Military Review

Stalin falcons in China

Relations between Japan and China at the end of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries were very tense. Japan beat China in the 1894-1895 war - according to its results, Beijing gave Formosu Island (Taiwan) and refused to patronize Korea. After the First World War, in which Japan fought on the side of the Entente, Tokyo gained possession of Germany in Shandong. In 1928, there was a military conflict between the Kuomintang and the Japanese. In 1931, invaded Manchuria and captured it. The puppet state of Manchukuu was formed.

Since 1931, military conflicts have constantly flared up between China and Japan, Japan has sought to create a buffer demilitarized zone between Manchuku and China. In 1932, China was forced to demilitarize Shanghai, in 1933, the Japanese again attacked China, seized Zhehe province and forced the Chinese authorities to agree to create a demilitarized zone between the Great Wall of China and the Beijing-Tianjin area. In addition, the Japanese constantly interfered in the internal affairs of China, supporting rebellious generals and governors to prevent China from becoming a strong state.

In 1937, a full-scale war broke out that ended in 1945. Chinese historians believe that it was 7 on July 1937, the Second World War began, and not the first of September 1939.

The reason for the war was the incident on the Marco-Polo Bridge (Lugouqiao) 7 July 1937 - a soldier disappeared from the Japanese during a night exercise. The Japanese demanded that he be extradited or sent to search for him in the fortress of Wanping, the Chinese refused, and a skirmish began. Then, after some short negotiations, the Japanese launched a full-scale war - on July 26, the 40-thousandth Japanese army launched an offensive. July 28-30 captured Beijing, Tianjin, by the end of the year - Shanghai, Nanjing. In Nanking, the Japanese staged a terrible slaughter, killing more than 200 thousand Chinese. The Chinese were inferior to the Japanese in armament, training, discipline, they did not have a modern Navy and Air Force.

Position of the USSR

Moscow consistently all 30-s politically supported by China. The USSR was advantageous to prolong the war so that the Chinese would hold on as long as possible, thereby drawing Japan’s attention to the southern strategic direction. Japan spent strength on the war, weakened the shock group on the border with the USSR.

Therefore, Stalin began to rally the Chinese Communist Party with the government of Chiang Kai-shek in order to confront the common enemy.

Stalin falcons in China


- In August, 1937 was signed an agreement on non-aggression between China and the USSR, the Kuomintang government asks for material assistance.

- In connection with the almost complete loss of sea lanes, China asks Moscow to help in the construction of the Sary-Ozek-Urumqi-Lanzhou highway, the Soviet government agreed; Moscow begins to supply the Chinese weapon, ammunition, medicines, airplanes, and so on. All on credit.

- In connection with serious problems with the Air Force, aircraft are being supplied to China, Soviet military specialists are sent to help in the formation of the Chinese Air Force. In total, in 1937-1940, 300 military experts visited China on a "business trip". In total, more than 5 thousand people worked for Soviet citizens - pilots, instructors, engineers, doctors, teachers, etc. In the fall of 1937, 225 aircraft were sent to China, including 62 SB bombers, and 89 aviation specialists to train the Chinese. The planes were flown from Irkutsk through Mongolia to the Wuhan airfield in the Hupei province. The 12-beam stars of the Kuomintang government became the identification mark of Soviet volunteer pilots. At the Nanking airfield, two combat groups were concentrated: 23 I-16 fighters under the command of G.M. Prokofiev and 20 SB bombers under the command of N.M. Kidalinsky. At the Hankow airfield there was a group of 31 SB bombers under the command of F.P. Polynin. In total, by June 1941, the Union supplied China with 1250 aircraft and tens of thousands of aerial bombs.

- 21 November 1937, the first air battle of the Soviet pilots with the Japanese Air Force took place: the 7 of our aircraft attacked the Japanese 20, shot down three without loss.

- At the end of 1938, 82 were brought to Sevastopol from Hong Kong. tank T-26 and other weapons.

- In February, a squadron of high-speed bombers SB-1938 under the command of Polynin 2 attacked a Japanese airfield in the area of ​​Shanghai, destroyed 30 enemy fighters.

From left to right: A.A. Shumeyko, F.P. Polynin, G.A. Ivanov.

- February 23 1938 of the year 28 SB-2 under the command of F. P. Polynin made a raid on the island of Formosa, Soviet bombers attacked the Japanese airfield Taipei and the port of Xinzhou. The Japanese command believed that the bases on Formosa were invulnerable to Soviet pilots, and concentrated there large reserves of fuel and aviation equipment. The planes were brought to Formosa in containers, collected and distilled to Shanghai. As a result, the pilots destroyed 40 enemy aircraft, burned a three-year supply of fuel, destroyed the airfield. 14 November 1938 of the Year for courage and heroism in battles in China Fedor Petrovich Polynin was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union with the award of the Order of Lenin.

