Military Review

Grenade launcher "Karl Gustav" will become the standard armament of the US Army

56
Grenade launcher "Karl Gustav" will become the standard armament of the US Army

Saab has announced that the Karl-Gustav mobile anti-tank grenade launcher (M3 MAAWS in the USA) has been included by the United States Department of State in the list of official procurement (Program of Record).


This means that a portable grenade launcher, which has been used by the US Special Operations For a long time, will now become the standard armament of light infantry units of the US Army.

The inclusion of the M3 “Karl Gustav” grenade launcher in the official list will make it possible to more quickly deliver this weapon to the troops. As expected, the Karl-Gustav grenade launcher will fully satisfy the requirements of the US Navy for this type of weapon.

According to the Saab company, the customers of the Karl-Gustav grenade launcher, the first version of which was put into service in the 1948 year, are currently around 40 countries. Famous customers include the armed forces of Australia, Austria, Belize, Venezuela, Germany, Ghana, Denmark, India, Ireland, Canada, Lithuania, Malaysia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, the USA and Japan.

Over a long period of time, the weapons system has been continuously upgraded to meet new requirements.

The current version of the M84 3-mm grenade launcher is an easy-to-recharge weapon system with a weight of about 10 kg (without IR sight).

M3 is capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 1,3 km using various types of ammunition, including high-explosive fragmentation, anti-tank cumulative, high-explosive fragmentation dual-use.

Currently, Saab is developing a new lighter version of the Karl-Gustav grenade launcher. The development of a new ammunition, which received the designation HEAT 655 CS (for Confined Spaces - for closed space), was recently completed.
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http://www.armstrade.org/
56 comments
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  1. lelikas
    lelikas 21 March 2014 13: 08
    +5
    All the same, advertising on Discovery worked !!!
  2. VNP1958PVN
    VNP1958PVN 21 March 2014 13: 13
    -7
    They spin something all the time. It painfully looks like a cut-off SPG-9 ... And they still wanted to start up with the inspection ...
    1. Nevsky_ZU
      Nevsky_ZU 21 March 2014 13: 24
      +3
      3 is capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 1,3 km,


      I understand Russian RPG-30, does not have such a range? what If its main tandem rocket is taken from RPG-29 "Vampire", is there a limit to 500 meters? I am glad then that the RPG-30 has a simulator for the passage of active protection of the tank, and the Swedish product does not. But the Swedish but universal as ours RPG-32 for ammunition. By the way, what is the range of the RPG-32 "Hashim"? what

      In general, let us go head to head with anti-tank technologies ....
      1. Horst78
        Horst78 21 March 2014 13: 37
        +7
        Quote: VNP1958PVN
        VNP1958PVN Today, 13:13 PM New
        They spin something all the time. It hurts like a cropped SPG-9 ..
        In general, this sample is many years old. Remember the movie "Soldiers of Fortune". There, Dolph Lungren ran with him (the Swede still laughing ).

        Quote: Nevsky_ZU
        Nevsky ZU Today, 13:24 ↑ New
        3 is capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 1,3 km,

        As I understand it, the Russian RPG-30 does not have such a range? If its main tandem missile is taken from the RPG-29 "Vampire", is there a limit of up to 500 meters? I am glad then that the RPG-30 has a simulator for the passage of the active protection of the tank, while the Swedish product does not. But Swedish, on the other hand, is universal, like our RPG-32 for ammunition. By the way, what is the range of the RPG-32 "Hashim"?

