Military Review

Severodvinsk: a failed breakthrough

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Disruption of the construction of the newest nuclear submarine will lead to a significant delay in the entire shipbuilding program.

According to customer - Naval fleet Russia, the latest nuclear submarine of project 885 does not meet the specified sonar characteristics, which significantly reduces its combat capabilities.

The scientific readings devoted to the 100 anniversary of the great Soviet designer Vladimir Nikolaevich Chelomey, which took place in February of this year in the Scientific and Production Association of Machine Building, were visited not only by rocket designers, but also shipbuilders. Earlier, a memorial plaque dedicated to the legendary rocket maker was installed at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. And then the representatives of the Ministry of Defense, Roscosmos, various design bureaus, manufacturing plants and other structures visited the research and production association located in Reutov, located near Moscow.

With thanks to the representatives of the Russian Navy and shipbuilding engineers about the offshore missile complexes created in the NPO Mashinostroitia. During the Chelomeyev readings, it became known that the 3K55 “Onyx” missile system developed by the NPO at the end of last year was successfully tested on the latest nuclear submarine “Severodvinsk”. Although at the beginning of 2013, the question of using 3K55 from onboard the main submarine of the 885 project was very serious.

Severodvinsk: a failed breakthrough

According to some data, voiced in the media, if successful launches of the Caliber rocket complex developed by the Novator NGO were held at the end of 2011, Onyx fired only at the end of last summer. But according to an officer of the Russian Navy who is familiar with the situation, Onyx is not the only problem of Severodvinsk.

“In naval circles, Severodvinsk received an insulting nickname, rhyming with the name of this city, because of the constant attempts of the United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) to push the boat at all costs to the fleet. Although at the end of last year we took a clear position - the ship is not ready for delivery, it needs to be improved, ”the source told the Military Industrial Courier newspaper.

According to the officer, if the problems with “Onyx” are now generally resolved, then the hydroacoustic characteristics and the nuclear power installation do not move yet. There are problems with torpedo tubes.

“Last year, USC unofficially made it clear that the fleet was not ready to accept Severodvinsk. We do not have the infrastructure for it, the base is not built up, even the pier is not ready. Although the Navy does not seek to drown the project at any cost, it only achieves the characteristics laid down in the project. We and the designers of the submarine understand that there are technical solutions in its design, without bringing that to a normal "battlefield" now, we will jeopardize the rest of the submarine construction program. But my opinion is that the leadership of USC needs only one thing - to hand over the boat to the Navy as soon as possible, and then to figure out what to do, ”the fleet officer complained.

Despite the fact that in the media (not only industry, but also federal) quite often there is information about work on Severodvinsk, all of it is in the nature of duty Newstaken from press releases of the United Shipbuilding Corporation. “He went to sea”, “So many nautical miles passed”, “Successfully shot back” - all that can be read about the latest submarine. Against the backdrop of these triumphant reports, the Navy’s commander-in-chief at the end of last year, directly “under the tree”, from accepting the ship into the fleet, was limited by the so-called pilot operation, when the crew begins to fulfill the tasks of the combat training course, and the breeders eliminate the discovered shortcomings. Joint tests are also conducted of previously identified problem nodes and assemblies.

“Although not only domestic, but also foreign media speak of Severodvinsk as a submarine ready for combat use, in fact it is not so,” a high-ranking source in the Navy told the Military Industrial Courier.

So what is actually happening with the newest nuclear submarine and how soon will it be transferred to the Navy? Let's try to understand the situation.

From “Ash” to “Boreyu-A”

“Now in Severodvinsk there are three technical solutions, which will also be included in the Borey-A project 995, although the boats of the 885 project are developed by Malachite and the 995 are developed by the Rubin Central Design Bureau. Work on the head Borey - "St. Nicholas" began in 2009, "the shipbuilder familiar with the situation informed the military industrial complex.

We are talking about the newest hydroacoustic complex (SAC) “Amfora-Irtysh”, the so-called on-board torpedo tubes (TA) and the integrated monoblock nuclear power plant (NPI) combining a reactor and a steam generating plant in one unit. All this is at Severodvinsk, and the results will be used in the design of the 995A series.

“The first three“ Boreas ”were a compromise solution. They were created from the backlog of unfinished submarines project 971. But from the fourth hull of the boat project 995А will become as originally planned, ”said the source.

