Military Review

The heyday of anti-capitalism

27
The heyday of anti-capitalism



We are witnessing a paradox in the heart of capitalism, one that contributed to its rise, but now threatens its future: the dynamic nature of competitive markets reduces prices so much that many goods and services become almost free, widespread and no longer belong to market forces.

Although economists have always welcomed the reduction in incremental costs, they never anticipated the possibility of a technological revolution that could reduce these costs to near zero.

The first sign of a paradox appeared in 1999, when the music service Napster developed a network that allows millions of people to share music without paying producers and musicians, which has wreaked havoc in the music industry. A similar phenomenon continued to cause serious damage to newspaper production and publishing. Consumers have begun to share their own information and entertainment through video, audio, and text messaging, almost free of charge, bypassing traditional markets.

The huge reduction in incremental costs has shaken these industries and is now beginning to change energy, production and education. Although the fixed costs of solar technology and wind power are somewhat high, the cost of capturing each energy unit outside these areas is low. This phenomenon has even penetrated the manufacturing sector. Thousands of enthusiasts are already producing their own products using 3-D printers, open source software and recycled plastic as raw materials, with almost zero incremental costs. In the meantime, nearly six million students are enrolled through a large number of free online courses, the content of which is also distributed at almost zero incremental costs.

Industrial observers recognize the frightening reality of the zero-cost economy, but argue that free products and services will induce a sufficient number of buyers to acquire higher-quality goods and specialized services, which will ensure sufficiently high profits, allowing the capitalist market to continue to grow. But the number of people willing to pay for high-quality goods and services is limited.

Now this phenomenon is about to affect the entire economy. A new complex technical infrastructure is emerging - the Internet of Things, which over the next two decades has the potential to reduce most economic life to almost zero incremental costs. This new technology platform is starting to integrate everything and everyone. Today, more than 11 billions of sensors are attached to natural resources, pipelines, power grids, logistics networks, and recycling facilities, and they are also installed in homes, offices, shops, and vehicles, feeding up a lot of Internet of Things data. According to forecasts, at least 2020 billions of sensors will be connected to 50 year.

People can connect to the network and use data, analytics and algorithms to increase efficiency and reduce to almost zero the incremental costs of manufacturing and exchanging a wide range of products, just as with information products. For example, in the US, 37 of millions of buildings are equipped with meters and sensors connected to the Internet of Things, which provide real-time information on the use of electricity and change its price for electricity networks. As a result, this will allow homes and businesses that generate and store clean electricity generated by solar or wind power plants on the site to program the software so that it disconnects them from the power grid in the event of a price jump, and they can use their own clean electricity and share the surplus with their neighbors at almost zero incremental costs.

Cisco predicts that by 2020, the increased productivity of the private sector, supported by the Internet of Things, will exceed 14 trillions of dollars. According to a General Electric study, by 2025, productivity growth due to the Internet of Things could affect half of the world's economy.

The unresolved question is how this future economy will function if millions of people can do and exchange goods and services almost free of charge? The answer lies in civil society, consisting of non-profit organizations that care about the things that we do and which we exchange, as a society. In dollar terms, the world of non-profit organizations is a powerful force. From 2000 to 2010 a year, adjusted for inflation, non-profit revenues rose to 41 percent at a steady pace, more than double the increase in GDP growth, which increased by 16,4 percent over the same period. In 2012, the nonprofit sector in the United States accounted for 5,5 percent of GDP.

Today, the idea of ​​public domain makes it more relevant that we build the infrastructure of the Internet of Things, which optimizes cooperation, universal access and integration - all of these points are crucial for creating public capital and commemorating the start of a shared economy. The Internet of Things is an innovation platform that allows developing collective communities to flourish along with the capitalist market.

