Military Review

New generation jet systems enter the troops

New generation jet systems enter the troops

The Grad system has become famous in the world as much as its predecessor, the legendary Katyusha. And an even more sophisticated and powerful Tornado system, created by experts of the Splav NGO, under the leadership of Nikolay Makarovts, is replacing it.

For the first time, the novelty was openly shown at the Kapustin Yar 25 September 2011 site. The results of the shooting impressed. "Tornado" surpassed its predecessors in almost all indicators: range, accuracy of fire, accuracy of hit, power of the warhead and many others.

Back in the years of the Great Patriotic War, our country has become a world leader in the creation of multiple launch rocket systems. The Grad, Smerch, and Uragan systems proved to be worthy followers of the Katyusha. All were single caliber. For example, “Grad” could only shoot 122-mm projectiles, “Hurricane” - 220-mm, and “Smerch” - caliber 300-mm.

The design of the Tornado allows you to install the starting blocks of different calibers on one wheelbase. In addition, on one machine you can place containers with paired launchers for 122-mm, 220-mm and 300-mm missiles, depending on the task on the battlefield. That is, one chassis becomes a universal base for all types of jet missiles used in the Ground Forces.

The rockets themselves, by the way, are also a new generation. For the first time in the MLRS, self-guided projectiles will be used, which will make it possible to hit not only squares at a considerable distance, but specific enemy targets. In the future, an option is being considered for placement in containers that can be installed on the basis of the Tornado, operational-tactical and cruise missiles, as well as launchers for unmanned aerial vehicles.

According to military experts, the Tornado rocket launchers and the operational-tactical Iskanders, if used together, will be able to accomplish combat missions that today require the involvement of significant missile-artillery forces and assets. Perhaps already by 2015, such a bundle will become the basis of the rocket forces and artillery of the Ground Forces. Several dozen Tornado systems have been delivered to the armed forces, and purchases will increase.

Today, the Tornado shows the maximum firing range of 90 kilometers, which is truly an excellent indicator for such systems. For comparison, the Grad shells fly only on 40 km. Unlike its predecessors (Grad, Smerch), Tornado has a satellite guidance system, due to which the probability of a miss is significantly reduced. Rockets hit the point. Tornado can leave the position before the first of the shells fired touches the ground. When the last projectile explodes, destroying the target, the complex itself may already be several kilometers from the place from which the shooting was carried out. All this makes the Tornado really formidable. weaponswhich practically does not know to itself equal.

Today, our rocket launcher systems are known worldwide as much as the Kalashnikov assault rifle. But few people know that after the Great Patriotic War in the Soviet Union they intended to close this line of rocket artillery altogether. Even despite the glory of "Katyusha". The fact is that the "Katyusha" had a significant drawback - a huge dispersion of shells by area. And it seemed that nothing could be done about it.

In 1957, the outstanding designer Alexander Ganichev had great work to revive and defend the idea of ​​multiple launch rocket systems. The Grad system was put into service in 1963. And in 1969, the first combat use of the then secret systems took place during the conflict on Damanski Island. The effect was even more stunning than with the first use of Katyusha in the battle of Moscow in 1941. “Grad” was immediately recognized as the most efficient jet system in the world, besides, it has no analogues.

In addition to high-explosive fragmentation warheads, missiles for the Grad, as well as other MLRS, are also equipped with others. For example, using “hail” you can mine large areas at a distance of several kilometers. A volley from 20 rockets mined kilometer of the front.

There are even missiles designed to interfere with enemy radio communications at the tactical level. A set of eight rockets suppresses radio equipment in the 1,5-120 MHz frequency range. Firing range 4,5-18,5 km. The continuous operation time of the 60 interference transmitter minutes, the range of interference - 700 m.

The illumination rocket provides illumination on the ground of a circle with a diameter of 1000 m from a height of 450-500 m for ninety seconds.

As people who knew Ganicheva recalled, he was a cheerful and hospitable man, not fascinated by friendly feasts. For fun, the designer decided to perpetuate the cost of a half-liter bottle of vodka in the rocket he created. And the first "hailstones" were millimeters in length 2870 - pollitrovka then cost 2 rubles 87 kopecks. In the future, the length of the missiles varied depending on the destination, but did not go far from two eighty seven.

No one could have imagined that, having achieved a world triumph in the production of MLRS, our country would almost lose priority. In the 1990s, the Splav enterprise, where the jet systems were developed, was on the verge of closure. He was saved by the general director and general designer Nikolai Aleksandrovich Makarovets, who actually repeated in new historical conditions post-war feat of his predecessor - Ganichev. He not only managed to preserve the enterprise in incredibly difficult conditions, but to raise it to a new technological level and create that very unique Tornado system.

