24 March 1975, the Kamenetz-Podolsk Higher Military Engineering Command School was named after Marshal of Engineering Troops Kharchenko Viktor Kondratievich, who was at the forefront of the formation of one of the best military schools of the former USSR.
Unfortunately, two years ago (1.09.2012), this illustrious educational institution was disbanded, and its unique material and educational base was simply destroyed. Something, of course, remains and continues to serve for the training of reserve officers. On the very spirit of a military engineer, scientific and technological development went into oblivion.
History schools worthy of a separate book. The article will reveal it briefly.
After the Second World War, the development of engineering troops required to have in the composition of the types of armed forces engineering units that can perform the most important and most complex engineering tasks of combat and operations, taking into account the growing technical equipment, troop mobility, the possible use of weapons mass destruction. In turn, the technical re-equipment of the engineering troops required a large number of qualified personnel, whose training took place in a number of specialized military educational institutions (VNZ). These include the Leningrad Military Engineering School (1937-1960), the Moscow Military Engineering School (1937-1960), the Chernigov Military Engineering School (1940-1943), the Borisov Military Engineering School ( 1940-1943.), Zlatoust Military Engineering School (1941-1942), Michurinsky Military Engineering School (1941-1942), Tyumen Military Engineering School (1956-1968), Kaliningrad military school School (1960-1973), Kamenetz-Podolsk Military Engineering School (1967-1969). The greatest number of trained officers of the engineering troops falls on the period 40-70 of the 20th century. After the reform, which was associated with the lack of the need to train a large number of military engineering personnel, the number of educational institutions of this training profile at the end of the 1960-s significantly decreased. Three military engineering schools remained, which were later transformed into higher military educational institutions: Kaliningrad, Tyumen and Kamenetz-Podolsk.
Kaliningrad Military Engineering School was established in 1960 as a military engineering school on the basis of the Leningrad and Moscow Military Engineering Schools. In 1965, it acquired the status of a higher military engineering school, in 1973, the training period was determined to be five years. This military educational institution conducted training only engineering profile. This direction of training was due to the need for narrow specialists for the engineering troops for the qualitative use and maintenance of new types of engineering weapons and equipment. At 1990, in the Kaliningrad Military Engineering School, they were taught in five specialties: engineering weapons with qualification of a mechanical engineer; electrical engineering tools with the qualification of an electrical engineer; operation of nuclear munitions by engineering troops with qualification of a radio engineer; fortifications with qualification of a civil engineer; operation and repair of engineering systems of radio telemechanics with qualification of a radio engineer. After the collapse of the USSR, this university remained part of Russia and was relocated to Nizhny Novgorod and was named the Nizhny Novgorod Higher Military Engineering School. With 1998, the university became a branch of the Military Engineering University in Moscow.
The Tyumen Military Engineering High School was established in 1956, and in 1968 it was transformed into a higher command military engineering school. In this institution, engineering specialists were trained in the command profile of training, commanders of engineering units in four specialties with qualification of an engineer in the operation of machines of engineering armament. The list of specialties included the following professions: command and tactical engineering and sapper for the specialization of controlled mining; command tactical engineering; command tactical bomber; command and tactical pontoon bridge. With the collapse of the USSR, the school remained part of Russia and was in 1998 transformed into a branch of the Moscow Military Engineering University.
Military in Kamenetz-Podolsk
In 1967, officer training for engineering troops began in Ukraine in the city of Kamenets-Podolsky. This was initiated by the order of the USSR Minister of Defense No. 011 (January 1967) on the formation of a military engineering school with staff No. XXUMX / 17. February 12, 711 was appointed Colonel Vasily Yermakov as the head of the 20 School. In the summer, the officers began to arrive - the deputy head of the school for the technical part of the p / n Nikolai Klimenko, deputy. on the educational part of the pk Yakov Kriksunov, deputy. for the rear of the p / p Ivan Shcherbina, Chief Finnish Captain Vasily Slobodyanyuk and others. Total 1967 people.