        M3 "Karl Gustav" is still more an example of reducing the breech-loading rifle recoilless (dynamoreactive) gun to the size of an RPG. In some sources, it is still called a recoilless anti-tank rifle - this is the name of the weapon developed by Abramson back in 1941, the scheme of which formed the basis of the RPG Karl Gustav. hi How are you doing in the memory?
        1. Nevsky_ZU
          Nevsky_ZU 21 March 2014 14: 17
          +1
          Not really ... I'll have to retreat to the East ..
          1. Horst78
            Horst78 21 March 2014 14: 35
            0
            Just be careful. Good luck.
          2. aleks 62
            aleks 62 21 March 2014 15: 22
            +2
            Come to us in the Crimea ..
          3. tilovaykrisa
            tilovaykrisa 21 March 2014 22: 25
            0
            Mine all retreating and wells of grass.
      2. Rus86
        Rus86 21 March 2014 13: 42
        +3
        Something of doubt is the range of destruction of this unit. as I read in many reviews and on specialized sites, our RPGs shoot at 200, well at 300 meters, and here 1,3 km, as I think, is hardly achievable for light, portable vehicles.
        1. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 21 March 2014 14: 13
          +17
          Our RPGs also shoot themselves at a mile and a half, but at such a range you won’t even get an elephant in the ass, but just like from any other grenade launcher. In general, an RPG, any, even ours, even not ours, is a melee weapon and is designed to defeat the enemy at a distance of half a kilometer. Long range shooting is a cheap show.
        2. cdrt
          cdrt 21 March 2014 14: 27
          +5
          Quote: Rus86
          Something of doubt is the range of destruction of this unit. as I read in many reviews and on specialized sites, our RPGs shoot at 200, well at 300 meters, and here 1,3 km, as I think, is hardly achievable for light, portable vehicles.


          Karg Gustav - rifled (!!!!) :-)
          It is really an analogue of British or German recoilless rifled barrels (times 40-50s). Therefore, the range is large
          1. Rus86
            Rus86 21 March 2014 14: 35
            +1
            but surely, but I didn’t notice the elephant) thanks, we’ll take it into account.
          2. aleks 62
            aleks 62 21 March 2014 15: 37
            +2
            Accuracy depends on the rifling, and the distance from the propellant charge .... Getting to a range of even 1000m from a rifled to a standing tank is a big problem (you need to consider a bunch of corrections - derivation, wind speed, and fixing on the shoulder is not hard)
        3. aleks 62
          aleks 62 21 March 2014 15: 27
          +4
          There is an aiming range, but there is a maximum range of a shot ... So the aiming range is always less than the maximum .. For example, the Mosin rifle is an aiming range of 1000m, and the maximum is 5000m ... Yes, and I doubt that even using optics, the aiming range of this device is more than 500m , then there’s just no sense (the grenade flies rather slowly, and there is wind, the target moves ... in general, there is almost no accuracy at such a distance ..)
          1. anomalocaris
            anomalocaris 22 March 2014 05: 51
            0
            Bad example. The Mosin rifle has a notched scope of up to 2000m.
      3. kind
        kind 21 March 2014 14: 21
        +10
        As I understand it, the Russian RPG-30 doesn’t have such a range?

        He doesn’t need such a range, because uncontrollable grenade, the probability of hitting the target by 1,3 km. very small, especially if the target maneuvers, and even a side wind. Even anti-tank missiles at such a range, not everyone will fall.
      4. cdrt
        cdrt 21 March 2014 14: 24
        +2
        Quote: Nevsky_ZU
        3 is capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 1,3 km,


        I understand Russian RPG-30, does not have such a range? what If its main tandem rocket is taken from RPG-29 "Vampire", is there a limit to 500 meters? I am glad then that the RPG-30 has a simulator for the passage of active protection of the tank, and the Swedish product does not. But the Swedish but universal as ours RPG-32 for ammunition. By the way, what is the range of the RPG-32 "Hashim"? what

        In general, let us go head to head with anti-tank technologies ....


        Nostril to nostril in the PT weapons we go or not here at all to do with it.

        Karl Gustav, after all, is no longer a new system and is not being adopted as an anti-tank (of course, he can shoot tanks), but as an anti-bunker weapon.
        For tanks, the Americans in almost every branch of Javelin.
        But on the window of an apartment or a shed, firing from an ATGM of 3 generations is very expensive, and AT4 - nevertheless, the range is very small.
        Actually, the KG special forces use it as anti-bunker.
        1. Bersaglieri
          Bersaglieri 21 March 2014 14: 53
          +1
          In the Russian Army, this RPO-A and RShG occupy this niche. True with a shorter range.
          1. beard999
            beard999 21 March 2014 17: 10
            0
            Quote: Bersaglieri
            True with a shorter range

