Military Review

How Stalin returned Klaipeda to Lithuania

16
Open small historical a secret. It turns out that Nikita Khrushchev, giving Crimea to Ukraine in 1954, took an example from no one but Comrade Stalin himself. Indeed, four years earlier, on May 20, 1950, Lithuania received the city of Klaipeda from the Russian Federation in approximately the same way. Likewise, without proper formalities and in violation of the Constitution of the USSR.


How Stalin returned Klaipeda to Lithuania


German city

It is important to note that at the time of the start of the Second World War, Klaipeda was called Memel, and did not belong to Lithuania, but to Germany. This city was founded by German knights in 1252 year and more than six centuries was part of Prussia. After World War I, the Memelsky (Klaipeda) Territory was occupied by French troops, and in 1923 passed to Lithuania with the active assistance of Soviet Russia.

In March 1939, Adolf Hitler presented an ultimatum and forced Lithuania to abandon Klaipeda. Although according to an international treaty, the United Kingdom and France guaranteed the status of Klaipeda region and were obliged to intercede. However, the President of Lithuania, Antanas Smetona, after a five-hour meeting with the generals and ministers decided to, nevertheless, give Klaipeda to Nazi Germany. The Germans promised to provide Lithuanians with a few berths for rent, so that they could also use the port. In case of refusal, Hitler threatened to occupy the whole country. If the Lithuanians had fought for their port city, the Second World War would have started half a year earlier here, and not in Poland. After all, Britain and France were obliged to intervene. Then, most likely, there would not be the notorious Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact ...

The threats of Hitler to seize the whole of Lithuania were later implemented by Joseph Stalin. In the summer of 1940, Lithuania lost its independence and was annexed by the USSR. 22 June 1941 was the Soviet-German border between Memel (Klaipeda) and Palanga. That is why after the war, this land was formally considered to be German territory occupied by the Soviet Army. An indirect confirmation of this can be found even in the modern works of Lithuanian historians. There, for example, they cite a document that describes the abuses of the Soviet occupation forces. The rear teams allegedly took cattle away from local peasants and sold it in Lithuania. From this it follows logically that Klaipeda region right after the war did not belong to Lithuania. That is why there were almost no forest brothers and the Lithuanian anti-Soviet resistance movement.

Leader's interest in the non-freezing ports of the Baltic

Surprisingly, the German non-freezing ports on the Baltic — Königsberg and Memel — interested “the leader of all peoples” Comrade Stalin at the beginning of the war. After the defeat of the Germans near Moscow, the Supreme Commander of the Red Army was in euphoria and believed that the war would soon end, and Hitler, like Napoleon, would be thrown out of his native land in a few months. Therefore, the plans for the partition of Germany, the USSR began to build in December 1941 year (!!!). It was then that Joseph Stalin held talks with Anthony Eden, who headed the British Foreign Office. The Soviet side prepared a secret protocol to the draft treaty on joint actions of the two countries. in which it was proposed to divide Germany into a number of independent states, to separate East Prussia, and transfer part of it with Koenigsberg and Memel to the USSR for a period of twenty years as a guarantee of compensation for losses incurred by the Soviet Union from the war with Germany (Source: "USSR and the German Question. 1941- 1949 ", v. 1, M., 1996, p. 138).

The secret protocol was never signed, but in August 1945, the Berlin (Potsdam) conference of the three great powers approved the transfer of part of East Prussia to the Soviet Union, including Königsberg and Klaipeda (Memel).

In the postwar years, the future of East Prussia was rather vague. Therefore, at first there was little that was built, and good German bricks from the numerous ruins of Koenigsberg were taken to the construction sites of Moscow and Leningrad. According to the memoirs of the veterans, it was not even ruled out that Koenigsberg would have to be returned to Germany in the future. Probably, Stalin took into account this possibility and several years after the end of the war he decided to change the status of Memel-Klaipeda in order to leave at least one non-freezing port in the Baltic for the USSR.

