Military Review

The reunification of the Crimea with Russia and the processes of national self-determination in Europe: a new “spring of nations”?

The reunification of the Crimea with Russia and the processes of national self-determination in Europe: a new “spring of nations”?

The situation around the Crimea, which arose after its admission to the Russian Federation, for all its current international acuity, is not something completely extraordinary for the European part of the world. In the near future, the attention of the world community may switch to other, perhaps even louder and more unexpected events in terms of self-determination of the peoples inhabiting it.

It so happened that the basic processes of formation of national states in Europe took place after major wars in 70-ies. In the 19th century, Germany and Italy were recreated in this way, new states appeared in the Balkans. Then passed the rapid processes of state formation and the redistribution of borders after the First and Second World Wars. In the 1989-1992, the fourth and, as it seemed, the last wave of the emergence of states in Europe took place, coinciding with the end of the Cold War and the collapse of a number of federations that were part of the world socialist system. In the geographical space where three states (Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia) were in 1989, today there are 23, and from Kosovo and 24 countries. The entire Slavic world, for example, essentially went through the process of becoming a nation-state. Now there are exactly 13, the number, as is known, is unhappy, which gives some experts grounds to even talk about the need to increase it at the expense of the last, deprived of their own statehood and national expression of the Slavic people - Transcarpathian Rusyns.

The fourth wave was largely inspired by the Western grouping of states represented by the United States and other NATO countries, which used the energy of nationalism to weaken their geopolitical adversary. However, the peculiarity of this energy is such that it generates a chain reaction, which is then extremely difficult to stop. Over the past twenty years she has not gone out, and slowly smoldering, waiting in the wings. Two or three generations passed before, before the next territorial division began, but one was enough for a new era. There comes the fifth wave of national self-determination in Europe, not so tightly tied to the accompanying wars. At the same time, it acts in different directions. Some nations, this time mainly in the West, continue to divide, while others, beginning with Russia, on the contrary, unite. At the same time, the Crimea is mainly an echo of the unfinished processes in the 90s, and the main events, apparently, will very soon begin to take place in the “united” Europe itself. Although the Crimean referendum may also serve as a kind of catalyst here, but, in essence, this will be a return wave of the processes that the West itself once launched. Such are the quirks of the goddess of retribution Nemesis.

First of all, the national problems in those European countries that are now in the sphere of influence of the West and which are already a heavy burden on Brussels are again becoming aggravated. They are dangerous because of the greatest threat of forceful development of events. Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B and D) dream of recreating their national formation during the war of Herzeg Bosn or of joining Croatia itself. The Serbs did not at all abandon their plans for their Republika Srpska in B and D to become independent or become part of Serbia. Muslim Bosniaks, revolting on a social basis for several months, not only put forward economic demands, but also consider that their national question has not been completely resolved. Meanwhile, in Sanjak between Montenegro and Serbia, the regional Muslim autonomy movement would be happy to unite with its fellow religious from the north and create Greater Bosnia. The Serbs in Kosovska-Mitrovica are particularly inspired by what is happening in the Crimea and intend to significantly increase their pressure on Belgrade so that it does not leave them under the control of Pristina. Albanians from western Macedonia, who in the 1990 year proclaimed the Republic of Illyrid, now insist on giving it the status of a federal territory. In Bulgaria, the mood is growing that most of eastern Macedonia rightfully belongs to the Bulgarians. While Romania focused on the takeover of Moldova, the Hungarians, themselves “Sekkei,” who themselves had Hungarian passports and required the self-determination of a significant part of Transylvania as an understandable first step towards reunification with their “mother-homeland”, became more active. Similar ambitions of Hungarians are hatching against Slovakia and Serbian Vojvodina. In Poland, the official circles of which seem to be unconditionally supported by the current authorities in Kiev, at the expert level, ideas are being expressed as to whether the time has come for the return of the “Eastern Creces” (Western Ukraine) to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Separatism in Western Europe manifests itself in two forms: it is the rejection of existing state borders (in Belgium, Spain, Great Britain, Italy, France, Denmark, Germany) and the rejection of the European Union itself. A public opinion poll conducted in November in the UK in November showed that a large majority (2012%) would prefer to leave the EU. Prime Minister D. Cameron has already announced that a referendum on this topic will take place. In Germany, a similar survey showed a similar picture: 56% of Germans surveyed believe that they would be better off without the EU. Shouldering ever-increasing new EU commitments to save the drowning of Ukraine clearly reinforce this mood. And the inevitable general deterioration of the economic situation in Europe in the event of the introduction of full-scale sanctions against Russia is capable of putting this integration association at all on the verge of collapse. According to some scenarios, the EU future - for a single federal state, consisting of about 49 national states. This model is based on the ideas of the German politician from the Green Party of Daniel Cohn-Bendit (Daniel Cohn-Bendit) and the former Belgian Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt, the authors of one of the most popular manifestos for the creation of a federal Europe.