- In March, 1938, China and the USSR signed a trade agreement, Moscow provided a loan of $ 50 million for weapons. A squadron of bombers under the command of Timofey Khryukin attacked the Japanese light aircraft carrier "Yamato-maru" (according to other versions - by an aircraft-carrying ship or transport ship carrying airplanes) and drowned it on the Yellow River (according to another version - to the Yangtze). Timofey Timofeevich Khryukin 22 February 1939 was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.

Khryukin Timofey Timofeevich, twice Hero of the USSR.

- In April, 1938 was completed the construction of a highway on the border with the USSR (in Xinjiang Province), large deliveries of weapons began, including the X-NUMX fighter, the I-62, a party of cannons, along with artillery advisers.

- At the end of May 1938, our fighters shot down 15 Japanese bombers, lost one aircraft.

Aircraft 70-IAP at a field airfield in China.

- 1 July 1938 of the USSR granted another loan, for 100 million dollars. By the beginning of 1939, due to the efforts of military advisers and volunteers from the Soviet Union, losses in the Chinese army fell. If in the 1937-1938 years, the Chinese casualties of killed and wounded were 800 thousand people (5: 1 to the losses of the Japanese), then in the second year they equaled the Japanese (300 thousand people).

- In August, the Chinese government asked 1939 to build an aircraft factory for them, by September 1940, the first phase was built (in Urumqi). It was planned to assemble it from Soviet parts, up to 300 aircraft per year. A training center was organized in Urumqi, where Soviet specialists taught Chinese pilots.

- In October, a group of Soviet long-range bombers DB-1939, commanded by Grigory Kulishenko (the Chinese called this "air tigers"), struck two blows at a Japanese airfield in Hankow, destroyed more than 3 enemy aircraft, a lot of equipment and fuel, blew up air depots . The Japanese could not bring down our planes either with anti-aircraft guns or lift fighters into the air - the airfield was “plowed” by bombs. October 100 14 G. Kulishenko flew on a combat mission, during which bombers attacked an airfield in occupied Wuhan in Hubei Province. When returning to the base, the bombers were attacked by Japanese fighters. In a fierce air battle, Kulishenko was seriously wounded, but before he died he managed to land his bomber, which had been shot down by the enemy.


-27 December 1939, our pilots conducted the last combat operation: three SB bomber, taking off from the airfield of Xinzhang, attacked the Japanese troops in the area of ​​the Kunlun Pass. The last volunteers were removed, and after that the USSR provided only material assistance. Soviet pilots spoke negatively about the Chinese Air Force, Chinese pilots often destroyed planes, and their equipment could not provide proper maintenance and repair.

The attack of the Third Reich on the USSR and the beginning of hostilities of Japan against the United States and England in the Pacific worsened the attitude of the Kuomintang government towards Moscow - the Chinese believed that the USSR was doomed, therefore they quickly shifted to cooperation with Western countries. In the 1941-1942 years, the USSR brought out the latest advisers, and since 1943 has even curtailed trade contacts, closing trading companies and recalling workers in this sphere due to the excesses of the Kuomintang authorities and the local population. The USSR then begins to support the Communists in China even more. Soviet pilots partially replaced the American ones - the American Volunteer Group (“Flying Tigers”) was created.

The actions of Soviet military specialists and volunteers allowed the Red Army to obtain a unique combat experience, identify a number of shortcomings of military equipment, lay the foundations of cooperation and friendship with the Chinese people. Moscow forced Japan to pay great attention to the Chinese front, to shift its attention to the southern strategic direction, to transfer the most combat-ready units of the Kwantung Army to the south.

The inscription reads:
Here lies the dust
Soviet air squadron commander
volunteers heroically deceased
in the war of the Chinese people against
Japanese invaders,
Gregory Akimovich Kulishenko
(1903 - 1939)

Sources of:
In the sky of China. 1937 — 1940. - M., 1986.
Polynin F.P. Combat routes. - M., 1972.
Sino-Chinese War 1937 — 1945 on the Khronos project
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  1. velikoros-xnumx
    velikoros-xnumx 19 July 2013 08: 13
    "Yes, the heroes were not a match for us. They got a bad share, few returned from the battlefield."
  2. pinecone
    pinecone 19 July 2013 08: 59
    The attack of the Third Reich on the USSR and the beginning of the hostilities of Japan against the USA and England in the Pacific Ocean worsened the attitude of the Kuomintang government towards Moscow - the Chinese believed that the USSR was doomed, so they quickly reoriented themselves to cooperation with Western countries. In the years 1941-1942.

