The Yalta Conference, held in February 1945, for almost half a century defined the borders and internal structure of Europe. In fact, it was thanks to the decisions of the “Big Three” - Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt - that Europe in the subsequent 45 years lived without wars, which has never happened before or after 1945. Today it is fashionable to talk about the details of the discussion of political problems in Yalta, but the purpose of this material is different, affecting the technical support of holding such a strategically important event as the Yalta Conference of the 1945 of the year.
WE GUARANTEE FULL SAFETY
Negotiations for a meeting of the Big Three began in the late autumn of 1944. The president of the United States proposed Northern Ireland, Cyprus, Athens, and Malta as the venue for the conference. The British Prime Minister, in turn, called Alexandria and Jerusalem. However, Stalin was adamant - only the southern coast of the Crimea! Then the Allies expressed serious concern about the security of their leaders in Crimea. After all, the peninsula was completely liberated from the Germans only 9 May 1944, and there could remain "enemy agents".
Stalin responded very categorically - the Soviet government guarantees complete security of the conference. During the war, Stalin fulfilled all his promises to the allies, and now they had to agree.
In this regard, there are two very interesting questions. First, did Churchill and Roosevelt know about the eviction of the Crimean Tatars from 18 to 20 in May of 1944? This question is constantly raised by our liberals, but they do not give a clear answer. I argue that both Western leaders were aware of the eviction of the Tatars and did not object to this.
By the way, neither the British nor the Americans prevented the savage reprisals of the “last day guerrillas” over all who collaborated with the Germans or even were suspected of having fought in France in zones controlled by the military administration of the allies. There, women accused of having an affair with the Germans were taken naked through the streets of cities and villages, beaten and often killed. In a situation like this, it would be inappropriate to resent the Crimean Tatars sent to Central Asia accompanied by medical personnel, and who were given loans and employment on the spot, to put it mildly.
I will quote a completely secret report by Ivan Serov and Bogdan Kobulov to the People's Commissar of the NKVD Lavrenty Beria: “Only 180 014 people evicted, immersed in 67 echelons ... In total during the operation, withdrawal: mortars - 49, machine guns - humanists - 622, machine guns - apes, asp. - 724 9888 Pieces.
This armament is about two wartime rifle divisions (without artillery regiments). But for three days security officers were engaged in the eviction of the Tatars, and not the search weapons on caches. It is clear that the mortars were kept at home only not by the hefty clever characters. The rhetorical question: how much weapons did the Crimean Tatars have?
The second question is even more curious - what happened to the Maritime Army, which, together with other armies, liberated the Crimea and Sevastopol? As already mentioned, the last Germans surrendered at Cape Chersonese 9 in May 1944 of the year, and 20 in May of the same year. The Maritime Army is withdrawn from the 4 of the Ukrainian Front and reports directly to GHQ.
Usually they did this when the army had to perform some special task. But the Maritime Army not only remained in the Crimea until the end of the war, but after 9 in May, 1945 continued to stand there, and later became the base for organizing the Tauride Military District (VO).
Our military historians write that the Maritime Army on May 1945 of the year "defended the coast of Crimea". The question arises - from whom she defended?
Tatars, as mentioned above, 20 May 1944, already evicted. In August-September 1944, Romania and Bulgaria were occupied by Soviet troops and declared war on Germany. All German ships in the Black Sea were sunk or captured.
9 September 1944 The State Defense Committee (GKO) announced the cessation of hostilities in the Black Sea, that is, from this time the entire Black Sea coast - allies of the anti-Hitler coalition, plus Turkey, which took the position of benevolent neutrality to the USSR.
The Black Sea Fleet, including parts of the marine corps, was deployed in Crimea. Old ones were restored and new coastal batteries were built. Since April 1944, large forces of the NKVD troops were in the Crimea. The question arises - what was the Primorye Army doing there, which included three corps, two separate divisions, two separate naval rifle brigades, the 57th separate anti-aircraft defense division, tank and anti-aircraft parts?