But the work on the newest “Boreas” is disrupted largely because of problems with the delivery of “Severodvinsk”.

“Due to the fact that the main antenna of the SJSC Amfora-Irtysh is rather large, the torpedo tubes must be removed from the nose section into the middle part of the hull and made so-called airborne. The Americans did the first to design the multi-purpose nuclear submarines of the Los Angeles class. Now this decision has become typical and is used not only at Los Angeles, but also at Sea Wolf, Virginia, and British Astityuta, military historian Maxim Tokarev told Military Industrial Courier.

According to him, until recently, there were no such torpedo tubes on Soviet boats: “Even on the most advanced submarines of the 971 project, both the TA and the GAS Skat-3 hydroacoustic antenna were in the nose at the same time. The first Russian submarine with "onboard" torpedo tubes was the "Severodvinsk".

It was planned that after working off at Severodvinsk, the torpedo tubes should have gone over to Borey, but at the time of the start of work, the onboard TAs remained only in the drawings, SJSC Amfora-Irtysh switched to the boats of the Borey-A project . Although, according to official data, exactly such a sonar complex was installed on the Yuri Dolgoruky, Alexandra Nevsky and Vladimir Monomakh, this raises reasonable doubts, given the size of the main antenna of the GAK and the presence of torpedo tubes in the bow of the submarine. According to some information, the modified submarines Skat-3 from submarines of the 971 project, combined with electronic systems and digital libraries Amfory-Irtysh, are still installed on these submarines.

Until recently, the "onboard" torpedo tubes on the Severodvinsk were a headache not only for shipbuilders, but also for sailors. It was not possible to produce launches, breakdowns constantly occurred.

“To test TA happened only in the middle of last year. True, they now work like a clock. But how much it cost the nerves to the crew, the plant and the designers, ”the officer of the Navy complained.

If the situation with the torpedo tubes has improved, the monoblock nuclear power plant, developed and manufactured by Rosatom enterprises, continues to cause a lot of trouble for its creators and submarine crew.

“The monoblock scheme saves space and significantly reduces the level of noise from operating components and assemblies. Compared with the power plants of the 971 project boats, it is several times lower, ”said a shipbuilding engineer familiar with the situation. True, he refused to explain the principle of operation and the technical features of the Russian monoblock nuclear power unit, although he acknowledged that there are still a lot of problems.

According to the "MIC", the reactor does not always give the required power, there are problems and noise.

“The reactor did Rosatom, although there are certain issues with Malachite about the placement of nuclear power plants in the hull of the boat. To some experts, it seems suboptimal. Such integrated power plants will also receive boats from the Borey-A project, the Russian Navy officer noted.

If the problems with torpedo tubes and SJSC Amfora-Irtysh, Malakhit and Sevmash were resolved, the NPI is still the Achilles heel of the entire project.

Creaking shafts of the “roaring cow”

Another misfortune of “Severodvinsk” was the shaft line, or rather, its bearings.

“The steam produced by the reactor enters the steam turbine installation and rotates several interconnected shafts. Due to problems with bearings, friction occurs and the boat cannot increase speed so that the line does not collapse, ”the shipbuilding engineer explained.

This problem haunts the boat from the start of the 2011 th trial in September. During the two years of testing, Malachite made significant changes to the design of the shaft line several times, and at the same time replaced the line itself with the docking of the boat. The last time it happened was on state tests in May last year.

“The tests that began on May 27 should have lasted until mid-August. July 19 boat due to technical problems returned to the plant in Severodvinsk. True, on July 30, she again went to sea, ”says the shipbuilding engineer.

A team of workers was called to the factory from vacations, which in an emergency mode eliminated problems in the shaft line.

“We managed quickly. The funny thing is that even the local newspapers wrote about the repair, ”the source recalled.

Despite the speed of work, Severodvinsk returned from testing with more than 200 comments.

The combination of shaft line flaws and exceeding the noise threshold during operation of nuclear power plants in some modes led to the main problem of the submarine - the discrepancy between its sonar characteristics and the fact that the navy was laid down in the technical specifications.

