will not slow down to stop deliveries. In addition, exports can significantly increase the revenue side of the country's budget. Today, Russia supplies a lot of ammunition abroad. About 50 countries in the world buy our products, in particular the Arab countries, India, Vietnam, Korea and others.

- What is the state of the industry today?

- Critical. Of the 150 ammunition enterprises, only 19 factories and one institute (Kazansky), which are now part of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Russia, remained state-owned. Federal state unitary enterprises (FSUE) and science transferred to Rostec. This means that they will be corporatized, that is, they may fall into private hands, be subject to sale or even speculation. That is, there will be practically the elimination of the complex and the destruction of science.

Part of the enterprises, especially the "mechanics" (those that produce shells, bombs), passed into the legal status of the LLC. I will give one example. After the privatization of the Vysokogorsky Mechanical Plant, where the shells of many types of shells were manufactured, 40 limited liability companies were formed, which are now renting production space for warehouse space, but do not produce anything themselves.

As a result of such pseudo-transformations, there appeared a shortage of capacities for the production of ammunition cases. There are only two state-owned plants for the production of explosives. While in 1988 – 1989, we produced two million tons of explosives for civilian industries, such as mining, today the volume is only 230 thousand tons.

The power of any army is determined not only by the latest military equipment, but also by the ability to produce modern ammunition. The leadership of the Russian Federation should be concerned not with the dressing of our army in a new form, made according to sketches of famous designers, but with the state of the defense industry, otherwise the army is suitable only for parades. In 1905, we lost to Japan due to the lack of ammunition, in 1941, to a large extent, for the same reason, Hitler approached Moscow. Unfortunately, история teaches nothing.

The country's development experience since the time of Peter I shows that ammunition factories should only be state-owned, for government orders are very sensitive to the international situation. The private owner will not be able to maintain power without significant costs, he always has problems of credits, interest, profit rates, markets and other things that are far from defense tasks. In addition, due to the reduction of the state order for military products in peacetime, the government should take care of placing civilian products at defense enterprises, protect them from possible imports, and provide financial support for their creation and improvement.

I believe that in peacetime the volume of state order for the main products should be no more than 30 – 40 percent, and the rest of the volume of production should be filled with peaceful products. We, veterans of the ammunition industry, are fighting to preserve its traditions to the best of our ability. This is the essence of the activities of the Regional Public Organization of war veterans and the labor of the ammunition industry.

- How do you see ways out of the crisis and the revival of the defense industry?

- It is necessary to unite enterprises of the military-industrial complex under one wing, which are now divided into many departments, concerns, holdings, and associations without clearly defined and unequivocal powers, and, consequently, responsibility. It is time to create a unified state body for the management of defense enterprises. They could be the revived Ministry of Defense Industry (MOP), which would oversee two main areas - the development, development and production, firstly, of conventional weapons, secondly, all types of ammunition, explosives, means of initiation, pyrotechnics, gunpowder, solid rocket fuel.

The responsibilities of the MOPA should also include conducting research and development on the instructions of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, building production facilities, organizing production and executing government orders of the military department and other security agencies, put all responsibility for its actions on it.

As for the ammunition industry, it is necessary to make its basis the federal state-owned enterprises (PCF), now included in the Ministry of Industry and Trade. Another part of the foundation of the MOP should be federal state unitary enterprises, now given to Rostec. It is also required to involve enterprises that are in commercial structures, all these endless companies, limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, and others in the production of ammunition. Their main purpose is to create and maintain mobilization capacities for launching in a threatened period through budgetary allocations.

The next task is to return research, research, production and development organizations to the Ministry of Defense Industry, to resume funding basic scientific research on the subject of defense in the institutes of the Academy of Sciences, universities and other scientific and educational institutions. It must be remembered that without the revival of applied and fundamental science, truly breakthrough solutions are impossible.

To eradicate the vicious practice of appointing the heads of factories and research institutes of specialists in financial flows and other incompetent people. Of course, pay special attention to personnel. Today, as a result of almost 20-year break in the influx of young people there is an acute shortage of specialists. In this regard, in order to ensure stable provision of highly qualified engineering and scientific personnel in the field of ammunition and special chemistry, full training should be restored at such universities as St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, Baltic State Technical University (“Voenmekh”) to them. Ustinova, Russian University of Chemical Technology Mendeleev, MSTU. Bauman, Moscow State University of Ecology, Kazan National Research University, Samara State Technological University, Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institutes, and others.

Training to carry out at the expense of budgetary funds. After graduation, a graduate should be sent to work in industrial enterprises, research and production associations, research institutes, design bureau and other structures of the defense industry for a period of three to five years. For the training of specialists with secondary technical education and professional workers to restore the work of vocational schools and vocational schools.