            In Russia there is another portable infantry weapon besides the ones listed above. Moreover, it is much more ergonomic in use than the Carl Gustaf M3, which is NOT equipped weighs about 10 kg, and the sound pressure level when fired near the head of the grenade launcher reaches 184 dB ...
            For example:
            RPO-2 "Prize" ("Bumblebee-M") with a thermobaric shot (curb weight - 8,8 kg, maximum range - 1700 m).
            http://www.kbptula.ru/index.php/ru/razrabotki-kbp/strelkovo-pushechnoe-i-granato
            metnoe-vooruzhenie / ognemety / rpo-pdm-a-shmel-m
            MGK “Bur” with a thermobaric and high-explosive / high-explosive / fragmentation high-explosive shot (loaded weight - 5,0 kg, maximum range - 950 m).
            http://www.kbptula.ru/index.php/ru/razrabotki-kbp/strelkovo-pushechnoe-i-granato
            metnoe-vooruzhenie / granatomety / bur
            And for closer distances, the choice is even greater: RShG-1 "Tavolga-1", RShG-2 "Aglen-2", MRO-A "Borodach", SPO "Varna-S", RMG "Zanos", TBG-7V Tanin, TBG-7VL Don ...
      5. orizonti
        orizonti 21 March 2014 14: 29
        +5
        Karl-Gustav has a fairly low armor penetration and it is almost impossible to hit the target by 1.3 from it, it's just PR.
        1. inkass_98
          inkass_98 21 March 2014 14: 46
          +3
          Caliber grenade, 84 mm, so of course, we are not talking about great armor penetration. The declared range is also doubtful, because the grenade is uncontrollable, so this is clearly an excess characteristic. So only, to indicate your presence and to lead the harassing fire.
      6. tilovaykrisa
        tilovaykrisa 21 March 2014 22: 19
        0
        Hashim is about 600-700 m from visibility (sighting), there is no infrared collimator current sensor that, for example, in fog or with poor visibility gives a maximum of 200 meters of effective range, the cost of a shot is different, the Gustav standard is more than 5 times more expensive than ours. Everything is as usual with us, the German tiger was, in principle, better than the T34, but it was more complicated and broke more often and much more expensive in production.
  3. Lesnik
    Lesnik 21 March 2014 13: 15
    +2
    Are funny. The question then is why do they use RPGs in hot spots? although they did not accept it.
  4. Dragon-y
    Dragon-y 21 March 2014 13: 18
    +7
    RPG - to a fig, and it is cheaper ...
  5. ikken
    ikken 21 March 2014 13: 21
    0
    Grenade launcher "Karl Gustav" will become the standard armament of the US Army

    "... and for the Indians we give Javelin
    1. Hort
      Hort 21 March 2014 14: 05
      +8
      Javelin is an ATGM, a slightly different weapon
    2. SkiF_RnD
      SkiF_RnD 21 March 2014 15: 46
      0
      Well, why minus. The fact that the Javelin ATGM is understandable. The bottom line is the price winked
      1. cdrt
        cdrt 21 March 2014 16: 04
        0
        Quote: SkiF_RnD
        Well, why minus. The fact that the Javelin ATGM is understandable. The bottom line is the price winked


        The essence of the appointment and cost / effectiveness.
        Javelin - against tanks, KG - anti-bunker (actually this is how it is used by the MTR)
        1. SkiF_RnD
          SkiF_RnD 22 March 2014 11: 08
          0
          The essence of the appointment and cost / effectiveness.
          Javelin - against tanks, KG - anti-bunker (actually this is how it is used by the MTR)
          I'm sure the bottom line is the price. Yes, you ask a person to whom you are minus. I’m talking about a specific comment, and what for efficiency?
  6. VADEL
    VADEL 21 March 2014 13: 22
    +2
    Currently, Saab is developing a new lighter version of the Karl-Gustav grenade launcher.