Such a joint, rather than a capitalist, approach is more associated with collective access than with private property. For example, 1,7 million people around the world use car rental services. A recent study found that the number of vehicles owned by participants in the process of using rented cars decreased by half after they started using the service, which demonstrates that participants prefer access rather than ownership. Millions of people use social networking sites, redistributing networks, rental and collaboration sites to share not only cars, but also houses, clothes, tools, toys and other items at a low or near zero price. In 2013, the planned revenue of the sharing economy was 3,5 billion dollars.

The zero-cost growth phenomenon does not have the same effect on the labor market, where factories and offices without workers, virtual retail trade, automated logistics and transport networks are becoming more common. Not surprisingly, new jobs are emerging in non-profit areas that strengthen social infrastructure — education, health care, relief for the poor, environmental restoration, child and elderly care, and the promotion of arts and recreation. In the US, from 2001 to 2011. the number of non-profit organizations increased by about 25 percent, from 1,3 million to 1,6 million, compared with profitable enterprises, whose number grew by only half a percent. Currently, in the United States, Canada and Britain, employment in the non-profit sector exceeds ten percent of the workforce.

Despite such impressive growth, many economists argue that the nonprofit sector is not a self-sufficient economic force, but rather a parasite dependent on government benefits and private philanthropy. Quite the contrary. A recent study found that almost 50 percent of the total income of non-profit sector in 34 countries is in cash, while government support is 36 percent in revenue and 14 percent comes from private charity.

As for the capitalist system, it will most likely be with us for a long time, albeit in an improved form, primarily as an aggregator of network services and solutions, which in the coming epoch will allow it to succeed as a powerful niche player. However, we are entering a world that is partly found outside the markets, where we are learning to live together in an increasingly independent, shared, world heritage.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/16/opinion/sunday/the-rise-of-anti-capitalism.html?_r=1
27 comments
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  1. Gagarin
    Gagarin 26 March 2014 14: 21
    +9
    One must learn to live in a new, changing world.
    HE IS ALREADY OTHER.
  2. melan
    melan 26 March 2014 14: 21
    +13
    Here is one example of a resurgent struggle with world imperialism))
    The guy just "infects" the rally)

    1. Duke
      Duke 26 March 2014 15: 26
      +2
      In memory of the fighters against imperialism.
      1. PPL
        PPL 26 March 2014 18: 02
        0
        This guy is a supporter of Eduard Limonov's "Other Russia" party, black Benes Ayo.
        More information about him here http://lifenews.ru/news/129583
    2. Shpionus
      Shpionus 26 March 2014 15: 44
      +2
      Ahrenet. Here is the reviving Friendship of Peoples. With the lips of a dark-skinned person, it sounds especially contrasting and bright! Here you can’t blame Russian nationalism or worse, Nazism. Well done guy! I shake hands brother.
    3. Lich
      Lich 26 March 2014 16: 37
      0
      This is the most Russian black in the world!
  3. Sergg
    Sergg 26 March 2014 14: 24
    +8
    Many, many words. The author would describe one thing: the structure of GDP, Internet commerce, non-profit organizations, low production costs, non-profit revenues. It is difficult to grasp the central idea of ​​this article: by the way, what does anti-capitalism have to do with it?
    1. ZU-23
      ZU-23 26 March 2014 14: 32
      +3
      The author simply could not explain and express in his article that he was especially seriously worried, they say, think for yourself.
      1. Sergg
        Sergg 26 March 2014 16: 34
        +1
        The author simply could not explain and express in his article that he was especially seriously worried, they say, think for yourself.


        laughing

        But this is a completely different topic: around laughter!
        However, I’m not offended by the author; next time he will write better.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  4. ZU-23
    ZU-23 26 March 2014 14: 28
    +1
    Soon we will do everything ourselves on 3D printers, all that remains is for powders with the right formulations to be sold. In general, commerce will find that it’s more expensive to sell, so the capitalist market will not disappear in the near future.
    1. major071
      major071 26 March 2014 15: 07
      +6
       XU-23
      Soon we will do everything for ourselves on 3D printers, we just have to powders with the right formulations were sold.


