And none of the so-called comrades-in-arms never dared to tell Gorbachev that he was not “a giant, but simply a cockroach.” But in the post-Soviet period, some of the associates of the General Secretary were quick to publish memoirs in which they used to curse the former patron in every way, talking about how they "resisted" the destructive perestroika course.
In this regard, I will try to show how the personnel environment has created for Mikhail Sergeyevich the conditions for work on the collapse of the country for more than six years. I would not want something like this to happen again.
THAN NIGHT OF DARKNESS, Brighter STARS
Narcissistic amateurs like Gorbachev, having broken into power, care only about their image. They surround themselves not with personalities, but with comfortable people in order to look like “geniuses” against their background. This feature of Mikhail Sergeyevich was noticed by the US Ambassador to the USSR J. Matlock, saying: “He only felt comfortable next to silent or gray ...”
Mikhail Sergeevich formulated the essence of his personnel policy back in the period of his work in Stavropol. Somehow, in response to the friendly criticism of his personnel approaches, Gorbachev uttered a mysterious phrase: "The darker the night, the brighter the stars." There is no doubt that he saw himself in the sky as a star of the first magnitude. Therefore, he always tirelessly shuffled the deck, selecting comfortable and helpful ones.
"Architect" of perestroika Alexander Yakovlev (left of M. Gorbachev)
By the time Gorbachev was elected General Secretary, Yegor Ligachev, then head of the Party CPSU Organizational Party Department, was able to replace 70% of the secretaries of the regional committees and regional party committees, putting "his proven" people ready to carry out any instructions and provide a majority at the Central Committee Plenums.
With the arrival of Gorbachev, staff replacements gained a wider scope. For the first three years, the composition of the Central Committee was updated by 85%, which was much higher than the 1934-1939 figures. Then they accounted for about 77%. In 1988, Gorbachev began the "rejuvenation" of the Central Committee apparatus. "Gorbachev's" were put to all key posts.
The Council of Ministers of the USSR was updated in the same way. There are only ten of the 115 pre-Gorbachev ministers left. Nevertheless, despite the endless personnel reshuffle, Gorbachev still believes that his restructuring was torpedoed by a conservative apparatus.
In his memoirs, Life and Reforms, he writes: “... After the XXVII Congress (1986 year), the composition of the district committees and city committees changed three times, the Soviet organs were completely updated. After the January Plenary Meeting of the Central Committee 1987, there was a change of first secretaries in alternative elections, many of the "old-timers" retired. The second, the third or even the fourth "team" became at the helm, and it went the old fashioned way. So strong was the leaven. So the dogmas of Marxism in the simplified Stalinist interpretation were driven into the heads. ”
It is difficult to imagine a greater misunderstanding of the situation. It is absolutely clear that in 1988-1989 years people came to the leadership of most party organizations in the CPSU, not that they were “poisoned” by the dogmas of Marxism, but rather distant from both Marxism and socialism. As a result, the restructuring of socialism turned into a departure from it. For the same reason, in September 1991, the CPSU quietly died.
PERSONNEL. ARCHITECT RESET
The main credo of Gorbachev’s personnel policy was the deployment of key trusted and controlled supporters in key posts, which created a bunch of personnel. By pushing the appointment of such people, Mikhail Sergeevich demonstrated truly “steel teeth”, about which the Politbureau Patriarch Andrei Gromyko once said.
USSR Foreign Minister Edward Shevardnadze and US Secretary of State J. Schultz
A vivid testimony to this is the situation with the appointment of 1 on July 1985 of the year by the USSR Foreign Minister of a tongue-tied and poorly spoken Russian Eduard Shevardnadze. However, in his memoirs Life and Reforms, Gorbachev, without a hint of embarrassment, affirms: “Eduard Shevardnadze is a person, undoubtedly an outstanding, established politician, educated, erudite.”
The damage that the Gorbachev-Shevardnadze bundle caused to the Soviet Union and, accordingly, Russia is best illustrated by a quote from the memoirs of the former US President George Bush Sr:
“We ourselves did not understand such a policy of the Soviet leadership. We were ready to give assurances that the countries of Eastern Europe would never join NATO, and forgive many billions of dollars of debt, but Shevardnadze did not even bargain and agreed with everything without preconditions. The same is along the border with Alaska (we are talking about the delimitation of sea spaces in the Bering and Chukchi seas), where we didn’t count on anything. It was a gift from God. ”
Yegor Ligachev, famous for the phrase in relation to Yeltsin: "Boris, you're wrong!"
The situation with the appointment of Gennady Yanayev to the post of vice-president is no less scandalous. Gorbachev and Lukyanov, in fact, were raped by the 4th Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR (December 1990), forcing this candidate. In the end, from the second run, the deputies voted for a “mature politician who is able to participate in the discussion and adoption of important decisions on a state scale”. So Gorbachev described his candidate Gennady Yanayev as vice-president of the USSR.
I knew Yanaev well, more than once visited him in the Kremlin office. He was a decent and kind person, completely devoid of bureaucratic bureaucratic fanaberia, but not a vice president, as confirmed by the events of August 1991. Apparently, for this reason, Mikhail Sergeevich Yanayev was so necessary.
In addition, Gorbachev was aware of the sensitive problem of Yanaev: his hands were constantly shaking. In my first meeting with Gennady Ivanovich, I noticed how he would take cigarettes with trembling hands and light up. We were alone in the office, so there was no reason for Yanayev to worry.
