Military Review

Myths about the Libyan war, peace and revolution

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Myths about the Libyan war, peace and revolutionFor two weeks spent in Libya, I didn’t quite understand what was going on here. Not that I didn’t understand anything at all, but there was no complete clarity. But I realized what is not happening here. Therefore, I will speak about several myths about Libya:

THE FIRST MYTH: THE BASIS OF THE OPPOSITION - THE BREEDING ELITE

Everything seems to be true: the Libyan people are divided into different tribes, and at the height of the offensive, loyal to Muammar Gaddafi, Benghazi (and before NATO actually sided with the rebels), the leaders of Eastern Libya’s largest tribe, Warfalla, said they were not opponents Gaddafi It should be understood in such a way that there was no clarity on this issue. Moreover, in any serious monograph on the modern Libyan stories it is written that Varfalla is a traditional competitor to the tribe of Gaddaf, the same one to which the leader of the Libyan revolution, Muammar Gaddafi, belongs. And in general, from the same monographs it can be found out that there had not recently been any Libyan people, but there were various Arabic-speaking tribes, and for the first time, King Idris I united them in some kind of nation only in the middle of the twentieth century.

In a cafe at the hotel "Nuran" in Benghazi, I got into conversation with a man in professorial glasses and a "Kalashnikov" in his hands, his name was Muhammad Hasan. Before the revolution, he really taught at Kar-Yunis, the oldest university in Libya. He received his education in Britain. He explained to me the situation with the tribes.

The center of the uprising is the main city of eastern Libya, Benghazi. This is one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the country, here belonging to a tribe is just an excuse to ask the interlocutor "what he is from," and then happily declare: "I, too." In fact, here tribal solidarity means no more than in Britain the fact that you are Scot or Welsh. Just an additional reason for conversation, the fact of belonging to a tribe no longer has a political meaning. Mohammed Hassan himself is completely on the side of the rebels, and the question of the “what tribe are you from,” just laughs loudly: “I am almost your compatriot: Circassian - my ancestors came here at the end of the XIX century”.

But not everyone with tribes is that simple. Muammar Gaddafi, overthrowing the king, 10 years old fought with tribalism, during this period it was simply indecent to talk about which tribe you were from. Remnants of feudalism. But then the leader of the Libyan revolution himself began to manipulate tribal competition, raising or lowering representatives of certain tribes, introducing collective responsibility, achieving group loyalty. But the eternal opposition Benghazi deliberately refused to play these endless "checks and balances."

SECOND MYTH: AL-QAIDA WORTH THE POSTMUNS

After the collapse of the USSR in Libya, a certain ideological vacuum arose. It turned out that socialism is noncompetitive and loses to the decaying West. Gaddafi tried to fill the semantic emptiness with something like state Islamism, but very quickly discovered that political Islam was completely out of control and that he had just created a new form of opposition to himself. Then in Libya and the real struggle unfolded with any form of Islamism. It looked about the same as in Russia: searches, arrests, thrown literature, conspiracies sucked from the finger (like the attempt on Matvienko).

After 2004, Muammar Gaddafi began to cooperate with the Americans in the field of the fight against terrorism (it is funny that at one time he was the one who supported many terrorist structures, both Muslim and left-wing). Representatives of the American special services were admitted to Libya, who carried out the arrests of people who were interested in them and took them to prisons in those countries where they could be interrogated without bothering with “human rights”.

Gaddafi himself actively cleared the Islamic opposition. It is the Islamists in Libya who are the main contingent of political prisoners. And almost all Libyan human rights activists (including those of Western orientation) are engaged in the struggle for the rights of predominantly Islamists. There are no legal Islamist movements here, but there is an underground group of volunteer veterans who participated in various jihad. Recently, for the most part against the United States, their European allies and collaborators of Iraq and Afghanistan. The comic of the situation is that now the veteran Mujahideen were in the same basket with yesterday’s opponents: fighting for Gaddafi turned out to be more important for them than fighting the “Great Satan”.

With the representatives of these veterans I happened to meet on the front line during the battle for Ajdabiya. Of course, they are not al-Qaeda, although they almost certainly have contacts with her. This group, which calls itself "Libyan troops of Islamic fighters" does not support the practice of explosions of embassies, ships, skyscrapers, bazaars and mosques. However, they do not condemn al-Qaida too. Rather, they can be compared with our Cossack volunteers who regularly traveled to Yugoslavia at the beginning of the 90s of the last century to fight for bratus Serbs.

It is extremely difficult for political leaders of the rebels to refuse the help of the "Libyan detachments": people with military experience are worth their weight in gold. But nobody allows them to real politics either. There are no representatives of this group in the National Transitional Council (Rebel Government). And in general, of the 30 council members, most of whose names are kept secret - for the reason that they are in the territory controlled by Gaddafi - only two people are positioned as representatives of Islam. Their names are also not disclosed, but Council Speaker Abdulhafiz Gog assures that they do not represent any group, but are included in the Council as people with great personal spiritual authority.