    In the photo you can see that one grenade launcher holds, and two hold it so that it does not fall or blow off. laughing
    1. aleks 62
      aleks 62 21 March 2014 15: 40
      +3
      Heavy, however (10 kilos) .... Tyb tried to vilify "Strela" on his shoulder (16 kilos) ....
  7. Vtel
    Vtel 21 March 2014 13: 24
    +5
    And we’ll bend them with this.
    The performance characteristics of the RPG-32

    Grenade launcher caliber, mm - 105
    Weight grenade launcher with a sight, kg - 3
    Length, mm - 900-1200
    Range of aimed shooting, m - 700
    The thickness of the pierced armor after overcoming DZ, mm - 650

    Carl Gustaf m / 86 - M3
    Caliber 84 mm 84 mm
    Type dynamoreactive (recoilless) dynamoreactive (+ rocket accelerator on some types of grenades)
    Length 1130 mm
    Weight (with telescopic sight) 9.5 kg
    Effective range of 150 meters for moving targets
    700 meters on fixed targets
    1000 meters for stationary targets when using active-reactive grenades
    Penetration more than 500 mm + dynamic protection
  8. Lost
    Lost 21 March 2014 13: 25
    +1
    Well, they won’t be able to move now! The uniforms on each soldier are 35 kg, so some have 10 kg on top, and the second has ammunition. It’s no wonder that they can’t cover long distances on foot. Facilitated the enemy shooting of US soldiers.
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 21 March 2014 14: 29
      +1
      Quote: Perso
      Well, they won’t be able to move now! The uniforms on each soldier are 35 kg, so some have 10 kg on top, and the second has ammunition. It’s no wonder that they can’t cover long distances on foot. Facilitated the enemy shooting of US soldiers.


      Yes, they only do everything for this laughing
      Actually the statistics of the losses of their army, this clearly confirms laughing
    2. tyumen901
      tyumen901 21 March 2014 14: 36
      +4
      Well ... in the RF Armed Forces, some also carry a kilogram of 35-40 ... and not one day ... and even run)))
  9. Flibustiero
    Flibustiero 21 March 2014 13: 27
    +3
    Around one agitation! RPG-7 is a reference and standard. There is nothing deliberate! Trumpet and grenade, I doubt that they thought up something else in SAAB am
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 21 March 2014 14: 14
      +8
      Quote: Flibustiero
      Around one agitation! RPG-7 is a reference and standard. There is nothing deliberate! Trumpet and grenade, I doubt that they thought up something else in SAAB am

      Airtronic (USA) launches its RPG-7 version. It is called the Mk.777, the same magnificent seven, only a carbon fiber barrel with a thin-walled steel liner and weighs only 3,5 kg. (Classic RPG-7 weighs 6,3 kg.), Accordingly, the entire range of shots from RPG-7 is suitable for him.
      1. Manul
        Manul 21 March 2014 16: 06
        0
        Quote: Nayhas
        only the barrel is carbon fiber with a thin-walled steel liner and weighs only 3,5 kg. (Classic RPG-7 weighs 6,3 kg.), Accordingly, the entire range of shots from RPG-7 is suitable for him.

        what And then can we do carbon fiber? Or are there no such technologies?
        1. Nayhas
          Nayhas 21 March 2014 20: 20
          0
          Quote: Manul
          And then can we do carbon fiber? Or are there no such technologies?

          I think just no one demands, and do they produce them with us?
  10. Romch
    Romch 21 March 2014 13: 27
    +7
    We have something to answer soldier
    1. lelikas
      lelikas 21 March 2014 13: 33
      +4
      Quote: RomCH
      We have something to answer

      50 years on guard of good!
    2. cdrt
      cdrt 21 March 2014 14: 29
      +5
      Quote: RomCH
      We have something to answer soldier


      Why not Topol-M?
      Like an article about RPGs?
  11. sazhka4
    sazhka4 21 March 2014 13: 28
    -3
    "DEMOCRACY" and rushing? Black (o) pye with the Head must be friends .. Schas Abassuss.
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 21 March 2014 14: 30
      +2
      Quote: sazhka4
      Right now, abassussion.


      This is visible. repeat
      it was possible not to notify everyone of their physiological state laughing
      And what does the political system have to do with it?
      An article about an old good RPG, no?
  12. kafa
    kafa 21 March 2014 13: 34
    0
    sorry for the military from america. president of a lump, they are beaten up by tramps; the rest are joking about bosses or thieves or homosexuals. very sorry mexican-african-american and other repeat judging by the minuses, Russian teachers are not in vain eating their hamburgers
  13. starhina01
    starhina01 21 March 2014 13: 56
    0
    The M3 is capable of hitting targets at ranges of up to 1,3 km using various types of ammunition, including high-explosive fragmentation, anti-tank cumulative, dual-use high-explosive fragmentation. : interesting at such a range what is the accuracy of this device? It is hard to believe that this unit meets the specified parameters! it will be heavy! We always find a worthy answer to the latest developments soldier
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 21 March 2014 14: 16
      0
      Quote: starhina01
      interesting at such a range what is the accuracy of this device?