At the level of individual states, as many believe, the collapse of Great Britain is inevitable in the first place. According to Simon Thomas, one of the leaders of the Party of Wales, the referendum on Scottish independence, scheduled for 2014, will be an “icebreaker”, which will be held in all historical the provinces of the United Kingdom. “The declaration of independence will mark the collapse of Great Britain, the country we know today. Scotland is just the most obvious example. However, an equally interesting future awaits Northern Ireland and Wales. ” He believes that if Britain exits the EU, Wales should remain part of a united Europe. Before the Scottish referendum on independence, scheduled for September 18 with. Mr., not much time is left. They are closely watching what is happening in the Crimea. But counterinterest is appropriate. Why is it that what is allowed by one is not permitted to be done by others?

Germany is still braced by the inertia of the recent unification, however, in a more distant future, it does not have immunity from disintegration, since it is cut from too different parts, the colloquial dialects in which are further from each other than, for example, Russian and Ukrainian languages. More and more residents of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg are unwilling to feed "freeloaders" from subsidized German lands. Thus, a high-ranking member of the ruling Christian-Social Union (CSU), Wilfried Sharnagl, released a sensational book in which he tried to "wake up the Bavarian political establishment, which secretly has long been dreaming of independence."

In Italy, with 1960 – 1970-ies, the League of the North is gaining momentum, whose members dream of leaving “southern idlers, mobsters and hedonists,” and unite hardworking northerners into the Padan republic. Such ideas became especially popular with the onset of the crisis, when the central government demanded that the regions “tighten their belts” and help those in debt to the southern provinces. Separatist tendencies are gaining momentum in the Alpine region of Alto Adige (South Tyrol), populated predominantly by the Austrians and annexed to Italy after World War II. Venice, referring to the tradition of its medieval statehood, already holds a referendum on the creation of a new Veneto country.

In France, in Corsica, in Brittany, Alsace and other provinces, talk of autonomy and even separation from Paris is increasingly heard.

In Spain, Galicia and the Basque Territories are closely watching the movement of Catalonia towards independence. They are ready to rush in the same direction. The Catalan independence referendum is due to take place on November 4 of this year, despite the fact that the central authorities in Madrid declared their disagreement with its holding. Barcelona does not intend to retreat. Here, by the way, is another precedent for the Crimea.

Unsuccessful attempts to keep Flanders and Wallonia in Belgium seem doomed. The capital of the European Union, Brussels, risks becoming an entity with incomprehensible sovereignty.

Those who, far from the Eurasian continent on the other side of the ocean, contributed to the emergence of this energy of self-decay of the states located here, were guided by the principle of “divide and conquer” as old as the world! In the United States, of course, we would like to see the East and West of the continent disconnected. The fact that only the west of Eurasia can suddenly begin to break up, and the east will suddenly move in the opposite direction, was hardly included in their plans. In Washington, however, one was not taken into account. The right of nations to self-determination involves not only the separation of peoples who do not want to live together, but also the union of those who want it. Russia, having suffered from the negative energy of the disintegration imposed on it, finally chose for itself and began a different movement - towards consolidation. That is why such a fierce rejection in the White House causes what is happening now around Ukraine. The strategic plan of the "big game of the continents" is being disrupted. But the whole story says that Crimea is only the first sign.
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  1. moremansf
    moremansf 20 March 2014 18: 46
    An irreversible process with the inability of the country's leadership to provide the necessary socio-economic and moral aspects of life ... Fish rots from the head ...
    1. Tumbleweed
      Tumbleweed 20 March 2014 19: 00
      Ilya Ponomarev, a Jew voted against in the State Duma. This is the one that from Skolkovo a bunch of dough, allegedly took for lectures and poured "slops" on Skolkovo at every step. Before that, I did not get up on the Russian anthem ... On a fig such a deputy in the State Duma?
      1. Leshka Chuvash
        Leshka Chuvash 20 March 2014 20: 09
        I agree! Deprive with Navalny citizenship and smoke from Russia
        1. dmitriygorshkov
          dmitriygorshkov 20 March 2014 21: 08
          Quote: Leshka Chuvash
          I agree! Deprive with Navalny citizenship and smoke from Russia

