Military Review

The most common flying radar - airborne aircraft

11
12 March NATO sent 2 aircraft to the borders of Ukraine with its DRLO and long-range radar detection and control aircraft, these were E-3A Sentry aircraft. E-3A ply in the airspace of Romania and Poland, mainly collecting information about the situation in the Crimea. In total, the North Atlantic Alliance has in Europe 18 aircraft type E-3A Sentry, which are based on the German airbase in Heilenkirchen under the registration of Luxembourg.


In Russia, such aircraft are commonly called airborne early warning and control aircraft (AWACS), but their designations are accepted abroad. There they are usually called AWACS - Airborne EarlyWarning and Control System (aviation early warning and control system) or AEW & C - Airborne Early Warning and Control (aviation early warning and control). Currently, 23 countries in the world have aircraft of this class, including Russia, USA, France, Great Britain, India, Israel, Thailand, Greece, etc. In total, there are more than 230 aircraft of this class worldwide.

Most often DRLOU planes are designed to collect information on air targets, but can also be used to detect ground targets. Their main advantage is the high power of radar equipment installed on board. With it, such aircraft can receive operational information about all enemy aircraft, without entering the zone of action of its air defense systems. Modern AWACS aircraft can detect and track air targets at a distance of up to 650 km, while the number of such targets can reach hundreds of units. With the help of these planes, it is easy to establish coordination of the actions of the Air Force and provide its troops with operational information about the enemy.


Workplaces of operators DRLOIU A-50U


Today, only one DRLOI aircraft, located at an altitude of 9 thousand meters, is able to control an area of ​​up to 312 thousand sq. Km. For example, the 3 of the American E-3C aircraft is able to provide permanent radar control over the entire airspace over Central Europe, with the detection zones of these aircraft intersecting each other. The use of AWACS aircraft makes Allied fighters less visible to the enemy, since they almost do not need to include their own airborne radar.

At the same time, the very high efficiency of such aircraft makes them a priority target for enemy fighters. For this reason, such planes very rarely fly without fighter jets or outside the range of the allied air defense system. Such aircraft are very vulnerable to fighter aircraft, since they are made on the basis of bulky passenger liners and military transport aircraft that are not highly manoeuvrable and are unable to effectively avoid missiles. In addition, the AWACS plane is a powerful source of radio wave radiation, which is characterized by its enormous size, so that such planes can be easily detected by enemy air defense radars. Below are the 5 of the most massive AEW aircraft in the world at this time.

E-2 Hawkeye

One of the oldest aircraft of this class in the world and one of the few machines that was originally developed as an AWACS plane. The aircraft was adopted by the US Navy in 1964 year. Currently, it is the most common type of "flying radar" in the world. Total order was released 200 aircraft of this type. The aircraft was exported to 7 countries of the world and managed to take part in a number of armed conflicts. Currently, the E-2C / D / K / T aircraft are in service with 5 countries - the USA, France, Egypt, Taiwan and Japan. As part of their Air Force and Navy 92 listed such aircraft.

The most common version in the world is E-2C. This aircraft is able to reach speeds of up to 598 km / h. With a wingspan of 24,6 m, length - 17,5 m and height - 5,6 m, its combat radius is 320 km. The aircraft can patrol the airspace for 4 hours. The crew of the aircraft consists of 5 man: 2 pilot and 3 operator DRLO. Its main weapons is a rotating antenna pulse-Doppler radar, which is installed in the fairing, located above the rear fuselage. Throughout the life of the aircraft is continuously upgraded, which allows it to remain in demand even after 50 years after adoption.



A passive detection system installed on the E-2C warns the crew about the exposure of an enemy radar at a distance of 2 times the radar range of the E-2C radar. The aircraft is able to detect airborne targets like "aircraft" at a distance of up to 540 km, and cruise missiles at a distance of up to 248 km. The first foreign customer aircraft became Israel. According to the Soviet military experts who took part in the fighting 1982 of the year on the side of Syria, it was the use of E-1978C airplanes purchased in 2 year that predetermined the success of the Israeli aviation in this conflict.

Currently, work is underway on an improved version of the aircraft E-2D. The US Navy expects to put this aircraft into service in the 2015 year, the Pentagon is counting on acquiring 75 such aircraft. All of them will receive a new APY-9 radar with an active phased antenna array, as well as a “glass” cabin, an integrated satellite communications system, etc. Currently, several aircraft have already been handed over to the military, they are undergoing a series of evaluation tests.