      Well, powders with the right formulations have long been sold, though clandestinely. laughing

      Valentine hi
  5. Siberian19
    Siberian19 26 March 2014 14: 31
    +2
    so Karl Marx was right to turn out!
  6. PPL
    PPL 26 March 2014 14: 33
    +8
    ... exchange music without paying producers and musicians, which has wreaked havoc on the music industry.

    All the time I was interested in the question, but how did musicians create before even the Internet, but the same tape recorders? Has anything changed since then? Is music better? No - the appetites have grown! request In a word, snickering. fool Previously, the market buffoon-gaer was ready to sing and dance for a piece of bread, the musicians were cooler, earning paid concerts for people willing to pay. But in both cases, the song that was played once went to the people and no one demanded money for its retransmission. And now? They were already so lazy that because of their unwillingness to take a steam bath at concerts they invented "plywood". The barber is fined, which turns on the radio, ostensibly to attract customers ... fool
  7. Sma11
    Sma11 26 March 2014 14: 34
    +3
    “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs”

    What happened is what will be, and what is happening is happening,
    And there is nothing new under the sun.
    Sometimes they say something: look, this is news!
    And it was already in the centuries that have passed before us. (Solomon. Ecclesiastes)

    Can we really see communism on a single planet?
  8. parusnik
    parusnik 26 March 2014 14: 38
    +2
    So slowly the world will reach communism ... without revolutions and wars .. And then some began to say that the ghost of communism wandered around Europe ... that's enough ... you pushed it out the door and it was through the window ..
  9. rasputin17
    rasputin17 26 March 2014 14: 38
    +1
    And to what specific conclusion did the author want to bring the reader ?? It has been said a lot but the main idea is incomprehensible.
  10. sinukvl
    sinukvl 26 March 2014 14: 50
    +7
    The capitalist economy is built on a money-commodity-money scheme. Moreover, there should always be more money at the exit than at the entrance. Otherwise, you are bankrupt. And the more money there is at the exit, the greater the desire to attach it somewhere else. But the markets are not unlimited, this is a real economic pyramid. There are two ways out of capturing new markets (economic war) or just war (the money spent on equipment burns out along with the equipment, and the dead can not be paid). If these two conditions are not met, then capitalism will be bent because an economic system called capitalism is a system of unstable equilibrium. A stable economic system is socialism with its planned economy. And there is no alternative here either the country has a chance to get a lot now, and then it just bends down, or receives exactly as much as it can afford at the moment and is constantly developing its economy, albeit without huge jerks, but with guaranteed growth stability of the development vector.
  11. tnship2
    tnship2 26 March 2014 15: 11
    0
    Everything that is described in the article is good so far as they print the denyushka as much as they want .. At the factory, China injects oil. Oil is extracted from oil kingdoms. And if they themselves go to the machine? The big question is. They roll down in the days of Charlie Chaplin. Look at your leisure, all the films about the beggars. There they had to hunch themselves and if it weren’t for the war, history may have gone the other way.
  12. ya.seliwerstov2013
    ya.seliwerstov2013 26 March 2014 15: 17
    +3
    We have a different value system!
  13. Isk1984
    Isk1984 26 March 2014 15: 43
    +3
    Here's a guy, so to speak, dark-skinned, as many laughed at him there in the comments on YouTube, in him, so to speak, of the Russian spirit and conscience, more than that of many read-blooded "Aryans", and it is right that it is emotional, but here you don't have to calmly talk, peace Thanks to the "Judas" of the Western model of government, it has slipped into the savagery and idiocy of dogmas, financial capital rules the show in time of the plague, and the absurdity of doing agricultural work has become unprofitable. Av otm buying the same futures for meat and wheat is profitable, isn't it normal ... and there are a lot of such imbalances, as they say in youth slang, people hawk and okay ...
    Yes, the USSR excuse me from cattle, I did people with a capital letter, but today? Yes, what should I do ...
  14. Storm357
    Storm357 26 March 2014 15: 46
    +1
    comrade black zhzhot respect do not tell who this Afro-Russian comrade
  15. mabuta
    mabuta 26 March 2014 16: 10
    +4
    Nevertheless, we will always remember a good manager who managed to raise the country from the ruins of revolution and war.
  16. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 26 March 2014 16: 24
    0
    When will the appetites of NSA servers be sated? How tired of this ... What is the article about? About nothing. Claims that 3D printers are producing something with "zero cost" ... it's not even funny. People with their help "provide their needs"! You can't do it ... you can't use it ... in general it's a lie. The rest of the reasoning is practically the same idiot - far-fetched dreamers of Internet zadrotov. So what about?
    About the Internet of things. Not so long ago I watched on TV an interview with a guy who came up with an application for searching the network for these very things. Dummies, refrigerators, very smart homes ... said - there was even one nuclear power plant. Well, I honestly said - I came up with the application half as a joke, of course, there is no real benefit from it. But, the guy came out for a good profit. Customer? And he has nothing to hide - the Pentagon!
    It’s a wild statement that in order to increase the same energy efficiency of a building you need the Internet akin to affectionate - give me your money, I’ll have more. Yes, installing a computer control system is excellent. From which hangover, the costs will suddenly become zero ... you need to ask the maniacs who had connected themselves to the Internet for a long time and would have connected everything they reached, just because the thinker died out. Pour the software into the computer and let it work. The power of modern computers is quite sufficient to collect data and increase in some (not such as the author of the article falsely promises, but) limits the efficiency of the building systems.
    So why? And so that the alien uncle could collect that very information without interference. And to influence the building systems as he wants. By the way, the guy with his "Internet of Things" complained that Russia was almost invisible to him. We do not have enough fools who are ready to put their own houses on the net for the amusement of someone else's uncle. So it would continue ...
    1. andrewvlg
      andrewvlg 26 March 2014 16: 49
      0
      Quote: Mikhail3
      Yes, installing a computer control system is excellent. From which hangover costs suddenly become zero ...