“Now we have ensured the stable operation of all systems of the boat, therefore the level of acoustic noise does not exceed the established ones. But in some modes of operation, there are so-called bursts, when noise rumbles at times, albeit briefly, ”the engineer said. According to him, the boat must pass advanced hydroacoustic tests, tentatively scheduled for March-April of this year, when ice conditions improve in Motovka Bay. Now the boat is located at the Sevmash plant. How shipbuilders count, by this time the problem of bursts will be solved.

“Because of these problems, we sometimes jokingly called the boat a“ roaring cow. ” Although the real “roaring cows” - the old boats of the 675 project are far away for her. But for such an advanced submarine pleasant little, "- said the officer of the Navy. He added that the Navy is confident that in the near future the problems of the submarine and the entire project will be resolved. But the military is confused by the position of the leaders of the United Shipbuilding Corporation.

“Their task is to shove the boat to the fleet at all costs, regardless of the problems and difficulties encountered. We do not need an unfinished ship. Everything happens, the first in the series is always problematic. But it is impossible to transfer the sky boat, ”the newspaper’s interlocutor is outraged.

It is difficult to disagree with the sailors, because the USC talks with the Russian Navy went right up to 30 in December last year, although at the end of November the military clearly indicated their position. According to the "military industrial complex", the commander-in-chief of Admiral Viktor Chirkov and the head of USC Vladimir Shmakov were supposed to sign the report on the reception of submarines in the ship's personnel.

It is also not true that in the Western Person, where he should come after accepting the “Severodvinsk” in the fleet, nothing is ready to receive it. Last fall, Spetsstroy reconstructed the berth, built additional structures by completing the first phase of work.

It is hoped that the hydroacoustic tests planned for the coming months will pass successfully and Severodvinsk will become part of the Russian Navy, and the technical reserve, as planned, will be widely used in the construction of the newest strategic missile submarines of the Borey-A project. It is also worth noting that shipbuilding is now lost on the positions lost after the collapse of the USSR. The most important thing is that the situation with Severodvinsk should not happen again.
Author:
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http://vpk-news.ru/
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  1. Trailer
    Trailer 19 March 2014 07: 58
    +1
    So what is the nickname for the Severodvinsk nuclear submarine?
    1. PPL
      PPL 19 March 2014 09: 03
      +12
      Nuclear submarine “Severodvinsk” of project 885 “Ash”, received the nickname “Beast from Beneath” in NATO source http://zavtra.ru/content/view/apl-severodvinsk-usilivaet-rossijskij-flot/

      Happy Holidays to all of you!
      HAPPY SEAFARER'S DAY!
      drinks
    2. muginov2015
      muginov2015 19 March 2014 09: 23
      -19%
      probably "severosrinsk"
      1. PPL
        PPL 19 March 2014 09: 31
        +8
        Minus from me am
        There is a good proverb among the Russian people:
        DON'T BE FUCKED IN THE WELL, A SUITABLE FOR A WATER DRINK!
    3. jjj
      jjj 19 March 2014 10: 32
      +1
      And not on "Grusha" whether the onboard torpedo tubes were tested. And did not "Kazan" work out the SJC to the full size of the bow lines
    4. 123dv
      123dv 19 March 2014 10: 42
      +6
      A modern submarine is not an easy thing. They say that there will be worse than spaceships. And damn the first lump, as expected, should be.
      Boil is not appropriate!
      The work is on, the jambs are climbing ...
      That's why he and the head board, to eliminate bunting.
    5. Rustam
      Rustam 19 March 2014 11: 02
      +2
      Problems with Severodvinsk have long been and everyone understands the Navy that it needs to be modified , to refine, but not to try to steam the arms of the Navy by the new year

      After all, the price is not cheap for food, and what do we get a raw product? To expose the lives of guys again? To report to the Kremlin? BB your instruction that you gave us to do business in USC for half a year has been fulfilled, and people do not give a damngive a plan

      Well, by the way, it won’t help Shmakov.

      ps-And it’s right to push the float, neher to boil a raw product of $ 1 billion per unit — modify it, pass the tests, and then we will take it — although it has already been accepted with pomp (in experimental operation) 30/12/2013 and who better?
      1. Ascetic
        Ascetic 19 March 2014 18: 29
        0
        Quote: Rustam
        The problems with Severodvinsk have been around for a long time and everyone in the Navy understands that it needs to be developed, modified, and not try to steam up the Navy by twisting the arms by the new year