E-3 Sentry

The E-3 Sentry is the face of flying radars. The plane, which is recognized in many countries of the world. Speaking of AWACS, this particular machine is most often represented. Boeing began work on this aircraft in the first half of the 1970s. The aircraft was designed on the basis of the existing Boeing 707-320 cargo aircraft. The E-3 made its first flight in 1976, and the following year the aircraft was adopted by the US Air Force. In terms of prevalence, the E-3 Sentry is second only to its predecessor, the E-2 Hawkeye. In total, from 1977 to 1992, 68 aircraft of these types were produced. Their main operators are the US Air Force (31 aircraft), NATO European Command (18 aircraft), Great Britain (7 aircraft), Saudi Arabia (5 aircraft), France (4 aircraft). As part of the Royal Air Force of Great Britain, the aircraft received a new designation - AEW.1. The Japanese E-767 AEW & C, which were developed on the basis of the B767 passenger airliner, but using Sentry radar equipment, can be attributed to the same type of aircraft. In total, the Japanese Self-Defense Forces are currently armed with 4 such aircraft.



The E-3 Sentry is currently the only NATO Airborne Aeronautical aircraft. The basis of the AWACS complex is a very powerful all-round radar. The antenna is placed in the fairing located at the top of the fuselage on two supports at a height of 4,2 m above it. The diameter of the radome 9,1 m, thickness - 1,8 m. Thanks to this radar, the aircraft is able to detect targets above the horizon at a distance of 650 km, bomber-type targets at a distance of 520 km, small-sized low-flying targets at a distance of 400 km. The crew consists of 4 flight crewmen and 13-19 DRLO operators.

The wingspan of the vehicle is 44,42 m, length is 46,61 m, height is 12,73 m. The E-3 Sentry is able to reach speeds up to 853 km / h, and its combat radius is equal to 1600 km. In this case, the aircraft is in state on duty until 6 hours (without refueling in the air). The last modernization of the aircraft in service with the US Air Force, was made in 2009 year.

A-50

A-50 is the Soviet response to American AWACS. Aircraft DRLOIU A-50 was developed Taganrog Aviation Scientific-Technical Complex. Beriev. The development of the aircraft was in the middle of the 1970-s. The Russian “flying radar” is built on the basis of the common Il-76MD military transport aircraft. He first took to the air in 1978, in 1989, the aircraft entered service. A total of about 40 units were produced. Currently, the 29 A-50M / A-50U / A-50IE aircraft are in service with the Air Forces of Russia and India. The Russian Air Force has X-NUMX A-23M and 50 A-3U aircraft, and the X-NUMX A-50IE aircraft is serving in the Indian Air Force. The Indian version of the aircraft is based on the radar of the Israeli company Elta.



The DRLOU A-50 aircraft with a wingspan of 50,5 m, length 48,3 m and height 14,8 m is able to fly at speeds up to 800 km / h. The maximum duration of the flight is 9 hours; during patrolling at a distance of 1000 km, the flight duration is 4 hours. The aircraft was equipped with a pulse-Doppler radar installed in a round fairing above the aircraft fuselage. The aircraft is able to detect bomber targets at a distance of up to 650 km, fighter-type targets at a distance of up to 300 km, cruise missiles at a distance of up to 215 km, simultaneously accompanying up to 300 fighters. At the same time, the aircraft is able to detect ground targets at a distance of 30 km. The crew of the aircraft consists of 250 people, as well as 5-10 operators ARLO.

Currently, the A-50U aircraft are being supplied to the Russian Air Force. This is an upgraded version that has received fully digital equipment and a modernized radio engineering complex. Improved target detection performance in the rear hemisphere, as well as the ability to detect surface targets. The upgraded version has a smaller mass, a large number of simultaneously accompanied targets, as well as a higher comfort for the crew. On the plane appeared buffet with appliances and lounge crew.

KJ-200

Today, not much information can be found about the Chinese DRLOI KJ-200 aircraft. This aircraft has been developed since the beginning of the 2000-s. The first time the plane took to the air in 2005, in 2010, it was first lit at the exhibition, as a static exhibit. The aircraft was created based on the Y-8 military transport aircraft (a licensed version of the Soviet An-12). The Navy and the PLA Air Force ordered this aircraft in accordance with the requirement for the development of a low-cost DRLOI aircraft.