So, trembling hands, allegedly from fear, at the press conference of 19 in August 1991, are the myth of journalists. Apparently, this personal aspect also determined Gorbachev’s stubborn desire to see Yanayev as vice president. As a result, Mikhail Sergeevich managed to create a very necessary personnel bundle for Gorbachev - Yanayev.
In addition to the aforementioned, Mikhail Sergeyevich managed to create the following personnel bundles: Gorbachev-Yakovlev, Gorbachev-Ryzhkov, Gorbachev-Lukyanov, Gorbachev-Yazov, Gorbachev-Kryuchkov, Gorbachev-Razumovsky, Gorbachev-Bakatin.
Central was a bunch of Gorbachev - Yakovlev. True, it was created by Yakovlev, not Gorbachev, while he was on an official visit to Canada in the 1983 year. Let's talk about it in more detail.
Chairman of the KGB of the USSR Vladimir Kryuchkov
It is known that Yakovlev suggested the most important ideas of the disastrous restructuring to Mikhail Sergeyevich. It was not by chance that he was called behind his “restructuring architect.”
Yakovlev managed to convince Gorbachev that socialism is unpromising. He also threw the idea of the priority of universal values. And he also helped Mikhail Sergeyevich to furnish himself with “the right people.”
It is no secret that Yakovlev was the one who insisted on the appointment of Dmitry Yazov as USSR Minister of Defense, and Vladimir Kryuchkov as Chairman of the KGB.
Being a good psychologist, Yakovlev felt that, with all the positive characteristics, the performance of these two will always prevail over initiative and independence. This subsequently played a fatal role in the fate of the USSR.
Yakovlev’s real contribution to the collapse of the USSR revealed in an interview with Nezavisimaya Gazeta (October 10, 1998), R. Reagan’s former defense and foreign intelligence adviser Jeann Kirkpatrick. On the question of the role of individuals in stories and the politics of the twentieth century, on a par with such figures as Churchill, Mussolini, Hitler, Mao Zedong, Truman, Stalin, she called Yakovlev.
The surprised journalist asked: “Why Yakovlev? Have you met him? ”There was an ambiguous answer:“ A couple of times. I think that he is a very interesting person and played a huge and important role. I hope he knows that I think so. "
No comments, especially if you recall the statement of Yuri Drozdov, the former head of the C Directorate of the USSR KGB (illegal intelligence), made by him to the Rossiyskaya Gazeta correspondent (31 August 2007): “Several years ago, a former American intelligence officer I knew well when he arrived in Moscow, at dinner in a restaurant on Ostozhenka, he threw the following phrase: “You are good guys. We know that you have had success that you can be proud of. But time will pass, and you will gasp, if it is declassified, what kind of agents did the CIA and the State Department have at your top. ”
Special mention should be made of the Gorbachev-Ryzhkov bundle. The Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov, is a magnificent specialist and a man with a heightened sense of decency and responsibility, which did not allow him to resist Gorbachev properly.
He, as a leader, was talked about in July 1989, when Ryzhkov at a meeting of party workers in the Kremlin declared: “The party is in danger!” Therefore, when the extraordinary III Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR (March 1990) became a question of electing the president, a number of Deputies appealed to him with a request to nominate his candidacy.
Here is how the situation is described by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, Vitaly Vorotnikov: “The situation was such that if the prime minister did not remove his candidacy, Gorbachev, with a normal vote, would undoubtedly be defeated. However, as is well known, Nikolai Ivanovich never found the courage to step over the invisible line that separates the most senior official from the real party leader. Thus, he gave Gorbachev the presidency of the USSR. ”
I want to clarify. In my opinion, while I talked a lot with Nikolai Ivanovich, the main role in Ryzhkov’s refusal to run for the presidency was played not by the absence of courage, but by the decency I mentioned above. Ryzhkov considered it dishonorable to expose the leg to a colleague. Gorbachev counted on it.
But not only the position Ryzhkov gave Gorbachev the presidency. The decisive role played here a bunch of Gorbachev - Lukyanov. Anatoly Ivanovich led the meeting of the III Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR, which approved the addition to the Constitution on the establishment of the post of President of the USSR. The head of state was to be elected by citizens by direct and secret ballot. But at that time it was already clear that Gorbachev’s chances of becoming “popularly elected” are extremely small.
Lukyanov managed to push with a tiny margin to 46 votes the decision that the first elections, as an exception, be held by the Congress of People's Deputies. M. Gorbachev, N. Ryzhkov and V. Bakatin were nominated candidates. However, the last two candidates recused themselves. As a result, Gorbachev was elected President of the USSR. That's what it means to put the right person in the right position. This skill from Gorbachev was not to take away.
A few words about a bunch of Gorbachev - Razumovsky. Georgy Razumovsky in May 1985 of the year headed the Department of Party Organizational Work of the Central Committee, replacing Ligachev in this post. A year later, he gained the status of secretary of the Central Committee.
The regulation and demonstrativeness in the work of the party organizations of the country under Razumovsky increased substantially. He is responsible for the separatist sentiment that appeared in the Lithuanian Communist Party in 1988 year.