        It’s good that it’s become very difficult now ... The more shoals will be found and FORMED to be finalized at the stage of trial operation. It will be better otherwise, after acceptance into the series, advertising sailors will be sent in batches that the crafts engaged in new projects will be put in a long drawer. Even in the Strategic Missile Forces, even during the Gorbachev period, they went on duty with completely unprepared buildings and vehicles of the complex, the main thing was to pay the 70th anniversary of the Great October Revolution and receive awards and titles ... Or an extreme example with Bulava and Yura Dolgoruky, the main thing was to report ... and Iam as God will give.
    6. RUSLAN39
      RUSLAN39 19 March 2014 11: 17
      0
      Yes, it cannot be that everything was so bad and incurable. Tight control and personal responsibility will be the result.
    7. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 19 March 2014 13: 44
      +1
      Quote: Karavan
      So what is the nickname for the Severodvinsk nuclear submarine?


      I think it’s north # opinsk, there’s no need for big imagination, so you can call any city.

      Something often began to appear articles that everything is bad with us. Either it doesn’t fire, then the airplanes don’t fly, or the missiles are defective ... We should invite the avatar of this letter no matter how you invite him and ask seriously where the data came from.
  2. philip
    philip 19 March 2014 08: 00
    +6
    I do not believe DESA.
    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 19 March 2014 08: 03
      +10
      According to the customer, the Russian Navy, the newest nuclear submarine of the 885 project does not meet the specified sonar characteristics, which significantly reduces its combat capabilities. request it's like your mother, I'm sorry ... understand ???
      1. avt
        avt 19 March 2014 09: 36
        +9
        Quote: Andrey Yurievich
        it's like your mother, I'm sorry ... understand ???

        And so to understand - well, someone does not like the concept itself, and even more so the appearance in Russia of a series of truly universal boats with the hidden capabilities of a strategist. So they are poking around, blowing up to the skies really existing shortcomings that are quite expected on the lead boat, and even practically an experimental one. It is strange that so far they only offer to shorten the series and do not offer Severodvinsk to be disposed of. That’s where the crackles of all stripes have started.
      2. Fin
        Fin 19 March 2014 10: 36
        +4
        Quote: Andrey Yurievich
        It does not meet the specified sonar characteristics, which significantly reduces its combat capabilities. it's like your mother, I'm sorry ... understand ???

        The boat is being refined to the specified parameters. And there’s nothing wrong. Cope.
        in Zapadnaya Litsa, where she should come after being accepted into the Severodvinsk fleet, nothing is ready for his admission. Last fall, Spetsstroy reconstructed the pier, built additional facilities, having completed the first stage of work.

        Is there anyone with Z. Persons? Make it clear that the berth is ready, the food seems to have been let down, what else is needed?
    2. Curculum
      Curculum 19 March 2014 08: 26
      +13
      Quote: Philip
      I do not believe DESA.

      And rightly, you can read about this scribble here: http://twower.livejournal.com/478761.html
      "A 2003 graduate of the Military Psychological Faculty of the Military University ..." - he writes about airplanes, and specials in submarines, and fought hard, but simply - an illiterate and stupid psychologist, so he is looking for his niche ... hrenalist.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 19 March 2014 09: 12
        +3
        Quote: Kurkul
        And rightly, you can read about this scribble here: http://twower.livejournal.com/478761.html

        Well, if this is all arrogant lies, then for what other reason Severodvinsk is not accepted for service? Suggest your option.
        1. Curculum
          Curculum 19 March 2014 09: 41
          0
          Quote: Nayhas
          Suggest your option.

          Because firing of the Caliber long-range cruise missile from underwater position still needs to be performed.
    3. dm98
      dm98 19 March 2014 10: 07
      +7
      The title of the article does not reflect its content !!!
      Title Severodvinsk: a failed breakthroughъ
      and in the article about problems that were finally resolved!
      As a result of the article minus! I consider it a crude propaganda against our carabel
    4. The comment was deleted.
  3. both s69
    both s69 19 March 2014 08: 00
    +4
    USC should try to eliminate all the shortcomings. We really need such boats. hi
  4. annodomene
    annodomene 19 March 2014 08: 01
    +4
    In the situation with the USC, nothing has changed. Their life credo is to cut and pull apart. See the factory repair of the "Smolensk" aircraft
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 19 March 2014 09: 16
      +1
      Quote: annodomene
      In the situation with the USC, nothing has changed. Their life credo is to cut and pull apart. See the factory repair of the "Smolensk" aircraft

      Where to watch that?
      1. Ezhaak
        Ezhaak 19 March 2014 11: 24
        0
        Quote: Nayhas
        Where to watch that?