      As far as I understand, this is a building with its own energy sources (for example, solar panels). It is clear that not every day has its own email. energy, you have to buy. But there are days (hours) when, on the contrary, excess energy is generated that can be sold in some countries (back to the electricity grid). If in your quarter (city) there are several houses with different sources (wind, heat), then the monitoring system allows you to choose the optimal distribution, and, theoretically, not pay at all, or significantly reduce the payments of an external energy company. For this, access to the network is needed. And spies can already know your email consumption. energy by hacking the server of the management company. Current nafik them this info?
      1. Sma11
        Sma11 27 March 2014 17: 47
        0
        In Germany, such buildings already exist. good
  17. Bakht
    Bakht 26 March 2014 16: 53
    0
    Delusional article. The service industry and the so-called Internet technologies are considered. They have, you see, a gross GDP growth. When harsh reality slaps its face on the asphalt, it will be late. In offices, you see, you can do without people. Of course you can. And how this office fruit finds its 3D printer, the author somehow did not bother. Let the author explain to me how in such conditions you can work without people. Or with a zero increase in expenses.





    Oh, these refined intellectuals who saw the most terrible phenomenon in their lives - a flying arc from a trolley bus.
  18. Vlad1408
    Vlad1408 26 March 2014 17: 22
    +2
    Post-industrial development, coupled with an ever-increasing technological breakthrough, poses many questions to the world of capital, one of which is the employment of the population and the redistribution of surplus value, which are the functions of the state, which will increase with each step towards the post-industrial society, which will lead most quickly in the first stages , solving these problems, to state capitalism, an analogue of the USSR, only at a different social level, where true democracy and freedom will come first.
  19. The comment was deleted.
  20. BelPartizan
    BelPartizan 26 March 2014 17: 40
    0
    No, this dark-skinned comrade is certainly not a mos, but he is on his board!