The fact is that on the eve of the XIX Party Conference, Gorbachev called for the development of inner-party democracy and glasnost. But at the same time, from the organizing department of the Central Committee, which was headed by Razumovsky, went into the field, including the Communist Party of Lithuania, a tough list of which delegates should be elected. This caused a wave of indignation not only in the Communist Party of Lithuania, but also in the republic.
The protest sentiments of the Lithuanian communists in many respects contributed to the creation and formation of the “Sajudis” in Lithuania. In the future, the situation was exacerbated by the complete disregard of the organizing department of the Central Committee of the CPSU of the criticisms expressed by the Lithuanian communists during the election campaign of 1988 of the year.
As a result of January 19, the plenum of the Vilnius city party committee was forced to again turn to Razumovsky regarding the critical remarks sent after the election campaign from the republic. However, there was no answer this time either.
Then on the agenda in the Lithuanian media the topic of independence of the Communist Party of Lithuania was put forward. As a result of this discussion, to which the CPSU Central Committee also did not respond, the 20th Congress of the Lithuanian Communist Party (December 1989 of the year) announced the withdrawal of the party from the CPSU. Well, March 11, 1990, Lithuania has already announced its withdrawal from the USSR.
In this regard, let me remind you that Gorbachev constantly repeated about the old party bureaucratic apparatus, which supposedly, like a “dam,” was in the way of perestroika. It is clear that this was verbiage, because in reality such a “dam” was a bundle of Gorbachev - Razumovsky and their environment.
The cover of the book of Vadim Bakatin with the characteristic name "Getting Rid of the KGB"
I will add that, according to Russian journalist Evgenia Albats, the former candidate member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee Razumovsky received at least a monthly salary from Mikhail Khodorkovsky’s structures until 2001. Apparently, it was for that.
A serious damage to the country was caused by a bunch of Gorbachev - Bakatin.
In October 1988 of the year, Vadim Bakatin, the former first secretary of the Kemerovo regional party committee, was appointed to the post of Minister of the Interior of the USSR. It would seem that the change is insignificant. Former first secretary of the Rostov Regional Committee of the CPSU Vlasov was replaced by the first secretary of another regional committee - Bakatin. But this is only at first glance.
Bakatin’s personality is usually associated with the defeat of the Committee. However, there his role was small. The KGB in August 1991 of the year was already doomed, and Bakatin only followed the instructions of the puppeteers for his "finishing off." Of much greater interest is the role of Vadim Viktorovich in the collapse of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Offering Bakatin the post of Minister of the Interior, Gorbachev stressed: “I don’t need police ministers. I need politicians. ” Bakatin "brilliantly" coped with the role of a politician from the police. For two years of work, he caused irreparable damage to the Soviet police.
The minister issued an order by which police officers received the right to work part-time in other organizations. As a result, this led not only to corruption and the merging of law enforcement agencies with a criminal contingent, but also to the departure of the main professional core of the Ministry of Internal Affairs into commercial structures. This was the beginning of the collapse of the Soviet law enforcement system.
No less painful blow to this system was made by another order of Bakatin - on the elimination of the agent's police apparatus. The police of the whole world considered and consider this agent with their own eyes and ears in the criminal world. This is known even to amateurs.
The consequences of the above orders Bakatin Russia is experiencing so far. Toward the close of his reign, Vadim Viktorovich delivered another fatal blow to the Soviet law enforcement system. He prepared its actual dismemberment into fifteen national republican departments.
I will give an example. In the 1990 year, after independence was declared by Lithuania, the republican Ministry of Internal Affairs was not only not subordinate to the Union Ministry, but also held hostile positions in resolving controversial issues.
Nevertheless, Bakatin gave a personal order that the Ministry of Internal Affairs should finance the Ministry of Internal Affairs of an independent Lithuania, supply it with modern equipment and help create a police academy in Vilnius, which, by the way, educated cadres in the anti-Soviet and anti-Russian spirit. This Bakatin considered a "constructive step" in relations between the USSR and independent Lithuania.
POLITICAL BUREAU. THE DISCUSSION OF THE SOVIET GENERAL
Special mention should be made of the role of the Politburo of the Central Committee under Gorbachev. It was intended to provide collective leadership for the party and the country. However, it turned into an improvised tool for blessing the disastrous decisions of the new General Secretary.
Solving this problem, already in April, 1985 began to change the balance of forces in the Political Bureau of the Central Committee. First of all, all opponents of Gorbachev were removed from PB: Romanov, Tikhonov, Scherbitsky, Grishin, Kunaev, Aliyev. Those who took an active part in the operation to elect him as the General Secretary were the first to take their place: E. Ligachev, N. Ryzhkov and V. Chebrikov.
Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergey Sokolov, dismissed after the "case of Rust"
In total, during his reign, Gorbachev replaced three members of the Central Committee Political Bureau, each of which was much weaker than the previous one. He immediately felt himself the master. According to Valery Boldin, a former longstanding assistant and, in fact, Mikhail Sergeyevich’s “right hand,” he “became completely intolerant of any criticism at his address ... I remember saying to a Politburo member at the meeting:“ If you continue to chat, I’ll drive out out the door ”(Kommersant-Vlast, 15 in May 2001).
Here is how! However, members of the PB took this trick of the new General Secretary for granted. The old party apparatus was brought up in a very rigid tradition.