Aircraft KJ-200 is a different concept of placing radio equipment on board the aircraft. Instead of 3-x active phased antenna arrays, which are located a triangle inside the disk fairing over the aircraft fuselage (the same disk above the aircraft for which they are sometimes called "flying mushroom"), on the KJ-200 aircraft only 2 antennas that are installed in the dorsal plane box container. This design has its drawbacks - “dead” forward and backward viewing areas. Therefore, there is an assumption that additional antennas can be installed in the nose and tail parts of the aircraft.

The wingspan of the aircraft is 38 m, length - 34 m, height - 11,6 m. The aircraft can accelerate to a speed of 662 km / h and is in the air for about 10 hours. It is assumed that the aircraft is equipped with AFAR radar, created in the framework of the project GaoXin 5, which is located in the fairing over the central part of the fuselage. This radar is able to detect targets at a distance of 300-450 km. Currently, the aircraft is manufactured in series, but the exact number of units released is difficult to call. Evaluating the photos available on the network, one can speak of the presence in China’s arsenal of at least 3-like aircraft.

B737 AEW & C

The B737 AEW & C AWACS aircraft project takes its report from 2000, when the Australian Ministry of Defense ordered its development from the American concern Boeing. The plane made its first flight in 2004. The aircraft was adopted by the Australian Air Force in 2009. Currently, there are 6 such aircraft in the Australian Air Force, another 4 aircraft were ordered by Turkey (the first was delivered in early 2014) and South Korea (received at least 1 aircraft). In service with these countries, the aircraft received their designation Wedgetail (Australia), Peace Eagle (Turkey) and Peace Eye (South Korea).



The aircraft was designed on the basis of the B737-700IGW passenger liner. The aircraft was originally announced as a simplified version of the E-3 Sentry. The main radar of the aircraft is MESA (Multi-role Electronically Scanned Array, multi-purpose electronic scanning area). It provides a 360 degree viewing angle. This radar is installed on a pylon in the rear of the vehicle. The radar is able to track both airborne and surface targets. The detection range of air targets of the "bomber" type is 600 km, of the "fighter" type - 370 km, of surface targets of the "frigate" type - 240 km. The aircraft can simultaneously track up to 180 air targets, directing 24 fighters to them. In addition, the aircraft is equipped with electronic reconnaissance equipment that allows the B737 AEW & C to detect a radio wave source located at a distance of 9 km from an altitude of 850 thousand meters.

The wingspan of the B737 AEW & C is 35,8 m, length - 33,6 m, height - 12,5 m. The aircraft is able to reach speeds of up to 850 km / h and cover up to 6,5 thousand km without refueling. The aircraft crew consists of 2-3 flight personnel and 10 AWACS operators, each of the operators is able to work with its own target group.

Information sources:
http://lenta.ru/articles/2014/03/13/aewc
http://aviadejavu.ru/Site/Crafts/Craft20539.htm
http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-599.html
http://www.plam.ru/transportavi/vzlyot_2009_11/p20.php
http://www.military-informant.com/index.php/airforce/1337-kj-200.html
http://www.airwar.ru/enc/spy/b737.html
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11 comments
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  1. And Us Rat
    And Us Rat 20 March 2014 09: 19
    +7
    To heap:

    IAI Eitam CAEW
    The early warning radar detection and control system (Eitam) was developed by order of the Israeli Air Force based on the Gulfstream G550 aircraft. The range of the aircraft exceeds 10.000 kilometers, cruising speed is 900 kilometers per hour.
    The main element is the radar station (radar) EL / W-2085 (4 AFAR - 2 on the sides, and one in the nose and tail).
    Exact system parameters are not freely available.

    The first Eitam entered service with the Israeli Air Force in September 2006. Singapore became another customer of these AWACS aircraft; they ordered 4 aircraft with delivery up to 2010 year.




    Operator Workstations
    1. inkass_98
      inkass_98 20 March 2014 11: 16
      +1
      But what for Israel and Singapore DLRO aircraft with a range of 10 000 km.? On the one hand, it is clear - maybe 10 hours fly over the riddled Israel, and on the other - ????
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 20 March 2014 11: 23
        +5
        Quote: inkass_98
        But what for Israel and Singapore DLRO aircraft with a range of 10 000 km.?