In the west were heavy fighting. Not like a division, every battalion was counted. And then the first-class armed army, battle-hardened, "sunbathes" in the Crimea?
Or maybe Stalin planned a conference in Yalta already in May, for the sake of which he left the Primorsk army? No, of course, in May 1944, no one thought about the conference in Yalta. Yes, and do not need the Maritime Army for the protection of the "Big Three". In addition, the Maritime Army remained in the Crimea after the end of the conference.
I would venture to suggest that Stalin planned to conduct some big operation on the Black Sea. It is not difficult to guess that its purpose could be the straits. This is the only reasonable explanation of the "great standing" of the Maritime Army in Crimea. Naturally, if the plan of this operation has not been destroyed until now, then we will not see it for a long time.
But back to the conference. 8 January 1945 of the year issued an order № 0028 USSR Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR Lavrentiy Beria "On special events in the Crimea." To implement the security measures approved by this order, a special headquarters was created, which was headed by the deputy secretary of the interior, state security commissioner 2 of the rank of Sergei Kruglov. The leadership of the headquarters included First Deputy Chief of the 6 Directorate of the USSR NKGB Commissar of State Security 3 of the rank Nikolay Vlasik (head of Stalin’s personal security) and head of the Crimea Air Defense, Lieutenant General A. Lavrynovych.
To ensure a safe meeting, thousands of Soviet, American and British security and safety officers, as well as ships and aviation Black Sea fleet and the US Navy and the United Kingdom. On the US side, the Marine Corps participated in the protection of the president.
The secret services of the three countries called the meeting of the “Big Three” the operation “Argonaut”.
It is curious that in 2012 in the Republic of Belarus a report on the activities of the internal troops of the NKVD of the Belarusian Military District (BelVO) for 1945 was declassified. They mention, among other things, the “KGB military operation ... to ensure the meeting of the leaders of the three great powers, which was supposed to take place in Minsk,” in which the 34 motorized rifle, 135 and 287 rifle regiments, as well as the 1 and 2 artillery divisions participated motorized rifle divisions. This operation was a “misinformation” for the German and Polish special services interested in disrupting the conference. Indeed, in January, 1945, in Belarus, there were dozens of gangs controlled by the Germans and the command of the Home Army.
I note that the press got information about the conference only after 15 February 1945, and the allied governments of France, Kuomintang China and other countries also learned about the conference and its decisions post factum.
January 27 The People's Commissar Beria, 1945, in a memo to Stalin suggested using the Saki airfield in 65 km north-west of Simferopol to receive distinguished guests. This airfield was built in 1930-s, and from November 1941 to mid-1942, German engineering units built here from reinforced hexagonal plates with a side of 1,3 m two runways of the length 1400 m and 1000 m. the aerodrome as a spare was planned to use the airfields Sarabuz (Crimea), Gelendzhik (Tuapse region) and Odessa. To refuel the aircraft in Saki, 1500 and aviation fuel were supplied and the required quantity of aircraft oils.
20 January 1945, the Saki airfield was examined by American General Hill. According to him, "the airfield is fully prepared to receive aircraft of the American and British delegations, and separate premises provide for the needs of the flight personnel."
The Saki airfield's air defense system comprised 155 anti-aircraft guns, including seven 85-mm cannon batteries, two Vickers 40-mm batteries and four 37-mm automatons. The fire control was provided by the radar "RUS-2" and the gun-laying station SON-2. The air defense batteries of the aerodrome were designed to conduct seven-layer fire to a height of up to 9000 m, aimed fire - to a height of 4000 m and barrage - to a distance of 5 km to the airfield.
The Saki airfield fighter aviation of the airfield consisted of 32 aircraft, including six night fighters, and two fighter aviation regiments as part of the Yak-55 9 aircraft, which could be used to protect Saki airfield, were based on the Sarabuz airfield.
To enhance the air defense of Saki and Sarabuz airfields, the naval air force command called out fighter and 90 24-mm small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery guns from other 85 aircraft units.