Cunning operation in two moves

It was not so easy to return the Klaipeda region to the Republic of Lithuania. Probably, fearing international complications, the transfer of the city of Lithuania was not particularly advertised either then or later. She was skillfully hidden behind a smoke screen of the administrative division reform. The transfer of Klaipeda to Lithuania was carried out quite cleverly and carefully. And not abruptly, but smoothly in two steps. First, in 1948, a law was adopted on the administrative-territorial division of the Republic of Lithuania, in which the Klaipeda region was mentioned for the first time. But this did not mean at all that the city at that moment really belonged to Lithuania. After all, Vilnius in 20-30-s according to the Lithuanian Constitution was considered the capital of the country, although in fact this city was captured by Poland and was located on its territory. Therefore, the temporary capital was then in Kaunas. A similar situation developed after the war with Klaipeda. Klaipeda region was also considered Lithuanian, although in the first post-war years it did not belong to the republic, but existed as a separate administrative unit of the Russian Federation.

In 1948, the great powers of the United States and England did not react in any way to the formal violation of the status of Klaipeda region as an occupied German territory. Perhaps they were too busy with the cold war and simply did not notice the new law of the Lithuanian SSR, where the Klaipeda region was mentioned. The influence of the Lithuanian lobby in the USA, which was interested in the return of the port city of Lithuania, cannot be ruled out either. After waiting for loyalty a couple more years, Joseph Stalin issued the transfer of the city of Lithuania already at the all-union level.

20 May 1950, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a decree according to which a number of regions were formed within the Lithuanian SSR, including the Klaipeda region, which was thus separated from the Russian Federation. Everyone tried to do quietly. For the sake of this, they even went to a formal violation of the USSR Constitution, in accordance with which the territory of the Union Republic - in this case, the RSFSR - could not be changed without its consent. The transfer of territory from one republic to another required the consent of the Supreme Soviets of the two republics, approved by a decree of the same Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet. But such procedures were not performed. That is why the legal act on the transfer of the Klaipeda region to Lithuania was not drawn up. Apparently, the instruction of Comrade Stalin made Soviet officials turn a blind eye to all formal violations. And then in 1954, about the same pattern, Nikita Khrushchev transferred Crimea to Ukraine.

No accession documents, but there is a contract

The absence of a legal act on the transfer of Klaipeda to Lithuania was also recognized by the former President of Lithuania, Algirdas Brazauskas. He stated in 1990 year that “after the war there are no official documents on the accession of Klaipeda region to the territory of Lithuania ...” (Source: Sovetskaya Lithuania newspaper from 08.03.1990).

For obvious reasons, in Soviet times, the fact of the final transfer of Klaipeda to Lithuania 20 in May 1950, was ignored. Although indirect evidence is sufficient. For example, it is known that the city newspaper Sovetskaya Klaipeda (now the newspaper Klaipeda) was published in Russian only since 1945. In 1950, it was combined with the Lithuanian county newspaper "Raudonasis Švituris" ("Red Beacon"), and only then, after 5 years after the end of the war, did it begin to be published in two languages.

In the post-war years, only the Russian Drama Theater operated here, in which the famous Anatoly Papanov began his artistic career. A Lithuanian theater appeared in Klaipeda only in the 50-ies. The Russian theater disappeared after that ...

In international legal terms, the status of Klaipeda and the Kaliningrad region was finally confirmed by the recognition by all participants of the Helsinki meeting 1975 of the principle of inviolability of borders and the signing of the Final Settlement Treaty in Moscow by the foreign ministers of Germany, GDR, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States. in relation to Germany. As well as the signing by the President of Russia Boris Yeltsin and the President of Lithuania Algirdas Brazauskas of the border treaty of 12 of the year, securing the modern borders between Russia and Lithuania.