Especially it is necessary to tell about the meeting in which Gorbachev dealt with the generals. The time of the “departure” of the candidate of the PB of Marshal of the Soviet Union, Sergei Sokolov, came when Gorbachev realized that the military led by the uncompromising Minister of Defense was hindering his one-sided “peacekeeping policy”. It is known that Sokolov and his entourage were opposed to the signing of the Treaty on the Elimination of Intermediate-Range and Short-Range Missiles (INF).
Then a grand action was launched to update the Soviet generals. As an example, the incident that occurred in May 1941 was used. Then the German military transport aircraft "Junkers-52", checking the Soviet air defense system, freely flying over 1200 kilometers, landed at the Tushino airfield in Moscow. As a result, the Soviet military command and, above all, the air force, covered a wave of repression, and almost everything was replaced.
28 of May 1987 of the year, on the Day of the Border Guard, a Cessna-172 Skyhawk sports plane landed on Vasilyevsky slope near Red Square, at the helm of which sat amateur German pilot Mathias Rust. Gorbachev, arriving in the evening from Romania, right in the government room "Vnukovo-2" held a meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee. Marshal Sokolov was sent to resign on it, and Yazov was immediately appointed Minister, and by the way he found himself at the airport.
30 May of the same year, the PB meeting on the occasion of Rust was held in the Kremlin. The tone was set by Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers Ryzhkov, who demanded the immediate removal of the commander-in-chief of the Air Force and the minister of defense. Well, then everything went well. Speakers Yakovlev, Ligachev, Gorbachev: resign, remove, punish.
Matthias Rust on Vasilyevsky Spusk shortly after landing
Surprisingly, no one remembered that after the scandalous situation in September 1983 with the South Korean Boeing, the USSR signed an addition to the Convention on International Civil aviationcategorically forbidden to bring down civilian aircraft.
No one touched the question of why the plane disappeared from the radar screens after landing the 3 border for about an hour 20 minutes and landed with fairly full tanks. The chairman of the KGB, V. M. Chebrikov, did not say a word that, while waiting for Rust, the Bolshoy Moskvoretsky bridge was allegedly cut by trolleybus wires, and professional television cameras were installed on Red Square.
According to the operative duty officer of the Moscow Air Defense District, Major General Vladimir Reznichenko, at the very moment when Rust's plane flew to Moscow with a favorable wind, the order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces to turn off the automated air defense control system for preventive maintenance was unexpectedly received.
The plane on which M. Rust flew in the Berlin Technical Museum
One of the most vulnerable air defense sites is the boundary between the location zones. According to the testimony of General I. Maltsev: “the target was lost, because the continuous radar field was only in a narrow strip along the border, the dead zones went further, and for some reason Rust chose them for the flight”.
The question is, how did a German amateur pilot know about the boundaries of such “dead zones”? According to the statement by Colonel V. Tishevsky, the Chief of Staff of the Tallinn Air Defense Division, the following rule existed in the air defense system of that time: every 24 hours the borders of such zones were changed. However, 27 May did not receive such a command, so 28 May continued to operate the boundaries of the location zones established the day before.
It turns out that Rust knew about the boundaries of the "dead" zones. Information was available only from the USSR. The question is different: through whom? Allegedly, Rust landed near Staraya Russa (AIF, No. 31, July 2013).
M. Rust during the trial.
The newspaper quotes the author of the TV program “The Moment of Truth” Andrei Karaulov: “I ask Rust:“ Do you want to show you a photo of how your plane is being fueled? ”Rust did not answer, didn’t say anything interesting for him to look at the photos ...”
By the way, this version appeared almost as soon as Rust was detained. Journalist M. Timm from the German magazine "Bunde" drew attention to two facts. First, Rust flew out in a green shirt and jeans, and in Moscow he got off the plane in a red jumpsuit. Secondly, in Helsinki, only a sign of the Hamburg Aeroclub appeared on board his aircraft, while in Moscow people could see an image of a crossed-out atomic bomb pasted on a tail stabilizer.
An intermediate landing was needed to introduce the radio engineering units of the air defense forces into error: to disappear from the radar screens and then take off again, turning from a “border intruder” into a domestic “flight mode violator”.
Nobody at the Politburo of the Central Committee raised the question that Rust followed a surprisingly clear route, as if knowing how the air defense system of the northwestern USSR was built. It is known that in March 1987, Marshal Sokolov left the General Secretary of the country’s air defense maps for this general direction.
As the former commander-in-chief of the Russian Air Force, Army General Peter Deinekin, later asserted, “there is no doubt that Rust’s flight was a carefully planned provocation by Western intelligence agencies. And, most importantly, it was held with the consent and knowledge of individuals from the then leadership of the Soviet Union. ”
“In the case of Rust, it is necessary to carefully separate the real facts from exaggerated sensations,” said Pavel Evdokimov, the chief editor of the Special Forces Russia newspaper. - So, for example, at the suggestion of Andrey Karaulov, the version about trolleybus wires, which were previously taken off in the area of the Cessna, was widely circulated.
However, everything was exactly the opposite: new ones appeared! After. When investigator Oleg Dobrovolsky got acquainted with the photographs from the accident site, he asked Rust with amazement: “Tell me, Matthias, how could you even land a plane on the bridge? ..” He replied that there were only three obstacles: middle and at the end. They began to find out ... And it turned out that after a day or two at the direction of the leadership of the Moscow City Executive Committee, wires appeared every twenty meters.