    The decisive role in curtailing relations with the Kuomintang China was played by the signing on April 13, 1941. The neutrality agreement between the USSR and Japan.
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 19 July 2013 10: 19
      Not really, dear colleague Alexey. By the end of 1939, all volunteers were withdrawn from China. Advisers remained, but only in the military formations of China's controlled or allied communist paties. The reason is the Kuomintang’s reorientation towards Western countries, and, to put it mildly, non-partner (sometimes hostile) attitudes towards our people. In this period, the contradictions between the Gomendanovites and the Communists in China again intensified, up to and including armed clashes.
  3. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 19 July 2013 10: 47
    Thanks for the memory! ..
  4. omsbon
    omsbon 19 July 2013 12: 50
    Interestingly, how many credits did China gobble up? What amount?
    And whether it was necessary to give them the last, because by and large they turned out to be ungrateful t in a r and m.
  5. Drosselmeyer
    Drosselmeyer 19 July 2013 13: 20
    In Sevastopol there is a street of General Khryukin. So in the 90s they wanted to rename it because of the lack of soundness of the surname.
  6. Rakti-kali
    Rakti-kali 19 July 2013 15: 10
    Quote: omsbon
    Interestingly, how many credits did China gobble up? How much? And was it necessary to give them the last, because by and large they turned out to be ungrateful t in a r and m.

    These, as you write "ungrateful creatures" fettered significant forces of the Japanese for almost 13 years. And they paid for this not in dollars or rubles, like the USSR then or the USA during WWII, but with their lives.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 19 July 2013 15: 20
      And for this they were driven to Taiwan? It didn’t work out well.
  7. Middle-brother
    Middle-brother 19 July 2013 15: 25
    my friend's grandfather served in China after the war, during the Korean War. From the grandfather there was a certificate of honor, which was presented to him by the grateful)) Chinese. The son of an acquaintance is now studying at school, like with a "Chinese" bias, he brought him there to see this letter. It turned out to be signed by Mao himself. We appreciated our pilots.
  8. polly
    polly 20 July 2013 00: 49
    Thanks to the author for the interesting article. As soon as I saw the title of the article, I remembered the book that I had read as a child "The Legend of Kuli-Shen" - this is how the Chinese called our squadron commander Grigory Kulishenko!
  9. Volodya Sibiryak
    Volodya Sibiryak 21 July 2013 00: 12
    And where did the Kuomintang form of the Hitlerite form come from? Or just helmets?
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 21 July 2013 00: 30
      The Germans actively collaborated with the Chinese before the war.
  10. Denis
    Denis 21 July 2013 01: 00
    What does this machine have to do with it, the author confused it with the SB?
  11. 28 July 2013 15: 34
    For privacy reasons, the identification mark on our aircraft was the image of Mickey Mouse
  12. Kostya pedestrian
    Kostya pedestrian 15 September 2014 15: 36
    It’s interesting if one of the historians of the Air Force lovers reads, can you tell me what kind of part of the diving Ju-87 bombers had on the sides a drawing resembling either a Japanese spot or an advertisement for a bacardi rum.

    The logo can be seen in the Hollywood blockbuster "Enemy at the Gate", it is interesting that they attacked a barge, where in the first frame the officer looks somewhat like the younger George W. Bush. And in the following plot, you can see an almost new car of the "Military Hospital". Just a very similar copy is shown on the wiki page next to Her Majesty Elizabeth 2, when she served, as I understand it, in the British Army in the Red Cross.

    It’s interesting that Khrushchev already came to Britain to break up. By the way, my grandmother said that our village suffered the worst damage from Khrushchev, worse than the Bolshevik food surplus during the famine, when it was necessary to help workers.

    By the way, the same flag could be seen in Melbourne opposite the monument to Stella 888 Labor.

    By the way, these are not the anti-SU-100s that our Yak-42 caught on with the Lokomotiv team?

    D3A from the aircraft carrier "Shokaku", returning from the bombing of the Enterprise on August 25, 1942, Mitsubishi Kinsai engines 43, 1000 hp 1-tonner, manufacturing company Aichi:

  13. Kostya pedestrian
    Kostya pedestrian 15 September 2014 16: 19
    To calm the veteran of the Great Patriotic War "Papanov with a grenade", I figured out a sniper. I flipped through about a Mazda that is named after some Zaroostrian bull, and came to the Japanese classification Kei car, K-car, or kei jidōsha (軽 自動 車?, Lit. "light automobile"). For which special numbers are indicated. So, in the frame, the butt of a rifle with some kind of knobs, exactly like this woman in the frame near Suzuki, R.

    I almost forgot, the same classification also includes cars that the Adelaide real estate company presented to its customers Smart Car.

    It’s dangerous to talk about the leader of the Mazda Jujiro Matsuda (1921–1951), you know Area 51, Hangar 18, aliens, Aliens from other worlds - they will immediately be taken to the madhouse.

    But at the Ki-People Smart Car I would like to know: I lived on Annette Street, and if you read not “judges” - Mazda dealers (celmz), but aliens like byjgkfytnzyt, I would like to ask - the itch after Hiroshima and Nagasaki probably passed, but how do your Fukushima still itch, or send PLO to you?

    Well, let's arrange "The Incredible Adventures of Italians in Australia"?

    By the way, when my friend from Adelaide helped me find out about tests for the French Legion, the former Royal ADF military officer, Michael, was stolen from him by Nissan Patrol and burned .... not the same people burned Skyscrapers in New York, and now they burn our Donbass?