          But you just don’t need to do it! What would they bark nasty things in the “free” press about Russia?
          In my opinion, in our BAM are we going to revive ?! Here we can give entim garne clapping on a file in rutsi !!!
        2. tundra
          tundra 20 March 2014 21: 36
          Member of Parliament
    2. de klermon
      de klermon 20 March 2014 20: 53
      There is still a fundamental difference between the separatist movement in the west and in the east, no matter what goals are pursued (reunification with the parent state or independence). The difference is simple: despite the growth of nationalist and chauvinistic sentiments in the west (Scotland, Catalonia, Padania, etc.), the thesis "enough to feed the metropolis" has always been at the forefront there for the last half century! Economy and tolerance have devoured national sentiment! When a young Lyon, Parisian or Toulouse turns out to be a racial minority in the classroom, in the garden or in the sandbox, and it is hammered into his head that regardless of the color, they are also French, and it does not matter, because we all live in a "common European home", so can we expect national or state consciousness from them? Historical and national memory in European separatist and unification processes is nothing more than a beautiful wrapper for the implementation of banal economic processes! That is why the deep patriotic, national or historical and cultural feelings experienced by Eastern Europeans turn out to be inaccessible to the understanding of the Western "audience"!
      It is IMPOSSIBLE to convince a certain part of Western society why the Russians in Crimea cried with happiness on March 16-18 and shouted nothing at the squares about economic benefits !!!
      PS My statements do not at all exclude the role of such well-known, but few and marginal organizations for most Europeans, such as the IRA, ETA, etc.
      1. tundra
        tundra 20 March 2014 21: 37
        So the long road HOME has ended for Crimea!
  2. Quantum
    Quantum 20 March 2014 18: 55
    Why not? It’s good to stir up a hornet’s nest, Northern
    American States, and Canada, it's time to scatter.
    The EU, in general, is a bunch of problems, its fate is problematic. The main shock for the EU, the collapse of Germany and France, the main donors in the EU.
  3. konvalval
    konvalval 20 March 2014 18: 58
    The peoples of the world are tired of living the way they do not want to live.
  4. Monk
    Monk 20 March 2014 19: 00
    Divide and rule!!!
    1. schizophrenic
      schizophrenic 20 March 2014 20: 16
      Quote: Monk
      Divide and rule!!!

      There is one more, unite and rule, this is the way of Russia. The path is more complicated but brings more opportunities. hi
      1. storog.cccp
        storog.cccp 20 March 2014 20: 56
        This is the imperial path. USSR 2.0 is not inevitable.
      2. Eydolon
        Eydolon 20 March 2014 20: 56
        Change your nickname, otherwise NLP will not work in your favor))
  5. Gagarin
    Gagarin 20 March 2014 19: 04
  6. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 20 March 2014 19: 05
    In the Kremlin, Ban Ki-moon met with Russian President Vladimir Putin.

    Decided apparently, PERSONALLY congratulate Putin!
  7. darksoul
    darksoul 20 March 2014 19: 06
    Quote: Monk
    The peoples of the world are tired of living the way they do not want to live.

    freedom of choice
    Georgians want to be friends with the USA, you can move to gorgea
    Bendera want a clean race to Germany their
    Estonians I would generally go to the north pole, there you can slow down, do not get in the way and there are no Soviet monuments, paradise
    the French on the mistral like on a Noah's ark

    Thank God that everything suits us))))
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Leshka Chuvash
      Leshka Chuvash 20 March 2014 20: 10
      Choked with beer)))
  8. Bobxnumx
    Bobxnumx 20 March 2014 19: 07
    Everything once comes to an end, and the activities of authorities often become a catalyst for this process.
    1. Mainbeam
      Mainbeam 20 March 2014 19: 11
      I would add weak authorities
    2. dmitriygorshkov
      dmitriygorshkov 20 March 2014 21: 14
      Quote: Bob0859
      Everything once comes to an end, and the activities of authorities often become a catalyst for this process.

      Or like this:
      - In the end, among the ends, they finally found the end!
  9. Mainbeam
    Mainbeam 20 March 2014 19: 12
    Good article about separatism. For a long time this topic was hushed up.
    And for those who did not delve into this topic, the article is directly a world-wide discovery.