Another thing - how could Rust overcome what was? In criminal case No. XXUMX of the Investigation Department of the KGB of the USSR, the answer was recorded by a witness, a traffic police officer S. A. Chinikhin: “If you don’t know where the stretch marks are on the bridge, you don’t have to assume that the probability of a catastrophe was”.
One of two things: either we are dealing with a kind of “secret operation” multiplied by favorable accidents, or everything that happened is truly an amazing set of circumstances, which allowed Rust to fly to Moscow.
The same Karaulov says that there is a photograph of a refueling “Cessna” under Staraya Russa. Good! Then why is it still not published? It seems, Karaulov just took Rust "on the fly" to look at his reaction.
Whatever it was, in May 1987, Gorbachev could imagine that the Soviet Armed Forces led, they say, the violator on the entire route of his movement, from the border, and did not shoot down solely because of humanism and goodwill - in the spirit of Perestroika, Glasnost and democratization. And the international response from such a noble position would be enormous! However, Gorbachev did something completely different, ”concludes Pavel Evdokimov.
The analysis on the Politburo of the Central Committee of the scandalous passage of Rust ended with the displacement of almost the entire top of the Armed Forces of the USSR. “One afternoon, in the beginning of June,” Ligachev’s assistant V. Legostaev recalled, “in my office, as usual, suddenly, Yakovlev appeared. By that time, he had already become a member of the Politburo, close to the general secretary. A. N. N.’s broad, rough-drawn face shone with a triumphant smile. He was in a frankly elevated, almost festive mood. Right from the threshold, triumphantly putting his palms in front of him, he blurted out: “In! All hands in blood! By the elbows! ”
From the agitated explanations that followed, it turned out that my guest is returning from the next meeting of the Politburo, which held personnel disassembly in connection with the Rust case. It was decided to remove from their posts a number of top Soviet military leaders. The outcome of this meeting led Yakovlev to such an enthusiastic and victorious state. His hands were "in the blood" of the defeated foe. "
8 December 1987 of the year M. Gorbachev and R. Reagan freely signed the INF Treaty, which today is considered to be the actual surrender of the USSR to the US.
ANTIALCOLOGICAL POLITICAL BUREAU
The following Politburo of the Central Committee, noteworthy, concerns the results of the well-known anti-alcohol campaign, initiated by Gorbachev in May 1985. Discussion of these results took place 24 December 1987 of the year. They discussed the note by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR Vorotnikov “On the consequences of the anti-alcohol campaign in the RSFSR”. The facts there were given deadly. But Gorbachev stood his ground: “The decision was right. We will not change our position of principle. ” And all once again agreed with the Secretary General.
But Gorbachev was crafty. In 1995, he published the book “Life and Reforms,” in which one chapter was titled “Anti-alcohol campaign: noble design, deplorable outcome.” In it, he transferred the arrows of responsibility for the failure to the secretary of the Central Committee, Egor Ligachev, and the chairman of the Party Control Committee, Mikhail Solomentsev. Allegedly they “brought everything to the point of absurdity. They demanded that party leaders in the localities, ministers, business executives “overfulfil” the plan for reducing the production of alcohol and replacing it with lemonade. ”
However, the former Minister of Finance of the USSR, and later the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR Valentin Pavlov, revealed the exact calculation and intent that Gorbachev and Yakovlev assigned to the anti-alcohol campaign: “The world experience of trying to introduce dry law teaches that bans on vaccination of sobriety to the population are useless, but are exceptionally favorable to create mafia structures and their enrichment. The results of the campaign in the USSR were not long in coming, in strict accordance with international experience. Gorbachev and Yakovlev could not have been unaware of this experience, but they solved another problem and were ready to pay any price for its successful solution. ”
There is no doubt that the “fathers” of perestroika were in a hurry to create in the USSR a social basis for the restoration of capitalism. And they found her in the face of the shadow mafia-criminal business. According to various estimates, the state lost up to 200 billion rubles in the fight against alcoholism. The lion's share of this amount "shadow" put in his pocket. And with Sergeyevich Sergeyevich was friends with the “shadow people” since the Stavropol times.
The second part of the social base of the capitalist restoration was the party, Soviet, and especially economic nomenclature. Grace conditions were also created for its successful growth into capitalism. This was facilitated by the adopted laws on state-owned enterprises, cooperations and foreign economic activity.
As a result, the majority of Soviet directors were able to lay the foundation of personal well-being on the ruins of their enterprises with the help of cooperatives, which they generously shared with the party and Soviet nomenklatura. Thus, the proprietary class of democratic Russia was formed. And his fathers should be considered not only Gaidar and Chubais, but above all Gorbachev and Yakovlev.
We will complete the story of the strange August State Emergency Committee. Today, when everyone witnessed a coup d'état in Kiev, where power passed to the Maidan militants, it became clear that not only the blatant corruption of Ukrainian officials, but, above all, the weakness of power, provoked the militants to lawlessness.
The events in Kiev once again reminded the Moscow events of August 1991 of the year. The indecisiveness and uncertainty of the position of the heckachepists, headed by the Chairman of the KGB of the USSR, Vladimir Kryuchkov, led to the defeat of the Emergency Committee.
By the way, hekachepisty could count on the support of the majority of the population of the USSR. I want to remind you that in March 1991, 70% of the population of the “Indestructible Union” spoke in favor of maintaining a single state.