      Higher than classic RPGs thanks to the rifled barrel.
  14. polite people
    polite people 21 March 2014 14: 07
    +2
    We have something to answer. soldier
  15. Starover_Z
    Starover_Z 21 March 2014 14: 16
    0
    Interestingly, does this device "Abrams" stop or is it designed only for infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers?
    1. SkiF_RnD
      SkiF_RnD 21 March 2014 15: 49
      0
      On board it is possible, on board abrams any device stops, although if it is with an onboard DZ, then it is not clear. Of course not, with his caliber.
  16. bootlegger
    bootlegger 21 March 2014 14: 20
    +1
    The effective range according to the nomenclature of most ammunition, for this grenade launcher, does not exceed 700 m. And only for lighting and smoke more than 1300.
    In general, the penetration of a cumulative shot directly depends on its caliber, while a rifled, recoilless gun has to be pulled in. Caliber 100 mm and more remain unattainable due to the weight of a thick-walled barrel.

    http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Gustaf
    It will be interesting to compare with the RPG-28
    http://weaponland.ru/load/granatomet_rpg_28_kljukva/61-1-0-266
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol 21 March 2014 17: 00
      0
      The US Army had previously adopted the Carl Gustav (AT4) disposable grenade launcher, but the special forces preferred the Carl Gustav recoilless gun. It turned out to be better, because it makes it possible to get more shots with less weight (AT4 weighs about 6,8 kg). It turned out to be easier to carry one “Carl Gustav” weighing 8,5 kilograms and a bunch of rockets of 2,2 kilograms each, than the same number of disposable grenade launchers.
      1. bootlegger
        bootlegger 21 March 2014 19: 10
        0
        Well, I don’t know. Maybe they are conservatives, and they just like the concept of RPG-7? smile
        Although I saw only one ammunition weighing 2,7 kg - a shell with GGE (ready-to-use striking elements). The rest are 3,1 - 3,8 kg.
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 21 March 2014 19: 31
          0
          there is even 1,7 kg (FFV65), 2,2 kg (FFV551). There is also an over-caliber 135-mm cumulative grenade FFV597 weighing 8 kg with armor-piercing up to 900 mm - it is charged from the barrel, like an RPG 7. In total, a dozen different. charges
          Yes, and older than our RPG 7, he will be 15t-20t years
          1. bootlegger
            bootlegger 21 March 2014 23: 26
            0
            I haven’t found the shot distance for the FFV597 weighing 8 kg with an armor penetration of up to 900 mm. But I think no more than 200 meters for sure.
            For RPGs there is a tandem PG-7VR "Summary" / 7P28 with armor penetration DZ + 650 and certainly not much inferior to FFV 597 ...
  17. Nayhas
    Nayhas 21 March 2014 14: 32
    +1
    Swedes rule! The USA does not take a steam bath and buys a license from SAAB. And not only them.
    The same Karl ...

    And then AT-4 and NLAW
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 21 March 2014 15: 22
      +1
      Nayhas "The Swedes rule! The US does not sweat and buy a license from SAAB. And not only them.
      The same Karl ... "
      But they won’t sell us for anything. Do not worry, you have to get to everything yourself ... And intelligence, thank God, does not sleep.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 21 March 2014 15: 58
        +1
        Quote: Nagaibak
        But they won’t sell us for anything.