        This is almost the same as the patrol time, but it cannot hang in one place.
      2. And Us Rat
        And Us Rat 20 March 2014 12: 16
        +2
        Quote: inkass_98
        But what for Israel and Singapore DLRO aircraft with a range of 10 000 km.?

        Except for the duration of the patrol? In two phrases - the potential of reach, so that there would be no bad ideas from different "admirers" of Israel and thoughts that they will remain unpunished due to their remote location. (For the same reason, Jericho-3 ICBMs fly to the DPRK, so that they would not think to shoot at us with something secretly ordered by Iran, for example)
        1. beard999
          beard999 20 March 2014 16: 39
          +2
          Quote: And Us Rat
          reach potential

          A very strange statement. First of all, where did you get the idea that the detection of ballistic targets is generally part of the CAEW Eitam aircraft? Judging by the location of its conformal antennas, it is capable of detecting precisely aerodynamic targets, and by no means BR. Secondly, from the DPRK to Israel, the distance along the shortest straight line is about 7500 km. At the radar EL / W-2085, the detection range of the CC to 370 km. Even purely theoretically, in order to detect the launch of a BR from the territory of the DPRK, and respond to it in time, CAEW must be near the Korean Peninsula. And this is practically impossible, because the Israeli plane cannot be reached there (by the shortest route - no one will pass it over its territory, and there will not be enough range to fly around). The maximum flight range of the G550 "Eitam" in open sources is indicated up to 10700 km. The practical radius of action, two times less, minimum.
          So if the DPRK suddenly decides to fire at Israel, the Eitam CAEW will certainly not interfere with it ...
          1. And Us Rat
            And Us Rat 20 March 2014 22: 46
            +1
            Quote: beard999
            Quote: And Us Rat
            reach potential

            A very strange statement. First of all, where did you get the idea that the detection of ballistic targets is generally part of the CAEW Eitam aircraft? Judging by the location of its conformal antennas, it is capable of detecting precisely aerodynamic targets, and by no means BR. Secondly, from the DPRK to Israel, the distance along the shortest straight line is about 7500 km. At the radar EL / W-2085, the detection range of the CC to 370 km. Even purely theoretically, in order to detect the launch of a BR from the territory of the DPRK, and respond to it in time, CAEW must be near the Korean Peninsula. And this is practically impossible, because the Israeli plane cannot be reached there (by the shortest route - no one will pass it over its territory, and there will not be enough range to fly around). The maximum flight range of the G550 "Eitam" in open sources is indicated up to 10700 km. The practical radius of action, two times less, minimum.
            So if the DPRK suddenly decides to fire at Israel, the Eitam CAEW will certainly not interfere with it ...

            You read me inattentively, the DPRK is mentioned for example, in conjunction with the reach of ICBMs, and launch from their territory is detected by satellites (we have access to USA satellites that globally monitor missile launches).
            The plane is completely unacceptable here, its task is to support military operations within a radius of 3000-4000 km from the borders of Israel.

            Py.Sy. - 370 km, detection of a fighter-class target, larger ones - further, radio sources - even further, in addition, the system has the option of focusing on a limited area - this gives either a more detailed picture at a standard range, or increases (somewhere on 30%) detection range in the selected sector.
  2. Nayhas
    Nayhas 20 March 2014 09: 31
    +4
    The topic is extremely interesting and relevant. There are some comments:
    On the last modification (which is already being produced in a small series (by their standards, of course)), the E-2D Hawkeye is equipped with radar with AFAR, on the E-2D, target designation and guidance of air-to-air missiles AIM-120 and ship-to-air SM-6 are implemented. In the first case, without turning on the radar of the fighter, in the second case, when firing at an air target flying beyond the horizon.
    The situation with the E-3 Sentry and B737 AEW & C. E-3 Sentry has become a hostage to its high cost, even after passing the Block 40/45 modification it actually has no future. The Boeing 707 base aircraft has not been produced for a long time, which complicates the operation of the machine and its cost, which makes it impossible to carry out a large-scale modernization with the installation of a new radar with AFAR. As a result, the car still seems to meet the requirements and it’s a pity to write off ... but there is a Boeing 737 AEW & Ct created on the basis of the commercial Boeing 737 with characteristics no worse than the E-3 Sentry, but much cheaper to operate and less basing requirements, besides having a radar with AFAR. In general, the Americans chose the way out of the 80s by modernizing the E-3 Sentry, while the whole world has already stepped into the 21st century.
    Well, somehow the most promising AWACS systems, based on business jets, were ignored.
    It:
    IAI G-550 CAEWS Israel, based on the Gulfstream G500 / G550