The property and affairs of the school leadership were taken over from the chief of the artillery division, which was located here before. As Pavel Makarsky (the first commander of the cadet company) recalls, even before the arrival of the cadets, the formation of a training battalion started from the 25 recruits of Kamenets and the district. At that time, there were only two pre-war barracks in the territory, a small dining room and a medical unit. There was grass in the place of today's parade and goats grazed. Gradually began to settle down, began the construction of educational buildings, cafes, landfill equipment, drill parade ground.
October 2 1967 on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Member of the Military Council - Head. Political directorate of the Northern Caucasus Military District, Colonel-General Maltsev handed a military banner to Kamyanets-Podilsky Military Engineering School. Andrei Ishchenko, deputy head of the school’s political department, brought the banner to the school in the spring of 1967 under protection from the city of Lviv. After the last graduation of the cadets of the school (16 June 1995), the banner was transferred to the archive. He was replaced by the banner of the Ukrainian sample.
Practical training ground was equipped on the site of vegetable gardens and a former tank and artillery shooting range. Artificial reservoirs were also built at the site.
A car park was also built on a marshland, where budyaki grew above the head. The first time for the cadets was taken by the former stables (later medical facilities were equipped there). The stables were blocked by plywood walls. It turned out something like classes.
In the emergency mode, the construction of boxes for vehicles began, because in the winter, for practical exercises, it had to be beaten off from frozen ground with cuts. It should be said that the cadets, as well as all other objects, built the training site themselves, in between classes. And tests are sometimes passed just under the open sky.
In the structure of the school for September 1967, two engineering demining engineers and one road cadet battalion were created. At the same time, nine cycles (departments) were formed, in particular: socio-economic disciplines, engineering and tactical training, general military disciplines, engineering weapons machines, engineering barriers and disruptive business, crossings and bridges, fortification and camouflage, road, general education disciplines , as well as the battalion to ensure the educational process. During this period, two courses were recruited: the first course was recruited at the established military school, and the second course from among three companies that came from the Tyumen Military Engineering School. In January, 1968 was ordered by the Minister of Defense of the USSR No. 019 and the directive of the General Staff No. ORG 6 / 86628 of 14.01.1969. The school was renamed the Higher Military Engineering Command School with a four-year training period. In the same year made the first release of officers. For the new staff number 17 / 908, approved by the Chief of General Staff 30.04.1969, the number of cadet battalions was increased to four, and each battalion was supplemented by companies of the road specialty. The retraining of reserve officers began, for which purpose they created corresponding retraining courses. In 1975 by Directive of the General Staff No.314 / 10 / 0914 from 17.7.1975, General Staff of the Ground Forces No.453 / 1 / 0881 from 8.8.1975, Directive of the Headquarters of the Carpathian Military District No.15 / 1 / 01415 physical training and sports.
High marks regarding the educational process, which the school received for a long time, made it possible to assign him the name of Marshal of the Engineering Troops Kharchenko V. (Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 184 of 7.03.1975, and the order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR No. 75 of 24.03.1975,).
The training of officers was carried out according to the command profile and the following specialties: command tactical engineering-sapper, command tactical engineering-technical and specialization engineering-sapper of the airborne troops (each company had one airborne platoon).
In the fire of war
With the beginning of the Afghan war (1979-1989), the engineering troops fell to fulfill one of the most difficult tasks: ensuring the posting of columns, protecting strongholds, supplying units with water, but most importantly fighting mine danger. Many graduates of the school went through the crucible of this war, and 37 of them died. Their names are immortalized at the memorial complex in the school. One of the officers was seriously wounded, and two - a contusion. Fortunately, from the Afghan war the colonels Sergey Zubarevsky, Vladimir Perizhnyak, Mikhail Neroba, Oleksey and Sergey Tverdokhlebi (the latter works as a tutor in the Kamenets-Podolsk military lyceum), lieutenant-colonels Yury Galyan, Vyacheslav Zhurba (serving as demining), Alexey Osadchy, Major Gennady Stavniychuk, Art. Warrant Officer Galina Petlevanaya (serving as a medical unit).