        Wherever you find, look! laughing
  5. Duke
    Duke 19 March 2014 08: 02
    +9
    Problems occur in all the lead ships in the series.
    1. ziqzaq
      ziqzaq 19 March 2014 08: 29
      +3
      Quote: Duke
      Problems occur in all the lead ships in the series.

      I support the thesis, especially after the collapse of the 90s ... It's okay to work out the construct and everything will be fine .... The T-34 tank also underwent serious improvements at first, and now we know it as the best tank of our time ....
  6. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 19 March 2014 08: 03
    +5
    But the military is embarrassed by the position of the leaders of the United Shipbuilding Corporation.

    Find out who is lobbying "shove the boat into the fleet at any cost", check who he is friends with, or can a PERSONAL "humanitarian" interest, and if not everything is clear, remove, if he acted in the interests of Russia's enemies, send him to logging for at least 10 years.
    Now it is very important for Russia to equip the army and navy with QUALITY equipment, so that it would not fail, so tight control is needed here.
  7. ikken
    ikken 19 March 2014 08: 21
    +6
    Since it is so hard to "be born", it will be an excellent boat. The more you tinker with the head and reveal the shortcomings, the smoother the operation of the next in the series will be.
  8. Vadim12
    Vadim12 19 March 2014 08: 30
    +5
    Now, if at least one competent specialist or officer was named, one could believe it. And here in the article there are only one anonymous - "the interlocutor told the newspaper" ... The article does not inspire confidence. Please do not believe everything.
  9. KOH
    KOH 19 March 2014 08: 30
    +1
    The author is Aleksey Ramm, and who does he not know who?
    1. Curculum
      Curculum 19 March 2014 08: 46
      +1
      Quote: CON
      The author is Aleksey Ramm, and who does he not know who?

      I gave the link above, you can familiarize yourself.
  10. Fox
    Fox 19 March 2014 08: 37
    +6
    they’ll bring the boat! there will be candy. there’s no panic, designers have brains.
  11. 77bob1973
    77bob1973 19 March 2014 08: 38
    +3
    Well, what is the article about, that people work! Before you build something worthwhile, you need to eat more than one "pood of salt", and not shout at all corners "everything is gone."
  12. umah
    umah 19 March 2014 08: 46
    +3
    This is the lead ship of the project. Of course there are difficulties! Show me a project that had no problems with the lead ship! I see no reason to hysteria and shout about polymers.
  13. Dragon-y
    Dragon-y 19 March 2014 08: 56
    0
    "We don't need such hockey! .."
  14. ilya_82
    ilya_82 19 March 2014 08: 57
    +3
    the main thing that I understood from the article - the problems are SOLVED
  15. mpa945
    mpa945 19 March 2014 08: 57
    +2
    Article minus. All references to "high-ranking naval officer and shipbuilding engineer". Without specifying the position, there is no basis for trust. Typical order.
  16. PPL
    PPL 19 March 2014 08: 59
    +3
    Friends! Despite all the difficulties that arise, nothing can cancel the holiday.
    HAPPY SEAFARER'S DAY!
    From the former salag of the Northern Fleet to all those who went and now serve!
    soldier drinks
  17. Wedmak
    Wedmak 19 March 2014 09: 04
    +1
    Well, what is the article about? The boat is new, the technology has not been tested, the layout is new. Bring to mind, time is needed.
  18. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 19 March 2014 09: 09
    0
    Well, today is the Day of the Submariner, and the news is completely joyless ...
  19. Gagarin
    Gagarin 19 March 2014 09: 13
    +1
    The news in the morning just killed!
    If true, then this is sad.
    Having lived in this country for some reason, I believe in those flaws that we could have allowed, as we often do. BUT, THERE IS NOTHING ELIMINABLE, THIS IS A PILOT SERIES, I THINK EVERYTHING WILL BE CORRECTED.
    If, nevertheless, the "hack" lied - ON A CALL!
  20. Cossacks
    Cossacks 19 March 2014 09: 17
    +2
    The military-industrial complex democrats collapsed. Experts are retired or already far. At the factories, affective managers are all the same, where you can’t get into the director or deputy director. Equipment of the Stalin era. There is no one to work on machines; all young people are in the guard, trade, offices and garbage dumps. They gave money and military orders, but who needs this smut? the oligarch at whose factory they must do the main element of the power plant. Do not tell for a long time he, with his soul and body, belongs together with the shares to a certain company of our probable adversary. Unfortunately written is not a figment of imagination.
  21. propolsky
    propolsky 19 March 2014 09: 22
    0
    I think the mental potential of our people will help "grind" and put everything in place.
  22. egor 1712
    egor 1712 19 March 2014 09: 25
    +5
    I don’t understand, Alexey Ramm in his article, referring to a nameless fleet officer or engineer, says that the latest nuclear submarine of project 885 does not meet the specified sonar characteristics. The question is, why did he decide that the boat does not meet the characteristics? That somewhere in the press these characteristics were indicated?
    Yes. The new boat project requires breakthrough technologies and solutions for the latest Amphora-Irtysh sonar complex (SAC), the so-called on-board torpedo tubes (TA) and integrated monoblock nuclear power plant (NPP), which combines a reactor and a steam production unit in one unit, and there is Problems. But they are solvable and disposable. The project is promising, it contains the possibility of modernization for many years.
  23. Navy7981
    Navy7981 19 March 2014 09: 45
    +1
    Congratulations to the colleagues from Subplav! Traditionally - Number of dives = number of floats!