    And only Switzerland, as before, is languishing on its chests. Quietly, quietly.
  10. Ascetic
    Ascetic 20 March 2014 19: 18
    From the latest news.
    This morning, three units of the Ukrainian Navy lowered the Ukrainian and raised the Andreevskie flags of the Russian Navy. The Donbass control ship, the Kremenets rescue tug and the Borshiv fire-fighting boat, which are stationed in the Streletskaya Bay of Sevastopol.
  11. vlum
    vlum 20 March 2014 19: 20
    And who will be to blame for all this? As always Great and Terrible?
  12. Yuri Y.
    Yuri Y. 20 March 2014 19: 24
    Those who, far from the Eurasian continent on the other side of the ocean, contributed to the emergence of this energy of self-decay of the states located here, were guided by the principle of “divide and conquer” as old as the world! In the United States, of course, we would like to see the East and West of the continent disconnected.

    In my opinion, this was felt after 2000-2005, when there was talk about the resources and competition of economies. But the West is completely under the hood, you can slowly direct where you need to. And with us it will be necessary to see, especially after the Crimea.
  13. Capyar 48315
    Capyar 48315 20 March 2014 19: 27
    The success of any separatist processes is possible only under two conditions: the separatists have strong external support and, naturally, the support of the local population. And if in the described smoldering foci the second is enough, then the first is not yet observed. Until some external force (ultimately of a planetary scale) supports the separatists, these hotbeds will only smolder, because any central government, regardless of any referendums, will not let the territory go just like that. Today they recall the story of Saar and the transfer of it by France to Germany after the referendum - but this only shows that France yielded on this issue under pressure. I do not deny that many separatist movements in Europe will end in a peaceful secession - but this will not happen soon and only when it will benefit one of the "big" players. I apologize in advance for some confusion.
  14. w2000
    w2000 20 March 2014 19: 52
    All Russian territories return. A strong country is attractive.

  15. Gloria45
    Gloria45 20 March 2014 20: 02
    Testament of Emperor Alexander III Alexandrovich to the heir

    You have to take from my shoulders the heavy burden of state power and carry it to the grave in the same way as I carried it and as our ancestors carried it. The kingdom given to you by God. I received him thirteen years ago from a bleeding Father ... Your grandfather from the height of the throne carried out many important reforms aimed at the good of the Russian people. As a reward for all this, He received a bomb and death from the Russian revolutionaries ... On that tragic day the question arose before me: which way to go? Whether by the one that the so-called "advanced society" was pushing me towards, infected with the liberal ideas of the West, or by the one that my own conviction, my highest sacred duty of the Sovereign and my conscience prompted me to do. I have chosen my path. The liberals dubbed him reactionary. I was only interested in the welfare of my people and the greatness of Russia. I tried to give inner and outer peace, so that the state could develop freely and calmly, grow normally, get rich and prosper. The autocracy created the historical individuality of Russia. The autocracy will collapse, God forbid, then Russia will collapse with it. The fall of the primordially Russian power will usher in an endless era of turmoil and bloody strife. I bequeath to you to love everything that serves the good, honor and dignity of Russia. Protect the autocracy, remembering, moreover, that You are responsible for the fate of Your subjects before the Throne of the Most High. Faith in God and in the holiness of your royal duty will be the foundation of your life for you. Be firm and courageous, never show weakness. Listen to everyone, there is nothing shameful in this, but obey only Yourself and Your conscience. In foreign policy, keep an independent position.

    Remember, Russia has no friends. They are afraid of our vastness. Avoid the wars. In domestic politics, first of all patronize the Church. She has repeatedly saved Russia in times of trouble. Strengthen the family, because it is the foundation of a rare state.
    completely here:
  16. fleks
    fleks 20 March 2014 20: 03
    the article is not adequate, it is very similar to the dreams of the inevitable victory of communism, and yet we all really wanted it and believed
  17. sv68
    sv68 20 March 2014 20: 04
    The EU needs its Yeltsin-to give them as much independence as they can take. RUSSIA let it through now and the EU will taste the sowing.
  18. konvalval
    konvalval 20 March 2014 20: 06
    Quote: w2000
    All Russian territories return. A strong country is attractive.

    Not so long ago, all kinds of gozman-halt proved to us in various programs that they are not drawn to us because we are weak. And as soon as we became strong accused of aggression. Here is the face of our bullshit.
  19. Igmail
    Igmail 20 March 2014 20: 30
    And this is not at all funny, we’ll defend our country. And what next? How, we, ordinary people can influence the decisions of the Washington Regional Committee. They defended the Crimea. But this Barack Obama was about to fuck up Syria (on the internet I slipped info for diplomats, mattresses are taking out the embassy from Damascus) .How do you understand? So, again, will we take offense for everyone?
  20. Gloria45
    Gloria45 20 March 2014 20: 40
    The fourth wave was largely inspired by the Western grouping of states represented by the USA and other NATO countries that used the energy of nationalism to weaken their geopolitical adversary. However, the peculiarity of this energy is such that it gives rise to a chain reaction, which is then extremely difficult to stop.