Now, more than ever, the slogan “Personnel decide everything” is relevant. The loss and non-fulfillment of highly qualified personnel means the loss of invaluable practical experience gained over decades, since it is not stored in books or on a computer hard drive, but in human memory.
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  1. Grenz
    Grenz 26 March 2014 07: 41
    How to recreate the defense industry?
    Recall the experience of the Soviet Union, and at leisure, re-read the memoirs of Dmitry Ustinov, who was responsible during the war years for supplying the front with ammunition. Everything is there: labor discipline, motivation "Everything for the front, everything for victory", personnel training and, most importantly, the highest responsibility for the task entrusted to it.
    1. PPL
      PPL 26 March 2014 08: 04
      Quote: grenz
      How to recreate the defense industry?
      Recall the experience of the Soviet Union, and at leisure, re-read the memoirs of Dmitry Ustinov, who was responsible during the war years for supplying the front with ammunition. Everything is there: labor discipline, motivation "Everything for the front, everything for victory", personnel training and, most importantly, the highest responsibility for the task entrusted to it.

      It would be nice when solving these global issues to completely get away from the so-called "feeding troughs". state corporations. Returning to the structures that operated in the USSR is not a step back, but the restoration of order.
      We have been convinced many times that fragmentation in the solution of defense programs does not lead to good. Develop corporations, holdings, etc. it is possible without destroying the natural monopolies that are responsible for the security and life of the country. At one time, when "Gorbachev's" cooperatives began to emerge, instead of competition, we got plundered state enterprises. Why it was necessary to kill state-owned enterprises, why (a rhetorical question, the answer is clear to everyone)? Cooperatives and private enterprises were supposed to occupy empty niches in the development of services and production of consumer goods, but they got down to the simplest thing - the sale of state property and resources.
      1. vladimirZ
        vladimirZ 26 March 2014 09: 31
        Now it is often claimed that a private owner is more effective than a state director. Do you agree with this statement?

        - Not a single private trader can ever be compared with the state leader, because he is motivated only by his own interest and benefit. (from article)

        Oh, when does Russian President Putin V.V. understand this?
        This understanding in the reconstruction of the public sector of the economy in the defense and in a number of other main industries and its combination with the private sector, and to Putin’s success in foreign policy, would make Putin a popular leader for many years for the benefit and prosperity of our Russia.
        1. Good cat
          Good cat 26 March 2014 10: 26
          I think he understands, just take it right away and it’s impossible to change everything, it takes time
          1. 222222
            222222 26 March 2014 11: 03
            Good cat RU Today, 10:26 ↑ New
            "I think he understands, just take it straight away and change everything, it takes time."
            .. work in full swing. huge work what does it mean to build an Eastern Cosmodrome ..
            And this only in 1 minute gave out:
            - "Reconstruction and technical re-equipment of PO" Polet "- a branch of FSUE GKNPTs named after M.V. Khrunichev for serial production of the Angara launch vehicle "
            -Performance of reconstruction and technical re-equipment of building No. 32 of FSUE GKNPTs im. MV Khrunichev "for serial production of the Angara launch vehicle at the address: Moscow, st. Novozavodskaya, d.18.
            - “Reconstruction and technical re-equipment of the production of liquid-propellant rocket engines at VMZ, a branch of the FSUE GKNPTs im. M.V. Khrunichev ", at the address: Voronezh, st. Voroshilova, 22.
            -Reconstruction and technical re-equipment of the production base of JSC “KAPO im. S.P. Gorbunova "
            ...... and expired many, many ..
    2. sso-xnumx
      sso-xnumx 26 March 2014 08: 48
      Dmitry Fedorovich from June 9, 1941 to March 15, 1946 - People's Commissar of Arms of the USSR,
      and the People's Commissariat of Ammunition from February 16, 1942 to August 20, 1945, was headed by the People's Commissar of the USSR People's Commissariat for Ammunition Boris Lvovich Vannikov. Read his memoirs "B. L. Vannikov. Notes of the People's Commissar", And study the history of dear ...
      PS I’m ashamed to have general epaulettes and not know military history
  2. Com T-64a
    Com T-64a 26 March 2014 07: 41
    Ministry of Defense, TRP, cultural education, GDP undertook to restore the last empire! God grant him strength and patience! BRAVO! soldier
  3. W1950
    W1950 26 March 2014 07: 43
    With thanks, Chubais and Yeltsino-Gaidar have privatized the military-industrial complex. It's time to carry out nationalization, it’s enough to produce pans.
    1. Rus2012
      Rus2012 26 March 2014 12: 17
      defense enterprises