11 December 1985 of the year, the Smerch third-generation MLRS of the third generation (caliber 300 mm, firing range up to 90 kilometers), which has a control unit on board, which reduced the dispersion of projectiles by three times compared to an unguided rocket, were completed, completing while the accuracy of shooting twice. These systems were actively used during the hostilities in Afghanistan and during counterterrorism operations in the North Caucasus. For the creation of "Smerch" Nikolay Makarovets was awarded the Order of Lenin. He became one of the last gentlemen of this very high Soviet award.

After the collapse of the Union, state orders for Splava were virtually nullified. People stopped paying salaries. By 1994, almost a thousand people left the company - simple workers and very skilled engineers.

Then, on the initiative of Makarovts, work began on the creation of high-tech civilian products based on traditional military technologies. It was possible to organize the production of more than thirty types of civilian products, including fire extinguishing equipment, equipment for processing agricultural products, household electrical products, high-pressure cylinders, medical equipment, instruments for metering water and gas consumption, and printing equipment.

Because Nikolai Makarovets saved a unique enterprise, his engineering and design school, basic technologies and continued working on promising MLRSs, he was given the State Prize of the Russian Federation with the wording "for achievements in the field of conversion." The state could not support the "Splav", but noted those who did, it seemed impossible with their own efforts.

Today, this enterprise is the pride of the Tula defense industry, and working on it is as prestigious as it was in the long eighties of the last century. Yes, and wages have become decent.

By the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation on 5 of September 1997 of the year "for outstanding achievements in the development of multiple launch rocket systems" Nikolai Aleksandrovich Makarovts was awarded the title Hero of the Russian Federation with the award of the Gold Star medal.

Congratulating the head of Splava on the 75 anniversary, Dmitry Medvedev noted that Nikolay Makarovets made a great contribution to strengthening our country's defense capability. “Thanks to your experience and professionalism,” said the Prime Minister, “the famous Tula“ Splav ”, which you have been running for almost 30 years, firmly holds the leading positions in the production of multiple launch rocket systems.”

Business card

Nikolay Makarovets was born 21 March 1939, in a small town of Sumy region in a family of teachers. Early childhood was in the years of the war, the occupation. Contrary to popular opinion, being in the occupation of Nicholas himself and his relatives had no effect on career growth. After graduating with honors from high school in his hometown, he entered the Tula Mechanical Institute, from which he graduated in 1962 year. And since then, his fate has been inextricably linked with the defense industry, with the strengthening of the combat power of the USSR, and then of the Russian Federation.

For research work on the creation of engines of intercontinental ballistic missiles Makarovtsu in 1984, the Lenin Prize is awarded. Since November 1985, Makarovets has been working as the general director of the Tula Splava.
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  1. klimpopov
    klimpopov 25 March 2014 11: 42
    Is this how I understand it?
    1. zeleznijdorojnik
      zeleznijdorojnik 25 March 2014 11: 47
      This is like a tornado, I myself would like to see the installation-how to combine PCs with a length of 2.8 from Grad with long hurricane and tornado.
      1. klimpopov
        klimpopov 25 March 2014 11: 52
        It seems but not like a tornado

        MLRS "Smerch"

        Chassis MAZ-79111 (9А52)
        MAZ-543 (9A52-2)
        Year (s) of operation 1987 - today
        Weight without shells and calculation, kg 33700
        Weight in combat position, kg 43700
        Length in stowed position, mm 12370 (9А52)
        12100 (9А52-2, 9А52-3)
        Width in the stowed position, mm 3050
        Height in stowed position, mm 3050 (9А52, 9А52-2)
        3220 (9A52-3)
        Number of rails 12 (9A52, 9A52-2)
        4 (9A52-3)
        6 (9A52-4)
        Minimum firing range, m 20000
        Maximum firing range, m 90000
        Area of ​​defeat, m² 672000
        Maximum elevation angle, degrees 55
        Accuracy (dispersion), m 0,21% [1]
        BM calculation, people Xnumx
        Transfer of the system from traveling to combat, no more than, min. Xnumx
        Volley time, with no more than 40 (9А52, 9А52-2)
        no more than 12 (9A52-3)
        Time of urgent abandonment of the firing position after a volley no more than, min. Xnumx
        Engine type V-12 diesel Д12А-525А
        Engine power, hp Xnumx
        Maximum speed on the highway, km / h 60 (9А52, 9А52-3)
        65 (9A52-2)
        Cruising on the highway, km 900 (9А52)
        850 (9А52-2, 9А52-3)
        Wheel formula 8x8
    2. urzul
      urzul 25 March 2014 11: 50
      A tornado is a MLRS family, not just one car.
      In the photo, for example, Tornado-G
      1. Alexander Romanov
        Alexander Romanov 25 March 2014 11: 53
        Quote: urzul
        In the photo, for example, Tornado-G

        No Urzul is an old City.
        1. klimpopov
          klimpopov 25 March 2014 11: 56
          I think so...
          1. Alexander Romanov
            Alexander Romanov 25 March 2014 11: 59
            Quote: klimpopov
            I think so...