BIG AND SMALL CAUSES
The choice of Yalta for the conference was due to many large and small reasons. For example, Stalin promised Churchill to visit the grave of his grandfather, Duke of Marlborough, who was killed during the Crimean War in the battle of Balaclava. An extremely important factor was the presence in Crimea of a large number of beautiful and cozy palaces, in which it was possible to accommodate participants of not one, but three or four conferences.
December 21 1920, Vladimir Lenin signed a decree on turning the Crimea into an all-union health resort. In the spring of 1925, a sanatorium was opened for peasants in the imperial palace in Livadia, and by 1935, the 51 sanatorium was already functioning in the Crimea. Capacity - 125 thousand people per year. By 1940, 100 health resorts were built, and the capacity was increased to 3,5 million people per year. All these royal palaces and sanatoriums of Soviet construction, which the German invaders did not have time to destroy, and were given to accommodate the delegations of the United States and England, as well as their attendants.
The guard of honor is preparing to meet high-ranking foreign guests. Photo of the US National Archives and Records Administration
For the conference itself, a large and comfortable Livadia Palace was chosen, built in 1908-1911 for the rest of the Nicholas II family. And since President Roosevelt could not move on his own, he was given rooms in the Livadia Palace itself. Churchill was given a residence in the "English style" - the palace of Count Vorontsov in Alupka, and the Yusupov Palace in Koreiz became the residence of Stalin, built in the style of a modernized Italian Renaissance by talented architect Nikolai Krasnov.
However, the choice of residence for Stalin and Molotov was due not to the beauty of the palace, but to the presence of a huge wine cellar, carved deep in the rocky soil. No, no, neither Joseph Vissarionovich, nor Vyacheslav Mikhailovich abused alcohol during the conference. Just a basement after a small alteration was ... bomb shelter, inaccessible to any Luftwaffe bombs.
Allegations of liberal journalists that Stalin de only slept in a bunker on an iron bed, sucked from the finger. Stalin rested exclusively in the large bedroom on the second floor of the palace - he himself was and he saw.
As for the wine, it was in abundance. The fact is that even 9 April 1944, the commander of the German troops in Crimea, Colonel-General Erwin Eneke issued an order to destroy various property during the retreat of the German troops. According to the order, the railways, harbors, airfields and communications were subject to destruction, but the same order stated: “Alcoholic beverages should not be destroyed, but left to the Russians. Practice shows that when they capture such trophies, their advance slows down. ”
The wineries of the Southern Coast of Crimea remained intact, but vigilant security officers thwarted the enemy’s cunning plan. Urgently, a special maneuver group was created on the basis of the Lenin regiment of the NKVD 95 order, which even before the Red Army units approached the cellars of the Massandra winery and the cellars of a number of other state farms. Then, the “maneuverable group within a month carried out the task of guarding the wine cellars” from the units of the Primorye Army and partisans. Only in Massandra saved 1 million liters of high-quality wine.
Roosevelt hardly drank wine, Churchill preferred 10-year-old Armenian brandy “Dvin” with 50% alcohol, but members of the American and British delegations, as well as their guards and service personnel, absorbed the Crimean wines rescued by the Chekists.
PROTECTION IN ACTION
The Soviet delegation arrived by train from Moscow to Simferopol 1 February 1945. Stalin went by car to the South Coast of Crimea immediately, and Molotov remained to meet the American and British delegations.
The President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Great Britain flew to the Crimea from Malta on the night of February 3 by different planes. In total, 30 transport aircraft and 36 escort fighters landed in Saki on this day. Throughout the flight, the aircraft maintained radio contact with the Crimea. At a certain point over the Black Sea, they were met by Soviet fighters and escorted to the airfield itself, after which they turned around and flew for the next one. And so more than four hours. The first to arrive was Churchill, an hour later - Roosevelt.