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http://www.klaipeda1945.org
16 comments
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  1. radio operator
    radio operator 22 March 2014 09: 51
    +4
    On 20 of May 1950 of the year, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a decree according to which a number of regions were formed as part of the Lithuanian SSR, including Klaipeda region, which was thus separated from the Russian Federation. Everyone tried to do it quietly. For the sake of this, they even went for a formal violation of the Constitution of the USSR, according to which the territory of a union republic — in this case, the RSFSR — could not be changed without her consent. The transfer of territory from one republic to another required the consent of the Supreme Soviets of the two republics, approved by decree of the same Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces. But such procedures were not performed. That is why the legal act on the transfer of the Klaipeda Territory to Lithuania was not drawn up. Apparently, the instruction of Comrade Stalin forced Soviet officials to turn a blind eye to all formal violations.


    Interestingly, but the Lithuanians know about this? And then they have Stalin - the horror story №1

    1. Fedya
      Fedya 24 March 2014 23: 13
      0
      Today, on March 24th, it was exactly 75 years since they presented Klaipeda to the Führer!
  2. RoTTor
    RoTTor 22 March 2014 09: 55
    +9
    Cleverly done. Lithuanians did not and will not say thanks to the USSR. And they will never return voluntarily. They are still fed due to Russian exports and international transit through the Russian Federation.
    1. parus2nik
      parus2nik 22 March 2014 10: 59
      +9
      For Vilnius, they don’t say thanks either ...
  3. parus2nik
    parus2nik 22 March 2014 10: 54
    +8
    Hitler's threats to seize the whole of Lithuania were later realized by Joseph Stalin. In the summer of 1940, Lithuania lost its independence and was annexed by the USSR. That is, the referendum, held, incidentally, not by the communist government, but quite democratic, was not legal, were the Russian occupiers on a par with Hitler? But Hitler brought freedom to the Baltic ..? in 1941. And it turns out that the Baltic SS men really fought for freedom and independence .. Here are such conclusions from the line above ..
  4. mithridate
    mithridate 22 March 2014 11: 47
    +6
    yes, the Baltic rats have something quiet about Klaipeda so quietly ...
  5. Cossacks
    Cossacks 22 March 2014 11: 52
    +5
    In a nightmare, Stalin could not think about the fate of Russia prepared for such garish lads like Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Gorbachev. Each of them laid a mine under Russia. Who is stupid, and who is deliberate. Yeltsin, a stupid and childishly gullible people, fell in love with a child that he was kicked out of the Politburo, then fell off a booze from a bridge and against the backdrop of the morbid Gorbachev and the constant lamentations of our eternal brothers who had made my bunker of my bones. So do not drag Stalin here. The basis lies in the shitty national policy laid down by Lenin and his associates with the Jews.
  6. nnz226
    nnz226 22 March 2014 11: 53
    +6
    Well, the goat, the first prize of Russia, signed a lot of what papers, including the agreement with Rohland in 1997, where he gave Crimea to Svidomo. Nothing - they returned him to Russia! You can try with Klaipeda, so that Lithuania does not show off or demand an enormous monetary compensation for the transferred port and territory, in response to Lithuanian screams about the "Soviet occupation"!
  7. Artem1967
    Artem1967 22 March 2014 12: 26
    +9
    It's all lousy. Surely the young Lithuanians did not hear anything about the transfer to Lithuania by the evil Stalin of Vilnius and Klaipeda. And how many near Memel in 1945 our children died! Twice Hero of the USSR Colonel Nelson Stepanyan was shot down during the assault on German ships in the port in April 1945. Eternal memory to the heroes and the shame of the current perverts from history!
  8. igordok
    igordok 22 March 2014 13: 13
    +3
    Lithuania demanded to punish initiators of Klaipeda branch

    In Lithuania, they demanded that the authors of the petition be held accountable for the secession of the Klaipeda Territory and its accession to Russia. It is reported by REGNUM. A statement was made by the chairman of the parliamentary commission on national security and defense Arturas Paulauskas.