    Well, here, please admire.
    The article is titled "One Referendum After Another: Barcelona Divorce Madrid"
    In addition, residents of southern Spain from Malaga went
    to Madrid, on the way collecting people from all volosts, they walk.
    On March 22, something will be spectacular in Madrid (let's hope not like in Kiev)
    More news. 200 police held a rally yesterday
    in Portugal.
    And the last interesting news from Monsieur Pierre Jovanovic
    "over the past 2 months, there have been 28 suicides among
    bankers ".
    Can anyone explain what is happening?
    1. Yuri Sev Caucasus
      Yuri Sev Caucasus 20 March 2014 21: 00
      New realities of the world order. The EU is bursting at the seams. An avalanche always starts with a small stone, today Crimea is that small stone.
    2. storog.cccp
      storog.cccp 20 March 2014 21: 09
      To paraphrase: the whole world is a madhouse, and the people in it ... patients, doctors, orderlies - choose for yourself
    3. Shaki's memory
      Shaki's memory 21 March 2014 09: 14
      laughing These articles are quacking ... Do you believe that Portugal has more police than Russian Interior Ministry troops? More than the Ukrainian army?
      And that all all all the police went to the rally?
  21. Chikua
    Chikua 20 March 2014 20: 59
    1. Igmail
      Igmail 20 March 2014 22: 07
      Our faces do not hide, the video isn’t talking about anything at all. Take the Internet to the truth, but in this video there are either half-pokers. In short, the video isn’t talking about
  22. aud13
    aud13 20 March 2014 21: 47
    It should be noted that Americans (and not only them) quite often use the tactics of pitting among themselves people of the same country, professing different religions, or having different nationalities.
    For some reason, it seems to me that it would be nice to quietly try to do the same in their territory. Not only in the USA and Canada, but also in Western Europe - since it is part of the NATO block that is not friendly to us.
    You see, maybe after their showdown they will not be so persistently dictating their conditions for Russia.
    And then, either I read some interview of a Western politician, I immediately recall the phrase of Rogozin about Madonna, after her speech in defense of the little ones:
    "Every former b. tends to lecture on morality with age. Especially during foreign tours and tours "
  23. rassel0889
    rassel0889 20 March 2014 21: 52
    The whole truth about the United States))))
  24. rassel0889
    rassel0889 20 March 2014 21: 56
    And this is true about Ukraine)))
  25. siberalt
    siberalt 20 March 2014 22: 43
    It was not Russia that dug the gulf between the peoples. But the trenches are in the name of their liberation. The trenches are overgrown with weeds, but they are honored by the memory of the people, and others are digging the abyss. Here is the "moment of truth" not only according to Bogomolov or SW. Karaulov, but the worldwide "kirdyk". The moment of truth is not so much the word of Russia, but also concrete actions that reveal its meanings. By the fall of this year, the world order will begin to scatter to pieces. Our idea is a worldwide embodiment! Big changes await us!
    "Fly Aeroflot planes, keep your money in the savings bank!" Hello everyone! hi
  26. baku1999
    baku1999 20 March 2014 23: 39
    phrases from the last interview with Slobodan Milosevic, the former president of Yugoslavia: “Russians! I now appeal to all Russians; the inhabitants of Ukraine and Belarus in the Balkans are also considered Russians. Look at us and remember - they will do the same to you when you disconnect and give slack. West - a rabid chain dog clings to your throat. Brothers, remember the fate of Yugoslavia! Do not let me do the same to you! ”
  27. Santor
    Santor 21 March 2014 00: 30
    Please watch the video where the Ukrainian lieutenant from the Crimean militia trolls Tatar biased magazines

  28. siberalt
    siberalt 21 March 2014 00: 59
    Purely out of curiosity for zoology. And for europids. gay spring too? laughingOr are they all-weather? And how do they breed? Although it is believed that through human rights defenders. Maybe I'm wrong. I apologize. hi
  29. radio operator
    radio operator 21 March 2014 08: 14
    At the same time, Crimea is basically an echo of the processes unfinished in the 90-s, and the main events, apparently, will very soon begin to take place in the most “united” Europe. Although the Crimean referendum can also serve as a kind of catalyst here, but, in fact, it will be a return wave of those processes that the West itself launched at one time. These are the quirks of the goddess of retribution Nemesis.

  30. Dock
    Dock 24 March 2014 07: 46
    The Scots look forward to the fall if it goes, then it does not weak laughing