Dozens of ships, boats and even submarines of the Black Sea Fleet were set up on the air route from the port of Burgas to the Crimean coast in the Sak area, so that in the event of an aircraft accident, immediately rescue passengers. 586 English and American pilots were placed in the buildings of the Saki clinical sanatorium them. N.I. Pirogov.
The Yalta district air defense provided 76 85-mm anti-aircraft guns, 120 anti-aircraft guns of the 40-37 mm caliber and 99 12,7-mm machine guns during the event. Any aircraft that appeared over the conference area was to get off immediately.
The parking of the American and British ships and ships was Sevastopol, where fuel, drinking and boiler water supplies were created, berths, lighthouses, navigation and anti-submarine equipment were brought into proper condition, additional trawling was conducted in bays and along the fairway, and a sufficient number of tugs were prepared. Similar work was carried out in the port of Yalta. On the horizon near Yalta, the cruiser Voroshilov constantly loomed. There was no need for him. But he demonstrated the power of the Black Sea Fleet and “revived” the seascape.
The security guards of the conference were carried out by the 6 administration (Department for the Leading Personnel Management of the Party and the Government) of the NKGB, which sent officers specially trained to carry the 500 guards to the Crimea. In addition, about 1200 people operating NKGB officers who arrived in the Crimea from Moscow and other major cities, engaged in counter-intelligence support of the conference.
To directly ensure the safety and security of the conference participants, the entire area of their stay and movement was divided into five operational sectors: Saki – Simferopol, Simferopol, Simferopol – Alushta inclusive, Alushta – Yalta – Baidar gates inclusive, Baidary – Sevastopol. To regulate traffic on the roads along the entire route of these sectors, a special battalion was sent from Moscow. Highway security was provided by personnel at seven checkpoints — 1800 employees, 783 operations officers, and 10 interpreters.
During the passage of the motorcade of delegations participating in the conference along the whole route of their movement, the rest of the movement was stopped, and tenants were evicted from the houses and apartments leaving the road - they were replaced by state security officers.
To guard the conference, in addition to the 290 of the Novorossiysk motorized rifle regiment of the NKVD of the USSR stationed in the Crimea, several more regiments of the NKVD troops were sent, including the 1 and 2 motorized rifle regiments of the 1-th separate motorized rifle division of special purpose named F.E. Dzerzhinsky troops of the NKVD of the USSR, a separate regiment of special-purpose troops of the NKVD of the USSR, the 281 th rifle regiment of the internal troops of the NKVD of the USSR (separate units), the 32 th frontier regiment of the NKVD of the USSR to protect the rear of the existing Red Army, motorcycle squad (120 people) battalion military controllers and several armored trains of the troops of the NKVD of the USSR, as well as five companies of government communications troops of the NKVD of the USSR.
For the protection of Stalin, together with the Soviet delegation in the Yusupov Palace in the village of Koreiz, 100 security officers and a battalion of NKVD troops in the number of 500 people were assigned. For foreign delegations arrived with their own security and security services, the Soviet side allocated external guards and commandants for the premises they occupied. At the disposal of each foreign delegation were allocated Soviet automobile units. And this measure paid off.
Among the American guards, one of Roosevelt’s bodyguards stood out. It was a two-meter negro. He carried Roosevelt along with a stroller on the stairs. But in an unforeseen situation, Roosevelt was not saved by him, but by an employee of the NKVD.
During the president’s departure from the Livadia Palace, bodyguards transplanted Roosevelt from a wheelchair to the front seat of the Willis open-air car. Once due to negligence, they loosely closed the support rails specially designed for the paralyzed Roosevelt, which suddenly moved wide when moving along the serpentine road, and the high-ranking passenger began to fall out. The American guard, who was sitting in the same car, froze in a daze.
From the almost inevitable death of Roosevelt was saved by his Soviet driver - State Security Lieutenant (position held - 1-category driver-intelligence officer) Fyodor Khodakov. He instantly reacted to the emergency situation and, having shown remarkable physical training, not tearing himself off the wheel with one hand, with the other grabbed the clothes of the president who had fallen out of the car and dragged him back into the car.