      Quote: W1950
      Thanks to Chubais and Yeltsin-Gaidar, the military-industrial complex was privatized

      ... defense industry enterprises were not only part of the MOP, but there was a mighty “nine”:
      MSM, Minsredmash (nuclear industry),
      IOM, Ministry of General Affairs (rocket and space industry),
      MAP, Minaviaprom,
      SME, Ministry of Industry,
      MCI, Minradioprom,
      MEP, Minelectronprom,
      MCC, Ministry of Communications,
      MHM, Minmash (ammunition and special chemicals),
      MOP, Ministry of Defense (artillery, tanks, small arms).
  4. Chifka
    Chifka 26 March 2014 07: 44
    Many more to recover. Education, science, Soviet social protection, etc., in the best traditions of the USSR and without unnecessary politics. I would not slow down, I would finish the job to the end.
  5. Sashka_Gusar
    Sashka_Gusar 26 March 2014 07: 49
    Necessarily necessary, in addition to defense and civilian production will rise.
  6. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 26 March 2014 08: 14
    Nationalization of ALL defense industry enterprises! Only in this way will we restore the army and navy.
  7. Afinogen
    Afinogen 26 March 2014 08: 14
    It is necessary to equate theft in the Ministry of Defense Industry to treason. And then a lot of thieves divorced.
    1. PPL
      PPL 26 March 2014 08: 31
      There is no Defense Ministry in Russia today.
      Source -

      Any theft must be equated to the category of especially grave crimes. The thief must sit! Sit and pay for the stolen property and all the hard work.
  8. A1L9E4K9S
    A1L9E4K9S 26 March 2014 08: 23
    There is no end to the work, but Russia has never given up before difficulties, but it created them (difficulties) for itself, then overcame it with heroic efforts. How many times can one step on the same rake? When will fools end in Russia?
  9. Alexgs
    Alexgs 26 March 2014 08: 32
    Quote: A1L9E4K9S
    When will fools end in Russia?