ARRIVE YELTSIN. “WAIT TEAMS!”
As is known, the special group "A" of the KGB of the USSR headed by the Hero of the Soviet Union V.F. Karpukhin since the night of 18 on August 9, 19, was in the area of Arkhangelsk. But the order to isolate Yeltsin, despite repeated telephone inquiries by the commander of Group A, did not follow.
In this regard, I will quote a direct participant in those events - the president of the International Association of veterans of the anti-terror unit "Alpha", the deputy of the Moscow City Duma Sergey Goncharov:
“Karpukhin informed the headquarters that we were on the spot and ready to fulfill the order. A command followed, and I clearly heard it: “Wait for instructions!” It was beginning to get light. I say Karpukhin: “Fedoritch! You will report to headquarters soon. ” Again the command: “Wait! Get in touch later. ” Our commander took responsibility: “And what to expect!” And we relocated to the village, which was located near Arkhangelsk.
Mushroom pickers went ... People saw fighters in an unusual form - in "spheres" and with weapons in their hands, they were frightened and began to shy away from us, to return home.
As I understood, the information reached Korzhakov. I say: “Fedoritch, call again! Everyone understands that we have already been deciphered! ”Karpukhin goes to the management. They formulate a new order to him: “Get up on the position of option number 2” - this is to capture at the time of nomination. We remove the guys, sit down again in the car and move forward two kilometers, begin to disguise. But how to do so many armed people? The villagers looked at us with caution, they did not even go over the water ...
Hero of the Soviet Union Viktor Karpukhin (1947-2003). It was he, as the commander of Group "A" of the KGB of the USSR, who was awaiting the order to arrest Boris Yeltsin. And did not get it.
Okay. We worked on the operation, how to block the nomination, and Karpukhin reported on readiness. It was 6 hours - light, everything is clear, in Moscow the flow of cars goes. From the headquarters again: “Wait for instructions, there will be an order!”
By the 7 watch, service vehicles with guards began to stalk to Archangel. We see some big ranks. All right, they sent our intelligence. It turns out that it was Khasbulatov, Poltoranin and someone else. We report. To us again: “Wait for instructions!” That's it! We do not understand what they want from us and how to carry out the operation!
Somewhere around 8 in the morning, the scouts report: “The column — two armored ZILs, two Volga with Yeltsin’s guard, and the people who arrived there, pushed onto the road. Get ready for an operation! ”Karpukhin calls once again to headquarters and hears:“ Wait for the command! ”-“ What to wait, the convoy will travel in five minutes! ”-“ Wait for the command! ”When we saw them, Fedoritch again pulls off the receiver. He again: "Wait for the team!"
The teams did not arrive. Why? The leaders of the State Emergency Committee, including Kryuchkov, never gave a clear answer to this question. Obviously, none of its organizers ventured to take responsibility. There was no person of the caliber of Valentin Ivanovich Varennikov, but he was in Kiev and could not influence the development of events.
Or, perhaps, there was some kind of complicated double or triple game. I don’t know, it’s hard for me to judge ... The last head of the USSR Supreme Soviet, Anatoly Lukyanov, in an interview with the Russian press reported that the Emergency Committee was created at a meeting with Gorbachev 28 in March 1991. And Gennady Yanayev said that the Emergency Committee documents were developed on behalf of the same Gorbachev.
After Yeltsin's motorcade passed us at high speed, Karpukhin picks up the phone: “What now to do?” - “Wait, we will call you back!” In just five minutes: “Take part of your officers under the protection of Arkhangelskoye”. - “Why ?!” - “Do what you have been told!” The rest - in the division!
The time when the Emergency Committee could win, was ineptly missed. Yeltsin was given precious time to mobilize his supporters and take action. Hours in 10 or in 11 we returned to the N-sky lane, to the place of permanent deployment. And on DH, instead of the programs announced in the broadcasting schedule, Swan Lake was shown. The tragedy of the state turned into a farce. "
... Further, the whole situation fell like a house of cards. Yeltsin, climbing a tank near the White House, declared the GKChP actions unconstitutional. In the evening, the broadcast went on air Newsin which information was announced that put an end to the GKChP. The failed press conference held by the gekachepists also played a role.
In a word, it was not the State Emergency Committee, but almost a madhouse. In fact, there was a repetition of the January situation in Vilnius in 1991. Meanwhile, it is known that the KGB has always carefully prepared its operations. Let us recall at least the first phase of the entry of Soviet troops into Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan, for which the KGB was responsible. Everything was calculated to the minute.
However, much becomes obvious when it turns out that the two “irreconcilable enemies,” Gorbachev and Yeltsin, actually worked in the same bundle. About this "Komsomolskaya Pravda" (18 August 2011 of the year), said the former Minister of Press and Information of Russia Mikhail Poltoranin. Apparently, the head of the KGB knew or guessed about this bundle, which determined the strange duality of his behavior. Moreover, V. Kryuchkov, judging by his conversation with the head of the PGU (intelligence) KGB, Leonid Vladimirovich Shebarshin, in June 1990 decided to rely on Yeltsin.
At the same time, Vladimir Aleksandrovich could not get rid of his personal duty to Gorbachev. As a result, his behavior was a vivid example of following the principle of "ours and yours." But in politics such a duality of position is usually punished. What happened.