    Embraer R-99 Brazil, based on the Embraer ERJ-145

    DRDO AEW & CS India, also based on Embraer ERJ 145

    Also bypassed the issue of the approach in the use of base aircraft for AWACS. Almost the whole world uses passenger aircraft for this, and this is justified by their relatively low cost due to the already established mass production. We (and China) are doing them on the basis of a military transport aircraft (MTC), which is unreasonable due to the high cost of the MTC.
    And the last:
    the high efficiency of such aircraft makes them a priority target for enemy fighters

    A fighter can shoot down an AWACS aircraft only from a cannon because the radar power of an AWACS aircraft is quite enough to suppress the radar of a fighter. Not to mention the radar of missiles in and out of the A-WGGSN. I met an example when the A-50 completely blinded the MiG-31 and they could not determine where the A-50 was located at all.
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 24 March 2014 04: 22
      0
      A fighter can shoot down an AWACS aircraft only from a cannon because the radar power of an AWACS aircraft is quite enough to suppress the radar of a fighter. Not to mention the radar of missiles in and out of the A-WGGSN. I met an example when the A-50 completely blinded the MiG-31 and they could not determine where the A-50 was located at all.


      In fact, fighter jets also have IR-GOS.
      At the expense of the fighter’s aiming, it can also be guided from an AWACS aircraft or from the ground.
  3. sss5.papu
    sss5.papu 20 March 2014 11: 22
    +2
    Compare this article with the article in Lenta.ru on March 13. There are some changes from the original.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 20 March 2014 12: 26
      0
      Quote: sss5.papu
      Compare this article with the article in Lenta.ru on March 13. There are some changes from the original.

      Well, the author put the Tape as a source of information, although it was possible to make a richer article, the topic allows ...
  4. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 20 March 2014 12: 01
    +2
    On the Russian A-50U plane, a buffet with household appliances and a crew lounge appeared.


    The buffet and lounge are certainly great, but with a toilet, how? I ask, because on A-50M it was definitely not there, and flying with a bucket in the tail is less than average pleasure.
    1. And Us Rat
      And Us Rat 20 March 2014 12: 26
      0
      Quote: ivanovbg
      ... but how about the toilet? I ask, because on A-50M it definitely wasn’t ...

      As it is hard to believe. And what does the crew do on long-haul flights? belay This is not a maize. request
      1. Professor
        Professor 20 March 2014 14: 57
        +2
        Quote: And Us Rat
        As it is hard to believe. And what does the crew do on long-haul flights?

        When we were undergoing a course of diving training, when asked about handling a small need, we were told: "They don't take pussies as divers, and even more so ..." laughing
        1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Nayhas
      Nayhas 20 March 2014 12: 29
      +1
      Quote: ivanovbg
      The buffet and lounge are certainly great, but with a toilet, how?

      They wrote that there is (a dry closet is not a problem now), but again this is on the A-50U, and there are only two of them. And it’s not a problem to put a dry closet on the A-50, it doesn’t take up much space, and for one flight there will not be much amber ...
      1. ICT
        ICT 20 March 2014 15: 51
        +2
        76 and all its clones have a toilet, but it’s conditional (called one bucket for all)
  5. Peacemaker
    Peacemaker 20 March 2014 13: 31
    0
    Flying mushroom replenished with a flying bench :)
  6. washi
    washi 20 March 2014 13: 36
    0
    Sorry, but why didn't you mention MIG-31 in the article?
    Especially after modernization?
    1. Saburo
      Saburo 20 March 2014 14: 27
      +2
      Sorry, but where does the fighter-interceptor when the article on aircraft AWACS?
      1. Ascetic
        Ascetic 20 March 2014 16: 10
        0
        Quote: Saburo
        Sorry, but where does the fighter-interceptor when the article on aircraft AWACS?

        smile
        The AWACS aircraft illuminates their targets.

        During the exercises in the sky of Perm Territory, Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk Regions, MiG-31 fighters intercepted a link of conditional enemy aircraft, Colonel Yaroslav Roshchupkin, the head of the press service of the Central Military District (CVO), said on Tuesday.
        The targets were intercepted by the A-50 long-range radar detection and guidance aircraft.