    Never))) We love hard living. Therefore, we will never swim in fat, like the Western civilization of consumers. We will always find adventures on our ass, overcome them and find again. Such is our nature. wassat
  10. waleri
    waleri 26 March 2014 08: 35
    Hello! I liked this conversation very much. "- No private trader can ever compare with a state leader, because he is motivated only by his own interest and benefit. And the state set a task for us that we simply had no right not to solve. We had a huge burden of responsibility before the country. ... Not a single leader, even if he was at least seven inches in the forehead, could solve huge problems alone. But then the most powerful Soviet party-state system operated, all issues were resolved comprehensively. As a plant director, I relied on state and party bodies Everything worked like clockwork, clearly and harmoniously. In addition, the director of a Soviet enterprise had to be responsible for social issues no less, and even more than for production. We moved people to solid houses from the barracks built during wars during the evacuation of defense plants from west to east and the construction of new defense enterprises, provided kindergartens. the kindergarten problem was completely resolved. Due to the construction of new schools, one-shift studies were made. Pioneer camps, sanatoriums, gyms and stadiums have appeared at almost all factories. The entire social network lay with the leader. Thus, the scope of the duties of the Soviet director was immeasurably greater than that of any current top manager, and we coped with it. "- I fully support this statement, any director would try not to fulfill or help the social sector! It is unlikely that I would find a job anywhere, because it went right away expulsion from the party, and this is the deprivation of the director's chair. Do you want to consider it FEAR as you are now accustomed to frightening citizens. But the fact that after the collapse of the country we survived, despite the plundering of all Chubais, Serdyukovs, etc. - this is the merit of the red directors who created a reserve for black day. What was only the people's control, and a call to the party. asset, where they could easily roll a reprimand for red tape, and it was a flight call. So the citizens of the union were protected from all adversity. so I think and know
  11. ddmm09
    ddmm09 26 March 2014 08: 46
    So much time has passed to realize that the achievements of the Soviet time - this is the maximum possible that we managed to achieve. And now we are just catching up. And how much new could be done in these 20 years! Just wasted only time!
  12. Stinger
    Stinger 26 March 2014 09: 27
    The defense is powered by the budget. It collapsed in the 90s, when the volume of government orders fell by 10 to 500 times in individual industries. All that it can count on now is a little more than 20 trillion. rubles up to 20 years. Of these, an amount equal to the volume of foreign sales will be returned to the budget. And it's not a fact that these funds are going back to the defense industry. All. It is not necessary to count on an increase in appropriations, given the current state of the economy. There are not so many ways to raise the defense industry complex - putting things in order, which is achieved by clear planning and control of execution, and harsh punishments for misuse of budget funds. Chemizov's office is a pseudo-ministry with huge expenses for the maintenance of "effective managers" and absolutely ineffective management of defense enterprises. Therefore, the Ministry of Defense Industry is necessary as a body purposefully dealing with all areas of the defense industry, and not its individual parts, as is happening now.
    1. Good cat
      Good cat 26 March 2014 10: 28
      The question of frenzied salaries of "effective managers" is very relevant
  13. Zomanus
    Zomanus 26 March 2014 09: 32
    Well, I think that motivation will appear, with the further development of chaos in Ukraine and the tightening of sanctions against us. In general, our weak sectors, which depend on imports, are now exposed. Well, in general, the countdown for the restoration of the country can begin with 2010. For from 90 and 00 everything collapsed. With 2000 and 2010, everything was stabilized. And already with 2010, growth began, in the sense of replacing the Soviet with a new one, and not hanging on the old. New aircraft, weapons and more.
  14. brainkiller
    brainkiller 26 March 2014 10: 08
    the main thing is that they do not spoil the quality of the shells.
  15. rasputin17
    rasputin17 26 March 2014 10: 25
    The revival of the military-industrial complex and its monopoly under state control should become the main tool in the development of the country's defense industry. Everything related to the defense and security of the country should be under its control and in its management since this is a strategic potential!
  16. w2000
    w2000 26 March 2014 11: 19
    The idea is good, but with the current political and economic system - not feasible. Unfortunately, our government plans to systematically privatize the military industry and other strategic state assets. In 2014 alone, a wave of privatization of assets of several trillion rubles is planned. Moreover, in the current conditions, the concentration of the entire military-industrial complex in the hands of the state is a double-edged sword, on the one hand private traders can always bring up or even turn off unprofitable production, on the other hand, government officials, are now completely devoid of any responsibility, and will continue to systematically disrupt deadlines and plans, dealing only with cutting and plundering 90% of the funds allocated by the state.
  17. trophy
    trophy 26 March 2014 11: 22
    These words would be yes as a guide to action! But Choi, I get excited. It hurts a lot of loafers clung to their homeland, you will not tear off until you rip. And to break, you have to break the knee of the entire current political and economic elite. Whether the current supreme will have the willpower and determination to do such feats, and whether there is such a desire, in principle, is the question. But if you decide, then the support of the people and the bust at home are guaranteed.
  18. Vtel
    Vtel 26 March 2014 11: 41
    While the Chubs, Bills of exchange, Ser-Duke and others from the 5th separate tax the GDP, there is nothing to catch except flies and noodles on the ears.
  19. konvalval
    konvalval 26 March 2014 12: 28
    Very correct article. Armament is not sneakers, without which it is even better. The current international situation has shown that we have not the slightest right to be dependent on the supply of weapons from abroad.
  20. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 26 March 2014 12: 28
    I remember a couple of years ago on TV showing the meeting that P ... in arranged with the leaders of the military-industrial complex. The conversation was more and more about inefficiency, etc. And then one of the leaders of the military enterprise suddenly stood up and began to complain to Pu ... well, that his enterprise is falling apart and can not conduct R&D because it does not have money - the state does not transfer money even for the delivered amount products, referring to some technical difficulties there, etc., and he has no money even to pay a salary. To which Pu ... n smiling so maliciously, he advised this manager to take a loan from a bank or, if he does not know where to get money in the current economic conditions, it is better for him to read a textbook on this issue, or go through an educational program. Such an answer looked just like a spit in the face of a person who asked for help. Another leader, who was sitting next to the speaker, with his eyes down on the table, silently pulled his hand-type: sit down and so everything is clear.
    1. PPL
      PPL 26 March 2014 13: 48
      Quote: Monster_Fat
      I remember how a couple of years ago on TV they showed the meeting that P ...

      And if you go back a little more, you can remember where the legs grow from:
      2010 year.
      Serdyukov said that the Moscow Region has significantly reduced inefficient R&D, and the allocated funds went to the purchase of final models of equipment.
      He reported to the Supreme Commander-in-Chief that this year the ministry had reduced inefficient repair work by 20%, and the savings had been spent on the purchase of final equipment.

      This "effective manager" did not even see the difference between R&D and repair. fool
      And why did he need it when there is still so much not sold out on the farm ...
  21. Aleksandr68
    Aleksandr68 26 March 2014 13: 59
    And you don’t have to bother to create competitive consumer goods at the enterprises of the defense industry (those who lived in the USSR remember that) It’s much easier to put all your efforts into creating a better one, for example, then sell one such tank and buy half a city for good TVs, for example .