            Klim, Tornado G. here he is. Hello hi
            1. urzul
              urzul 25 March 2014 13: 54
              What is the difference from my photo? My photo from the exposition.
              Differences from Grad in the glonas system and the batch system of guides
          2. Refund_SSSR
            Refund_SSSR 25 March 2014 12: 02
            I hope you do not confuse Tornado-S and Tornado-G wink Like two big differences
          3. tchack
            tchack 25 March 2014 12: 13
            Quote: Alexander Romanov
            No Urzul is an old City.

            Quote: klimpopov
            I think so...

            “Tornado-G” (G-Grad) - modernized MLRS 9K51 Grad, has a new index GRAU 9K51M.
            “Tornado-S” (S-Tornado) - the modernized 9K58 Smerch MLRS, has new GRAU 9K517, 9K515 indexes and several more variations depending on the chassis and caliber of the missiles.
          4. W1950
            W1950 25 March 2014 12: 27
            This is the BM-21 "Grad" - I made such.
            1. Flooding
              Flooding 25 March 2014 13: 01
              Quote: W1950
              This is the BM-21 "Grad" - I made such.

              The 9K51M "Tornado-G" MLRS includes a new modernized combat vehicle BM-21, old and new types of 122-mm rockets, as well as KSAUO "Kapustnik-BM"

              Details on the internet)
    3. Coffee_time
      Coffee_time 25 March 2014 12: 08
      No, it's a tornado, a tornado has a smaller warhead. The block there is very interesting
      1. W1950
        W1950 25 March 2014 12: 53
        "Tornado" is on the topmost photo.
    4. The comment was deleted.
  2. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 25 March 2014 11: 45
    On such as MAKAROVETS, now both science and industry keeps. This is the "gold reserve" of Russia. May God give him health!
  3. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 25 March 2014 11: 45
    I am glad that DEFENSE does not sleep, confidently moving forward! Good luck to developers, designers, military personnel!
  4. KOH
    KOH 25 March 2014 11: 45
    Nikolai Makarovets !!! - The national treasure of Russia !!! Well it is necessary to survive all the Gorboeltsin experiments, and to survive, honor, praise and low bow ...
  5. Alexandr 2
    Alexandr 2 25 March 2014 11: 49
    Interestingly, there are two versions of this multiple launch rocket system: "Tornado-S" and "Tornado-G". New 122 mm. The Tornado-G MLRS is 2,5 - 3 times more effective than the Grad MLRS. And the modified 300-mm MLRS "Tornado-S" will be 3-4 times more effective than the MLRS "Smerch". Lieutenant General Sergei Bogatinov said that it is the Tornado-S, together with the Iskander-M tactical missile complexes, that will be able to become the main complexes with which the Russian missile forces and artillery will be armed.
  6. Stiletto
    Stiletto 25 March 2014 11: 52
    I looked at the article for "unparalleled". However, there is :-)))
  7. Voenruk
    Voenruk 25 March 2014 11: 54
    Glory to the Soviet engineers! They created such a reserve for 10 years that today we are ahead of the rest! That's what free and affordable education in the USSR means! Without upbringing and education of the younger generation, we cannot make the next technological, intellectual breakthrough!
  8. pensioner
    pensioner 25 March 2014 12: 06
    And the first "hailstones" were 2870 millimeters long - a half-liter then cost 2 rubles 87 kopecks.
    good Talented people are talented in everything.
  9. Fox
    Fox 25 March 2014 12: 12
    IMHO. For the first time, Katyusha was used near Orsha, and not near Moscow! And then it was plus ...
  10. Siberian19
    Siberian19 25 March 2014 12: 12
    a tornado is firing!
    1. Flooding
      Flooding 25 March 2014 13: 17
      And a little about Tornado-S
  11. Coffee_time
    Coffee_time 25 March 2014 12: 15
    +2 вот небольшое описание, если кому интересно.
  12. Arh
    Arh 25 March 2014 12: 15
    Tornado-G multiple launch rocket systems! ! !
  13. Coffee_time
    Coffee_time 25 March 2014 12: 16
    There is still such an option, but it seems to be called Nazina
    1. Windbreak
      Windbreak 25 March 2014 12: 24
      This is the Israeli MLRS Lynx
    2. Flooding
      Flooding 25 March 2014 13: 06
      Quote: Coffee_time
      There is still such an option, but it seems to be called Nazina

      MLRS "Naiza", created by Israel for the Armed Forces of Kazakhstan.