To facilitate the security regime, some of the delegations' personnel were stationed on Allied ships stationed on the roads of Yalta and Sevastopol.
In the areas around the palaces where the delegations were located, strict access control was introduced. Two rings of protection were established around the palaces, and with the onset of darkness the third ring was organized, where border guards patrolled with service dogs.
The park around the Livadia Palace was fenced with a four-meter fence. A guard appeared in the park paths, dressed in civilian clothes, depicting gardeners pruning trees. On the Yalta external raid out six ships.
Communication centers were set up in all palaces, providing communication with any subscriber, and employees who speak English (not including full-time foreign specialists) were attached to all stations.
At the conference, the "master" was Stalin. He managed to achieve almost all the goals. Of course, Joseph Vissarionovich was an intelligent and insightful politician, but the Red Army played a huge role in the success of Soviet diplomacy, which 12 in February 1945 of the year launched a decisive attack on the 700-kilometer front from Neman to Carpathians.
It is noteworthy that Churchill before the conference decided to scare "Uncle Joe", destroying the large German city of Dresden. British and American intelligence knew perfectly well that without exception, all Dresden anti-aircraft guns were removed from positions and sent to the Eastern Front for use as anti-tank guns, and the population of Dresden at the expense of refugees increased almost threefold. These two factors determined the choice of Dresden as a target. But the weather intervened in the premier’s plans, and the total three-day bombardment of Dresden by the strategic aviation forces of England and the USA began only on the night from February 13 to February 14, that is, after the end of the conference. It is curious that by February 13 the Soviet tank corps were only 80 km from Dresden.
Later, the British will blatantly lie that Stalin asked them to bomb Dresden at the Yalta Conference. Alas, neither Stalin nor any other Soviet commander addressed the Allies with such an insane request.
But the second factor that ensured Stalin’s diplomatic victory was the brilliant actions of Soviet intelligence and counterintelligence. Even Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky in their book “KGB” were forced to admit it: “The advantage of Stalin in intelligence information was just as significant. The NKVD had two reliable agents at the British Foreign Office — Donald MacLean at the embassy in Washington, who had the opportunity to report on the Anglo-American talks before the conference, and Guy Burgess, who in 1944 passed from BBC to the Information Department of the Foreign Ministry . The main source of the NKGB in the State Department, Elger Hiss became part of the Yalta delegation. Since the end of 1944, the deputy director of the special political actions department, he was directly involved in preparing the conference ... The Americans were placed in the former royal Summer Palace in Livadia, and the British - in 20 minutes away in Vorontsov Palace. An interception system was installed in both residences. Americans seem to have taken no precautions at all. ”
We can agree with the authors, with the exception of the last phrase. Among the accompanying Roosevelt and Churchill, counterintelligence was more than enough. The security officers carefully checked all the premises, including using the search system built-in microphones. Moreover, American and British agents constantly left their “bugs” in the premises where the conference was held, and almost everywhere where they were allowed to go. However, the NKVD officers quickly found them. True, this was never officially announced. So did the American and British intelligence agencies.
“As in Tehran, in Yalta, all premises occupied by the conference participants were equipped with listening equipment, but this was not limited to this,” writes Sergo Beriya, who was personally involved in the installation of the “overheard” in Tehran and in the book “My Father - Lavrenty Beria” Yalta - The new equipment allowed us to keep a constant recording of conversations not only in the buildings allocated for the American and English delegations, but also, say, in the park with the help of directional microphones. If the object of interest to us was at a distance of 50 – 100 m, there were no problems here. ”
In the end, our intelligence and counterintelligence agents helped Stalin to win the largest diplomatic victory in stories country. For comparison, we say that the “collegiate assessor on foreign affairs” ended the victories of the Russian army and people in the 1812 – 1814 war with the unsuccessful world for Russia at the Vienna Congress 1815. So, before the Yalta conference of 1945, the last diplomatic victories of Russia were due to Catherine the Great.