In the years of independence
After the collapse of the USSR, the Act on the Proclamation of Independence of Ukraine became the starting document regarding the creation of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, including the engineering troops. 31 August 1993 was formed by the Military Engineering Faculty (VIF) at Kamenetz-Podolsk Agricultural Institute. Involving the scientific and pedagogical staff of a civilian higher education institution gave, of course, the opportunity to pass accreditation and carry out training at a higher quality civil educational level, namely: bachelor, specialist, military tactical and operational-tactical educational levels, which was not the case in the former higher military command school. But, essentially, it was from this that the gradual process of the collapse of a powerful military school began, which ended in December 2012. In 1996, the training of officers in Kamyanets-Podilsky Higher Military Command School was completed in connection with its liquidation.
Based on the resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 64 of January 21 from 1998, “On the reorganization of the military training department of the Kiev National University. Taras Shevchenko and VIF at the Podolsk State Agrarian Technical Academy (the former agricultural institute began to be called this way), order of the Minister of Ukraine on emergency situations and on protection of the population from the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster from 12.5.1998, No. XXUMX / 197, from August 139, the faculty was transformed into a military Engineering Institute at the Podolsk State Agrarian Technical Academy.
The Military Engineering Institute of the Podolsk State Agrarian Technical Academy was designed to train, educate and train officers in the operational-tactical direction of training in the specialty “Organization of combat and operational support for troops (forces)” - for the Emergencies Ministry of Ukraine; officers of the tactical direction of training in the specialties “Armament and equipment of the engineering troops” and “Combat application and control of the actions of units (units, formations) of the Ground Forces” - for the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Ukraine, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the Committee for the Protection of the State Border of Ukraine and other security forces state structures; adjunct officers in the following specialties: “Military art”, “Engineering equipment of theaters of military operations”, “Armament and military equipment”; reserve officers - engineers of engineering troops from among students of the Podolsk State Agrotechnical Academy, the Podolsk State Pedagogical University in ten specialties; ensigns - specialists of engineering troops; qualified soldiers in twenty-four working specialties for engineering troops; foreign military personnel of all categories, according to the specialties of tactical officers; mine clearance specialists at 1 and 2 levels; sappers and reconnaissance sappers of peacekeeping units; fortification specialists; canine calculations mine search dogs; training and retraining of military specialists of the Ministry of Defense and other security agencies in the specialty “Combat use and control of the actions of units (units, formations) of the Ground Forces”. The institute conducted training for demining of the peacekeeping contingent of United Nations missions in Lebanon.
A number of new structures were created at the institute, namely: the Mine Clearing Center, in which demining specialists underwent training and retraining, training for reserve officers in training courses for reserve officers.
The logistical support of the educational process has become weaker with each passing year, while the former situation experienced the opposite situation due to better funding. There was also a noticeable difference in the qualitative composition of the teaching staff. So, in 1989 there were 26 candidates of science in K-PVVIKU, of which 16 are officers, and at the institute in 2000 there were only 4 people. To increase the number of highly qualified scientific and pedagogical personnel at the institute, an adjuncture was created in 1999. With 2010, the Institute was turned into a military faculty at the National University. Ivan Ogienko. At the same time there were new problems in the educational process. So, the university did not find specialists in mathematics (everyone in the school was fired) for a technical college: the university is a humanitarian one, and the cadets receive a technical education. University teachers began to introduce their own rules of assessment, they did not understand the specifics of the military (outfits, field walks, night classes).