  14. nod739
    nod739 25 March 2014 12: 18
    Go Russia!!!!
  15. major071
    major071 25 March 2014 12: 20
    In our city, a plant that previously (from the time of the Second World War) had been producing ammunition for MLRS, stood without orders for 20 years, let out household goods, but at the same time did not lose personnel and production. Now an order for shells has come to the MLRS, so much so that the capacities are loaded at 5 years in advance. Apparently a large delivery of the systems themselves to the troops is planned.
  16. Leshka
    Leshka 25 March 2014 12: 21
    useful and necessary thing good
  17. rosomaha
    rosomaha 25 March 2014 14: 03
    my personal opinion, chassis unification is a plus .... But the name "Tornado" is not in Russian .... Typhoon, Cyclone, Rain, Thunderbolt
  18. kelevra
    kelevra 25 March 2014 14: 57
    I’m extremely happy, I don’t even have time to read about all the updates, so quickly and clearly the development and introduction of new equipment into the troops is carried out.
  19. Nayhas
    Nayhas 25 March 2014 15: 03
    For those who want to blow their brains, I propose to establish the true appearance of the MLRS Tornado.
    From the history of the issue. The military decided to restore order and some unification of the MLRS for the automotive base. Happened:
    9A53 Tornado-G caliber 122mm. 1X40 base: Ural-4320
    9A53 Tornado-U caliber 220mm. 2X8 base: MZKT-79306
    9A53 Tornado-S 300mm caliber. 2X6 base: MZKT-79306
    At the same time, Tornado-G was previously presented on the basis of the MZKT-79306 with two blocks of 15 guides for 122 mm each. NURS, and there are no photos on Tornado-U.
    In addition, under the guise of a Tornado, they slip photo 9A52-4 Tornado, she is also Kama ...
    In general success ...
    1. Flooding
      Flooding 25 March 2014 15: 13
      Quote: Nayhas
      9A53 Tornado-U caliber 220mm. 2X8 base: MZKT-79306

      In fact, this is not Tornado-U, but Hurricane-1M.
      Moreover, the bicaliber system, interchangeable bags with guides for 220 and 300 mm.
      Model photo:
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 25 March 2014 17: 21
        Quote: Flood
        In fact, this is not Tornado-U, but Hurricane-1M.
        Moreover, the bicaliber system, interchangeable bags with guides for 220 and 300 mm

        The Hurricane-1M has a 9A53 combat vehicle index, the same as the Tornado. Those. it's the same car.
        1. Flooding
          Flooding 25 March 2014 21: 41
          Quote: Nayhas
          The Hurricane-1M has a 9A53 combat vehicle index, the same as the Tornado. Those. it's the same car

          You are above and altogether deigned to assign one index to all types. Does this mean that all three of these types have one BM? And where did you get the Hurricane-U index? Do not share the link?
          In fact, the index of the Uragan-1M MLRS complex is 9K512.
          9A53 - BM index in the complex.
          And according to your words, the Hurricane was radically modernized, replacing the chassis, guides, stuffing and for some reason making it bicaliber. That is, we went along the path of maximum costs. While for Grad and Tornado, they limited themselves to filling and ammunition.
    2. PLO
      PLO 25 March 2014 15: 34
      as usual you are talking nonsense
      Tornado-G, U, C is the modernization of existing MLRS systems Grad, Hurricane, Smerch with the installation of automated guidance systems and fire control systems, as well as satellite topographic location systems

      Moreover, the upgrade of 220mm Hurricanes was ultimately abandoned, considering this caliber unpromising, i.e. in the end there will be only Tornado-G and Tornado-S

      what do you mean is the brand new MLRS Uragan-1M, Navodlom absolutely correctly brought its layout
      on Hurricane-1M can be placed both disposable and reusable packages of 220mm and 300mm shells.

      moreover, there are rumors that eventually Hurricane-1M will be on the BAZ chassis
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 25 March 2014 15: 46
        Quote: olp
        moreover, there are rumors that eventually Hurricane-1M will be on the BAZ chassis

        It’s time for Voshchina to give green light.