    “Speaking specifically about trying to tear off part of our territory, this is an article of the Criminal Code, which provides that punishment is punished for actions that encroach on territorial integrity,” he said. “It is up to the Department of State Security (DGB) to establish who organized this provocation.”

    A colleague of Paulauskas, a member of the defense committee Arvydas Anushauskas, according to Delfi.lt, in turn, urged the prosecutor's office to immediately institute criminal proceedings on this matter.

    In turn, the Department of State Security of Lithuania, in connection with the appearance of the petition, urged citizens to "pragmatically evaluate such initiatives and not give in to provocations." The secret service recalled that calls for violating the integrity of Lithuania are treated as a crime.

    Earlier, according to REGNUM, an appeal was circulated in Lithuanian social networks calling for joining Klaipeda Territory to the Russian Federation. It argued that the local Russian-speaking population was discriminated against. Justifying the proposal for joining the Russian Federation, its authors noted that in 1945 in the battles for East Prussia, of which the Memel (Klaipeda) region was a part, more than one hundred thousand Soviet soldiers died. A corresponding petition was also posted on avaaz.org.

    REGNUM at the same time notes that the text contained grammatical and stylistic errors. It contained expressions such as "the world of all in the world" and "a happy ethnic future." According to the agency, the text was not written by a native speaker of the Russian language. RuBaltic.Ru, in turn, considers the appeal "stuffing."

    Klaipeda Region is the historical name of the territory that was part of East Prussia. It corresponds to a part of modern Klaipeda county, bordering Russia.

    http://lenta.ru/news/2014/03/12/lithuania
  9. sv68
    sv68 22 March 2014 13: 22
    +5
    near Klaipeda there is a small resort town of Palanga — in88 we fired there. A familiar businessman told me that now there is a complete mess, everything is started and stolen. And so they gave these lands to their bast shoes Russian lands
    1. Fedya
      Fedya 24 March 2014 23: 10
      +1
      Well, to put it mildly exaggeration! Palanga has changed in order, I was 87th and three years ago, the difference is obvious! The only thing that hurts the eye, an unfinished hospital! And so instead of camping, which was at the entrance to the city, there is now an elite area of ​​mansions, many new built houses in the direction of Liepaja, the city is well-groomed, but expensive, and the sea is bullshit! Green. More I go there for no gingerbread.
  10. Goldmitro
    Goldmitro 22 March 2014 13: 52
    +5
    <<< And then, in 1954, Nikita Khrushchev transferred Crimea to Ukraine using approximately the same scheme. >>>
    The scheme may be the same, but essentially comparing these events is the same as, roughly speaking, comparing F ... PU with the FINGER! If there (Klaipeda region) it was a question of a newly acquired territory (with a not yet clear future) inhabited by defeated Germans and Baltic states, then transferring Crimea to Ukraine, without asking anyone how estates with serfs, Crimea are pearls in the crown of Russia, which Russians mastered and for which they paid a huge price - a blatant injustice and a crime that only a tyrant like the Ukrainian nationalist Khrushchev could have committed and IT CAN NOT BE JUSTIFICATION!
  11. RUSS
    RUSS 22 March 2014 14: 02
    +1
    Surprisingly, the German non-freezing ports on the Baltic — Königsberg and Memel — interested “the leader of all peoples” Comrade Stalin at the beginning of the war. After the defeat of the Germans near Moscow, the Supreme Commander of the Red Army was in euphoria and believed that the war would soon end, and Hitler, like Napoleon, would be thrown out of his native land in a few months. Therefore, the plans for the partition of Germany, the USSR began to build in December 1941 year (!!!). It was then that Joseph Stalin held talks with Anthony Eden, who headed the British Foreign Office. The Soviet side prepared a secret protocol to the draft treaty on joint actions of the two countries. in which it was proposed to divide Germany into a number of independent states, to separate East Prussia, and transfer part of it with Koenigsberg and Memel to the USSR for a period of twenty years as a guarantee of compensation for losses incurred by the Soviet Union from the war with Germany (Source: "USSR and the German Question. 1941- 1949 ", v. 1, M., 1996, p. 138).