        MiG-31 fighters destroyed conditional enemy aircraft
  7. gregor6549
    gregor6549 20 March 2014 16: 12
    0
    All AVKS with rotating mushrooms have a serious drawback - the weight of the antenna-turning device, which also works poorly at low temperatures. Because of this, the rotation speed of the antenna and, consequently, the rate of data update is very limited. In this regard, fixed antenna systems based on the PAR / AFAR are much more efficient
    1. Gregazov
      Gregazov 20 March 2014 16: 37
      +1
      Quote: gregor6549
      All AVKS with rotating mushrooms have a serious drawback - the weight of the antenna-turning device, which also works poorly at low temperatures. Because of this, the rotation speed of the antenna and, consequently, the rate of data update is very limited. In this regard, fixed antenna systems based on the PAR / AFAR are much more efficient

      Where does this information come from? When testing the A-50, there were no complaints about the rotary junction. And this is taking into account the fact that two antennas are located in the fairing (RA and RJ product). Moreover, I hasten to surprise you on the A-50 and E-3A are very similar waveguide-slotted headlamps. The beam is controlled in an elevation plane electronically, and in azimuth, mechanical rotation. The antenna rotation speed is limited by the energy ratios in the survey (beam width, time of coherent accumulation of the reflected signal, etc.), but not by the dimensions of the antenna.
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 20 March 2014 17: 10
        0
        Data from the foreign press. I don’t remember the source because it was a long time ago, but it was precisely those flaws that I mentioned that were emphasized. And we are talking about the mechanical rotation of the sickly antenna farm in the azimuthal plane, and not about the electron beam scanning in the elevation plane.
  8. Gregazov
    Gregazov 20 March 2014 16: 28
    0
    I can not agree with your (the author) classification of AK RLDN and AWACS and U. The names of the complexes clearly show that our Bumblebee directs fighters (there is a guidance navigator and a digital computer that solves the guidance problem on board), and E3A only accompanies the target and gives target designation. The guidance problem is solved on board the fighter. This is a fundamental difference between the complexes. For example, the E-3A does not directly direct a light fighter F16, but only through F15 on board which there is a computer capable of solving the guidance problem. Our A-50 induced even the MiG-21.
    1. 52
      52 20 March 2014 18: 37
      0
      I don't know about the MiG-21. but the MiG-23p was successfully guided. There were some modifications of the Lazur space station, and some minor ones.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  9. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 20 March 2014 18: 39
    0
    Sergey, can you write an article about the disappearance of the Malaysian Boeing 737. A myriad of satellites, radar, optoelectronic devices and the hell knows what else they are constantly watching over the air, but have lost the 300-ton whopper, on which there wasn’t even any stealth technology?
  10. Fedor
    Fedor 20 March 2014 21: 02
    +2
    They write that the A-50 was a response to the Omega AWACS. But AWACS itself appeared noticeably later than the Soviet AWACS system on a TU-126 carrier.

    After a large amount of testing and development, the Tu-126 DRLO system was approved by Decree of the USSR Council of Ministers 363-133 of April 30, 1965, as well as the orders of the MAP No. 075 dated May 15, 1965 and MO No. 041 was adopted by the country's air defense forces.


    Having made a request in the search engine "TU-126", you can get more details.
    1. Starover_Z
      Starover_Z 21 March 2014 01: 58
      0
      Thanks for the hint Arkady. I searched and immediately found the TU-126. Created in the mid-60s.
      I noticed him in my distant childhood in the film "Tracked Atom", he was shown there for a few seconds in a documentary clip.
      Nice apparatus, slender, unlike modern "Fat Belly" lol
      1. Fedor
        Fedor 21 March 2014 07: 52
        0
        I saw him for the first time in the then secret film about the Dnepr exercises in 1968.
    2. qqwerty
      qqwerty 24 March 2014 13: 57
      0
      In the states, for example, in 1958, the Holly Grumman E-1 "Tracer" was adopted.
  11. Pilat2009
    Pilat2009 20 March 2014 21: 21
    +1
    And how can you bring down this shnyaga if necessary?
    1. And Us Rat
      And Us Rat 21 March 2014 13: 00
      0
      Quote: Pilat2009
      And how can you bring down this shnyaga if necessary?

      Only a complex multilevel attack, in terms of complexity of execution, is about the same as sinking an aircraft carrier.