    Why then the article is not believed. Not logical. Those problems that the author describes are purely calculated problems. What ours did not count? Well, somehow strange.
  24. Aleksandr12
    Aleksandr12 19 March 2014 10: 25
    0
    I disagree with the article. Something working problems are described in the "all lost" key. The Yasen nuclear submarine is fundamentally new, with a huge number of innovations. It is simply not possible to calculate everything at the stage of the project (by the way, considering that the level of specialists in this field with the collapse of the USSR fell). I believe there are problems, but they are removable. Remember how our specialists suffered with the first reactors, there were PROBLEMS, even with human casualties. So "Severodvinsk" will soon scare all the NATO members there by floating up next to the aircraft carrier, because the captain was impatient to pour into the ocean or spit at NATO laughing
  25. pv1005
    pv1005 19 March 2014 11: 09
    0
    Lada for 40 years mass-produced; not all defects have been eliminated. And the submarine is definitely not Lada. Especially the FIRST in the series.
  26. siberalt
    siberalt 19 March 2014 11: 38
    0
    And yet it’s good that no one pushes the customer in the back. You can’t rush here. All submariners and those involved in them with the Holiday!
  27. navigator
    navigator 19 March 2014 12: 27
    +2
    The article is illiterate. Borey-pr955, not 995. What does Motovskiy Bay have to do with the tests in the White Sea or with the shooting of the Kyrgyz Republic? The mooring front in Zap Litsa Bay is quite average.
    All submariners - especially 31 diplomas with the Holiday!
  28. Mexanik k-407
    Mexanik k-407 19 March 2014 13: 24
    +2
    Opensource projects, eh, as they say now - "the author of zhzhot", there is nothing to add on this diarrhea. Everyone knows about the dirty tricks from the industry, but this is not out of malice, but because the first corps. The details in the article are out of the blue. Especially about the forgotten training ground in the White Sea! What ... udak will drive to Motka for field measurements? Who gives field to such figures? This is only to sweep the parade ground in front of the headquarters of the 3rd flotilla with a crowbar :) Minus the fool for alarmism! 13 - 31 DPL Happy Holidays!
  29. Zomanus
    Zomanus 19 March 2014 15: 05
    0
    Yes, let her finish, let her be killed in the tests. The main thing was that the groundwork for the next boats was good. That would have gone the series as it should. It is clear that now we are trying to jump directly from the 80s to the 2010s in technology. That is, on paper, it is all there, but it still needs to be rolled in iron. And it is precisely at Severodvinsk that all this will be rolled in iron, bringing the technology to practical application.