CERTIFICATE OF PRINCE SHCHERBATOV
Boris Yeltsin, who performed the subordinate role in the “bundle”, understood that the “putsch” gave him a rare opportunity to end Gorbachev. Unfortunately, Boris Nikolayevich, trying to throw Mikhail Sergeyevich out of big politics, at the same time, he also said goodbye to the Union without regret.
And again, it should be recalled Gorbachev’s treacherous behavior in a situation where Yeltsin, Kravchuk and Shushkevich, meeting in Viskuly, announced the termination of the activities of the USSR as an international entity.
This is now talking about the validity of the statement adopted by the "troika". And then the conspirators knew perfectly well that they were committing a crime and met precisely in Belovezhskaya Pushcha, in order to go to Poland on foot.
It is known that after Viskuley, Yeltsin was afraid to appear in the Kremlin to Gorbachev. He was sure that he would give the command to arrest him, but ... Mikhail Sergeyevich preferred to let the situation take its course. He was satisfied with the situation of the collapse of the USSR, since in this case the probability of bringing him to justice for the crimes committed disappeared.
Sworn enemies Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin, however, fulfilled the general role of the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Earlier, I wrote that during this period Gorbachev was not thinking about how to preserve the Union, but about how to provide himself with a deficit for the future: food, drinks and shelter. It is no coincidence that the long-term security chief of Mikhail Sergeyevich, General of the KGB, Vladimir Timofeevich Medvedev, aptly emphasized that the ideology of survival was the main ideology of Gorbachev.
Unfortunately, then many of the Soviet political and military leaders tried to secure a material reserve for the future. In this regard, it is necessary to tell how in the 1991 year, Americans were buying up the Soviet elite, helping Yeltsin to come to power. I will cite the testimony of Prince Alexei Pavlovich Shcherbatov (1910-2003) from the clan of Rurikovich, President of the Union of Russian Noblemen of North and South America.
On the day of the “putsch” Shcherbatov flew to Moscow from the USA to attend the congress of compatriots. The prince set out his impressions of this trip.
in the memoirs titled “Most Recent History. The first trip to Russia.
By the will of fate Shcherbatov was in the thick of the events of August 1991 of the year. As an influential American citizen, he had direct access to the US ambassador to the USSR, Robert Strauss, who was a very informed person. The prince, who remained a Russian patriot at heart, was acutely worried about the events of August 1991. Therefore, he was interested in everything related to them.
In a material published by the popular Orthodox newspaper “Faith” - “Eskom” (No. XXUMX), Prince Shcherbatov said: “... I tried to learn more details of the preparation of the coup. And in a few days, he clarified something for himself: the Americans, the CIA spent money through his ambassador to Russia, Robert Strauss, using his connections to bribe the military: the Taman and Dzerzhinsk paratroop divisions, which were to go over to Yeltsin. The son of Marshal Shaposhnikov, the War Minister Grachev, received big money.
Shaposhnikov now has an estate in the south of France, a house in Switzerland. I heard from George Bailey, my long-time friend who had worked for many years at the CIA, that the amount allocated to the USSR was more than one billion dollars. Few knew that in 1991, special planes under the guise of diplomatic cargo delivered money to Sheremetyevo Airport, they were handed out in 10-, 20-, 50-bill packages to government leaders and the military. These people were later able to participate in the privatization. Today it is a known fact.
The former delegates of the Shatagua conference participated in the coup: General Chervov helped distribute money among the military, one of the directors of the Banks Trust Company, John Crystal, as I learned, spent the money received from the CIA through his bank. It turned out that if Soviet officials were given good bribes, then destroying the Soviet Union would not be difficult. ”
It remains to add that the conversation of the journalist with Prince Shcherbatov, who was called "the man-legend of Russian history", took place in New York, in a house in Manhattan, in the summer of 2003.
CHALITY OF THE CHEVARDNADZE
Treason has long settled in the Kremlin. 14 February 2014, the TV channel Russia 1, showed the film by journalist Andrei Kondrashov “Afghan”. In it, one of the relatives of the well-known leader of the Mujahideen, Ahmad Shah Massoud, said that most of the military operations of the Soviet troops against the Mujahideen ended in nothing, as Masood promptly received information from Moscow on the timing of these operations.
NATO has always accepted Eduard Shevardnadze, the closest ally of M. Gorbachev, as a dear guest. Not yet brought into circulation
In the film, one more fact of obvious betrayal of the Soviet leaders was voiced. It is known that before the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan with the same Ahmad Shah Massoud, an agreement was reached on a mutual cease-fire. However, at the insistence of Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze and at the direction of Supreme Commander Gorbachev, Soviet troops 23-26 in January 1989 launched a series of massive missile and air strikes on areas under the control of Ahmad Shah Masoud. It was not only a treacherous decision of the Kremlin, but also a war crime.
In this regard, the Republic of Afghanistan has all the legal grounds for declaring M. Gorbachev and E. Shevardnadze war criminals, and may also require their extradition for criminal proceedings on them.
Shevardnadze showed himself not only in Afghanistan. It is known that in April 1989, Shevardnadze spoke at the Politburo of the Central Committee for the immediate establishment of order in the rally in Tbilisi and the bringing to criminal responsibility of the leader of the Georgian opposition Zviad Gamsakhurdia. However, after appearing in Tbilisi 9 on April 1990, after the well-known tragic events, it was Shevardnadze who began to voice a version about the inadequacy of the actions of the military during the dispersal of the protesters, while at the same time using paratroopers of sapper blades - which, as the film showed, shot by KGB operators, only covered their faces from flying stones and bottles.