    Quite interesting information, if this is true, then how Stalin was still mistaken.
  12. Ivan Fufaikin
    Ivan Fufaikin 22 March 2014 14: 28
    -3
    an article from the category of Jonas argued with Hans now everyone should boots
  13. parus2nik
    parus2nik 22 March 2014 16: 30
    +2
    When they write about the "annexation" of the Baltic States ... they forget that in 1918-1919 there were Soviet republics in the Baltic States, and not just bourgeois ones ..
  14. I think so
    I think so 22 March 2014 23: 16
    +2
    A liberoid article ... The myth that "Khrushchev gave up the Crimea" is firmly planted in the minds of the Russians ... And all this is through the efforts of Yeltsin's team. But in fact, it turned out that the Crimea is pros.r.a.l for Russia kakraz Yeltsin signing papers in Viskuli ... And to Kravchuk's question - "What are we going to do with Crimea", the drunk replied - "Oh, take it." So here, in this article, the myth about the transfer of Klaipeda is being exaggerated ... All the "transmissions" then took place INSIDE THE EMPIRE, but the signing of a destructive pact by Yeltsin in Viskuli really and REALLY led to the loss of Ukraine and Lithuania and Klaipeda. In the article, again, the p.o.s.s.r.a.v.sh.i.e realistically territory, the liberals are trying to shift all the blame for their stupidity on the one who really COLLECTED LAND FOR RUSSIA. Again I am convinced of the falsity and venality of the majority of the Russian media disseminating FALSE.
    1. rate
      rate 24 March 2014 05: 59
      0
      You want to say that Khrushchev really collected the land of Russia? Yeltsin, yes, the bastard was in a hurry: The Supreme Council of Ukraine agreed to ratify the Bialowieza decisions only under the conditions: 1) From now on and forever, the borders of Ukraine and Russia remain unchanged, regardless of whether Ukraine will remain in the CIS or not.
      2) All types of armed forces located on the territory of Ukraine are transferred under the jurisdiction of Ukraine (after which Kravchuk declared himself commander in chief).
      This means that the status of Crimea and Sevastopol, and all regions of Ukraine with the overwhelming Russian population - we are not discussing. And this means that the Black Sea Fleet and nuclear strategic weapons in Ukraine are withdrawing to it.

      http://alex-serdyuk.livejournal.com/16677752.html
      But Khrushchev designed the borders.
  15. voliador
    voliador 23 March 2014 00: 58
    +1
    An indirect confirmation of this can be found even in the modern works of Lithuanian historians.

    Well, this is such a compelling argument ... laughing fool
  16. xomaNN
    xomaNN 23 March 2014 19: 09
    0
    Shaw, behind Crimea again on "K" - Klaipeda? winked
    1. Prohor
      Prohor 24 March 2014 08: 16
      0
      Come on, Klaipeda! I remember that "K" was taken onstantinople - so let's start with him! laughing
  17. Bixas
    Bixas 23 March 2014 23: 35
    0
    Quote: sv68
    near Klaipeda there is a small resort town of Palanga — in88 we fired there. A familiar businessman told me that now there is a complete mess, everything is started and stolen. And so they gave these lands to their bast shoes Russian lands

    Your familiar businessman, you can see in Palanga was 89 after your shooting :) A normal, clean and well-groomed town, the majority of tourists from Russia and Belarus in the summer. True, the owners of bars, restaurants and hotels are now very worried that the number of vacationers from these countries may decrease from recent events.
  18. Ilya
    Ilya 6 February 2015 14: 30
    0
    Therefore, at first, little was built there, and solid German bricks from the numerous ruins of Koenigsberg were taken out to construction sites in Moscow and Leningrad.


    Are you serious? For 800-1000 km to transport brick dust?