Two years later, 1 September 2012, the military department ceased to exist. The cadets were transferred to Lviv to the Academy of the Land Forces of Ukraine. Most of the teachers were dismissed for retirement, although they could work long and fruitfully. The training college for sergeants and the training for the soldiers were transferred to other places. They also wanted to transfer the Mine Clearing Center with dog handlers to Lviv, but left it in place.
For more than 40-year history of the school, about 16 thousands of officers were trained, 160 people received gold medals, hundreds of foreign specialists from Ethiopia, France, China, Moldova, Turkmenistan were trained.
The Kamenetz-Podolsk School was the basic training center for preparing for peacekeeping missions. Its specialists performed tasks in Angola, Lebanon, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Iraq and Yugoslavia. On the basis of the school under the command of Colonel Anatoly Okipnyak, a single Ukrainian training system for divers of all levels was developed to carry out robots on various types of reservoirs ...
On the territory of the school today there are a department for the training of reserve officers, a demining center, a military lyceum and the 1-th transfer-bridge battalion formed on September 9, 2012.
Instead of a conclusion
The transfer of cadets to Lviv causes negative feelings. Prior to this decision, on the basis of the school, officers-builders and reserve officers were trained; a college of sergeants of engineering troops was opened; In addition, the territory is a military lyceum. It would seem that there was a harmonious system of training specialists for engineering troops (from soldier to adjunct), there is an excellent material and technical base, which surprised all foreign guests (despite the fact that it was half (!!!) of what was under the Union) . Learn and serve. No, I had to ruin everything, pillage it, and send the specialists to retire. Supporters of the closure of the school say that it is necessary to unite military schools, that for such a number of cadets (about 100 people) to maintain such a territory, such staff is too wasteful. But the matter, as it seems, is not in the cadets, but in the redistribution of finances. I would like to say bitterly that in Lviv there is no normal material base and a training ground for officers of engineering troops, no training aids. An engineering town on the proving ground is good for motorized riflemen, tankmen, gunners, but it is problematic to train highly skilled officers of the engineering troops on it! On the ground to the training points cadets get almost an hour. In Kamenetz, this took no more than 10-15 minutes. It should also be added that the engineering equipment that students should learn is located in 40 km from Lviv. And future professionals themselves study it on posters. The only BAT-2 road builder who was at the Academy of the Ground Forces turned on the whole night! .. So what kind of specialists will we prepare? Why was it all to fall apart? Why not leave everything in place, and create a Center for Engineering Troops on the basis of the school? And to train specialists of all levels, to develop and test new engineering equipment, including robots for mine clearance (for this purpose, there were departments of “Operation and repair of engineering weapons machines” and “Engineering machines”).
It seems that the army collapsed deliberately. And they did not think about the fact that engineering troops could cease to exist in our country, capable of solving the whole complex of engineering battlefield tasks (with the latest events in the Crimea, equipment for crossings, in particular, PMP parks, from all over the country). Then, perhaps, let us remember, we will begin to revive the engineering troops, but there will be no specialists anymore. This is at best. And in the worst case, as always, we will learn from the foreign, NATO experience and say: oh, how smart they are! But, frankly, let's say that we have more experience in training engineers for engineering, in carrying out engineering activities than in NATO. Still more ...
PS Our military school is the only military institution of higher education in the former USSR about which the Voice of America spoke. Somewhere in the early 1980's. years between cadets and civilians there was a fight. Everything was trite, as always. At the dances either they didn’t share the girl, or someone said something else. In general, two cadets were beaten. They returned to the barracks, the whole company rose, and "samohodomy" moved to the dance floor. In the hands of the belts ... and away. The next day, Voice of America announced to the whole world that "the lads of General Yermakov brutally beat civilians." Although there was a fight, which then lacked everywhere.
Maybe not everything was able to tell how I wanted, but I think that an understanding of which university was destroyed was managed to be conveyed. The school museum is now closed. Therefore, I will be grateful to all those who were related to the Kamyanets-Podilsky Military Engineering Command School for additional information (memories, photos).