I remember that in March 1990 at the meetings of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU, devoted to the exit of Lithuania from the USSR, Shevardnadze was one of those who demanded the adoption of the most drastic measures against the Lithuanian separatists and the return of constitutional order in the republic. But in fact, he and A. Yakovlev constantly supplied Landsbergis with information.
1 June 1990, Shevardnadze committed an act of high treason. Being on a visit to Washington, he, as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, together with US Secretary of State J. Baker signed an agreement according to which the States “acquired” more than 47 thousand square kilometers of the Bering Sea area rich in fish and hydrocarbons.
There is no doubt that Gorbachev was informed about this deal. Otherwise, Shevardnadze in Moscow would not be good. How else to understand that Gorbachev blocked any actions to declare this “deal” illegal. The Americans, knowing in advance about the reaction of the head of the USSR, quickly took the area under control. It must be assumed that the remuneration of Shevardnadze and Gorbachev for this "service" was expressed in a very substantial amount.
Undoubtedly, Kryuchkov knew about this dubious deal, but did not dare publicly declare the betrayal of Gorbachev and Shevardnadze. Well, these two got the money, but why was he silent? By the way, in modern Russia there is also a “conspiracy of silence” around this event.
The practice of bribing the national elites of the "independent" states of the United States in recent years has been very intensive and effective. Iraq, Afghanistan, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt ... The last example is Ukraine.
Russian political analyst Marat Musin said that Yanukovich’s uncertain position on the unruly Maidan determined the desire of the President of Ukraine to preserve the billion “greens” that he kept in the United States. Vain hopes. In the United States, the money of the Iranian Shah M. Reza Pahlavi, the President of the Philippines F. Marcos, the President of Iraq S. Hussein, the President of Egypt H. Mubarek and other former “friends” of America have sunk into oblivion.
Not bad managed to earn and the entourage of the Ukrainian president. Most of them have already departed with their households from Kiev to their “alternate aerodromes”, similar to those that our “Russian patriot” Yury Luzhkov had set up in advance for himself in Austria and London.
There is no doubt that a significant part of the Russian ruling elite in the event of an aggravation of the situation in the country will also follow the example of the Ukrainian “colleagues”. Fortunately, their “spare airfields” have long been ready.
THIRTY GORBACHEV SEREBRATES
Not a bad jackpot for his treachery, Mikhail Sergeevich also broke. Paul Kreg Roberts, an American economist and journalist and former Assistant Minister of Finance in the government of R. Reagan, told 2007 about how this was done.
He recalled the time when his supervisor was appointed Assistant US Secretary of Defense for International Affairs (Melvin Laird was then Minister). Taking this opportunity, Roberts asked him the question of how the United States forced other countries to dance to their tune. The answer was simple: “We give their managers money. We buy their leaders. "
As an example, Roberts cited former British Prime Minister Tony Blair. As soon as he resigned from his post, he was appointed adviser to financial corporations with a salary of 5 million pounds. In addition, the United States gave him a series of speeches - for every Blair received from 100 to 250 thousands of dollars. It is known that the US Department of State organized a similar program for ex-President Gorbachev.
Nevertheless, Mikhail Sergeyevich explaining his participation in promotions, refers to the lack of funds, which he then allegedly sends to the financing of the Gorbachev Foundation. Maybe, maybe ... However, it is known that Gorbachev received considerable compensation from Yeltsin for his “non-conflict” withdrawal from the Kremlin.
It is also known that Mikhail Sergeevich in September 2008 received the Medal of Freedom for "the end of the cold war" from the USA. 100 thou. US dollars were attached to the medal. To this should be added the Nobel Peace Prize, which for Gorbachev in 1990 was “procured” R. Reagan. However, without a doubt, this is only a known part of the material well-being that the States have provided the former president of the USSR.
It is known that in 2007, Gorbachev acquired an impressive castle in Bavaria, where he lives with his household. "Castle Hubertus", where previously in two large buildings was a Bavarian orphanage, decorated for a daughter, Irina Virganskaya.
In addition, Mikhail Sergeyevich owns or uses two villas abroad. One - in San Francisco, the other - in Spain (next to the villa of the singer V. Leontiev). He also has real estate in Russia - a summer cottage in the Moscow region (“Moscow River 5”) with a plot of 68 ha.
The “modest” wedding of his granddaughter Xenia, held in May 2003, testifies to the financial possibilities of the former president of the USSR. It took place in the Moscow fashionable restaurant “Gostiny Dvor”, which was cordoned off by police squads. The treat at the wedding was, as the media wrote, “no frills”.
On cold served medallions of goose liver (foie gras) and figs, black caviar on an ice base with warm pancakes, chicken with mushrooms in a thin puff pastry. In addition, guests indulged in fried grouse and elk lips. The highlight of the gastronomic program was a three-tiered, snow-white cake of one and a half meters high.
There is no doubt that in the foreseeable future, Gorbachev will be able to organize for his granddaughters not one such celebration. Unfortunately, the lifetime retribution, apparently, and passes him. But in addition to the human court, there is another Court, which, sooner or later, will pay tribute to this greatest of traitors, the Gerostrat of the 20th century. And the US State Department will not help there.