        Yes and no need. Karl is certainly interesting, but here the question is for the military whether they need such a tool, the SPG-9 will certainly be more accurate, but the pancake is "somewhat" larger.
        The AT-4 is no better than our grenade launchers, but the NLAW is good ...
  18. Partizan
    Partizan 21 March 2014 14: 47
    +2
    Range when shooting "milk" - 1,3 km
    Package Includes:
    1. Lip-feeding machine ...
  19. tlauicol
    tlauicol 21 March 2014 15: 37
    +4
    I read the comments ..mya ..
    Many compare Gustav with Hashim, talk about the useless range of 1000-2000 m, weight, etc. I will not say that the Swedish system is 60 years older than RPG 32. Take 10 anti-tank cartridges to Hashim and the weight of the system will exceed 60 kg. The Swedes simply chose a long rifled barrel and light ammunition, and our disposable cartridges for light PU. Hence the difference. Of the advantages of Hashima - armor penetration and small dimensions of a grenade launcher (if you carry it without charges). And the Swedes got a huge range and accuracy to the rifled barrel, the speed of the grenade is three times higher than that of the Seven, this also greatly affects this. Shmanki tanks ... - yes they crap shrapnel per kilometer, chemical munitions for two - that’s why the range. Plus a huge range of ammunition. High fire performance, the number of portable ammunition. Actually manual artillery. 48 years is not bad at all for development. Especially when you consider that 40 countries are buying it, but we really cannot accept Hashim
    1. Vtel
      Vtel 21 March 2014 15: 59
      0
      You can still drill.
      The Tula Instrument Design Bureau (KBP) has developed a new “Bur” grenade launcher with a thermobaric warhead

      The grenade launcher consists of two main components - a reusable firing control unit and rocket-propelled grenades in disposable transport-launch containers (TPK)
      The weight of the equipped grenade launcher is 4,8 kg, a separate shot in the tube - 3,5 kg. The maximum firing range is 950 m, the aiming range is 650 m, the minimum is 25 m. The grenade launcher includes a reusable launcher with a 7x optical sight.
  20. uzer 13
    uzer 13 21 March 2014 16: 35
    +1
    A peacetime grenade launcher — probably Karl Gustav must be called that. All of its advantages — a large range of ammunition — will immediately become a disadvantage in wartime. It is unlikely that the supply will be so well established. The laws of physics also still continue to work. The weight of the pipe cannot be reduced otherwise, the reactive moment that occurs when the projectile is twisted will tear it out of hand. For the same reason, the initial velocity of the projectile cannot be increased, which means that firing accuracy can be improved only within the range of 500-700m usual for grenade launchers due to the rotation of the grenade. Further, the projectile enters a steep section of the trajectory with all the ensuing consequences. Without a laser rangefinder and a ballistic table, you can not do.
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol 21 March 2014 16: 52
      +1
      this "peacetime grenade launcher has been at war for decades" and its weight continues to decrease: 16,5 - 14 - 9,5 - 8,5 - 4,5 kg. and range is needed for shrapnel, for example.
      no one talks about the "useless" range of an 85mm cannon of 15km, arguing that it only hits tanks at 1,5km?
  21. kafa
    kafa 21 March 2014 16: 51
    0
    Kick basalt in the priest to give money. wizards will create a very interesting hochma. and as an idea what it’s like to introduce into a standard cumulative shot just a striking element of tungsten carbide swept (behind the main charge) coaxially wink Well, a little more expensive can be taken from the old BPS. At us a grenade over-caliber militants at one time strengthened it by tying tolovy checkers ..... and what not to create a corset by the principle of a wire from champagne
  22. From
    From 21 March 2014 18: 11
    0
    The Metis-M was adopted as a replacement for the first-generation Metis, as well as the earlier Bassoons and Competitions. Russian man-made anti-tank missile complex of a company link with semi-automatic command guidance over the wires. The launcher has a mechanism for precise guidance on the target, which reduces the requirements for operator skill. Shooting can be conducted from prepared and unprepared positions from a prone position, from a trench standing, as well as from the shoulder. One of the main features of the Metis-M is the presence, in addition to a missile with a tandem cumulative warhead, a rocket equipped with a warhead of a volumetric explosion (thermobaric warhead), similar to the warhead of the Bumblebee flamethrower. Currently, for firing at night and in smokeless conditions, the complex can be equipped with a thermal imaging sight 1PN86VI "Mulat-115" ("Falcon" 2), developed by NPO GIPO1, with a range of up to 1,5 km. It is possible to shoot from an infantry fighting vehicle or an armored personnel carrier and from buildings (in the latter case, about 6 meters of free space at the rear is required).