THE THIRD MYTH: THE REINSTALS ARE BEING SUPPORTED TO THE MONACHISTS AND ON THE SUFI'S ORDER OF THE SYNUSSITS, THE CHAPTER OF WHICH WERE BOUGHT BY MUAMMAR GADDAFI KING IDRIS I

I went to a cafe near the port, took out a video camera and started shooting anti-Caddaph agitation on the walls. The camera slowly crawled through the caricatures at the very leader of the Libyan Jamahiriya, at his sons, until the lens came across a portrait of a handsome old man. King Idris, the guy behind the desk explained. I decided to chat with him about politics while I was pulling a tiny cup of coffee.
- Are you a sufi?
- No, just a Muslim.
- Maybe you are a monarchist, would you like, instead of Gaddafi, there was again a king?
- Is it even possible?
“But you have an old monarchist tricolor above the entrance, which has become the banner of this revolution, and inside is a portrait of the king, does it mean something?”
“It's just that everything good here is associated with the old times: then they built a university, a sports arena, yes, read it, all of Benghazi, then there were a lot of cinemas. And under Gaddafi, there was only bla-bla-bla about the fact that changes for the better would soon begin.

Leaving this cafe, I thought that if in 1991, a foreigner asked me if the Russian tricolor means as an alternative to the red flag, that there are royalists behind Yeltsin, I would have decided that it was crazy.

More seriously on this subject I spoke with Mohammed Kablan, the director of the rebel press center. “I am not against the return of the royal family to Libya,” says Kablan, “but there are too many problems here. King Idris's dynasty is not purely Libyan, it is of Moroccan origin, and this moment, of course, would have been played by opponents of the return of the royal family in any capacity other than private individuals. Everything else, Crown Prince Hassan al-Sinousi (grandson of King Idris), who lives between Saudi Arabia and London, is not very suitable for the role of leader simply because of his personal qualities. ” In a word, although the people of the royal family have a very good reputation, there is no one in the National Transitional Council who insists on a different form of government than the Republican one.

THE FOURTH MYTH: WITH GADDAFI, THE LIVIANS LIVED SO WELL, WHAT IT IS UNCERTAINT WHAT THEY WANT

In Russia, they love Gaddafi. Probably, not so much they love him, as they do not love those who are against him: the USA, France, Britain — everything that in the popular consciousness merges into the image of the “world gendarme”. In this context, a whole stream of articles appeared that glorified life in Libya, the most socially prosperous country in Africa. Looking through the Runet, I learned that there was unemployment benefit 800 dollars, the nurse received 1200, the newlyweds were given an interest-free loan for 20 years 64 000 dollars, free medicine and education, milk rivers, shores.

Tatyana Zabizhko, an anesthesiologist, has worked in Libya for 16 years. She came to the press center to call via Skype in Kiev: there is no other connection with foreign countries. Here is what she says about the “sweet” life in Libya: “As foreign specialists, we are considered highly paid, my salary is now 800 dollars, in the last 3 – 4 years they have been pursuing such a policy, so that the earnings of local qualified specialists are pulled up to our level, and In addition, they received dollars 150 – 200. We then also earned less. And most Libyans still have 200 dollars as a normal income. ”

I ask about the benefits and loans to the newlyweds - Tatyana raises her eyebrows in amazement: “for the first time I hear about this.” At the end of the conversation I ask a “control question”:
- Are you for Gaddafi or for the rebels?
- To be honest, for Gaddafi: we worked with him and nobody touched us, but the rebels simply kicked us out of the apartment, came and said that all foreigners were told to get out of here. It is not me who is good here, who is bad, but how it really is.

A couple of days later, we drove into the desert miles behind 150 from Benghazi, look at the lives of ordinary Libyans in simple Libyan backwoods: 8 families huddle in corrugated iron cabins, electricity from a gasoline generator, 3 kilometers - a well with muddy water, bread is baked in " tandyr "- an iron barrel covered with clay - a dozen sheep, around a rocky plain with almost no vegetation and wind.
I ask:
- Where do your children study?
- Yes, nowhere, to the nearest school 60 kilometers.
- What are you, nomads? Why do you live here?
- We are sedentary, we would like to go to the city, but it’s too expensive to move there, we don’t have that kind of money.

THE FIFTH MYTH: REELTS ARE THE RECEIVING OF THE WEST, AND ON THE PART OF GADDAFI IS A HEALTH PART OF LIBYAN SOCIETY

I will not argue with the first part of this statement. There are really many westernized people among the rebels, many of them have good English. In the National Transitional Council, in addition to the two closest associates of Gaddafi - former Interior Minister Abdel Fatah Younes and former Justice Minister Mustafa Mohamed Abdul Al-Jeleil - the rest or teachers from Western universities (Ali Tarhuni and Fathi al-Baja), or human rights lawyers ( Fathi Tibril and Abdelhafiz Gogh). And the army is represented by General Omar al-Hariri, who escaped from Gaddafi in the USA back in the 80s and stayed there until the revolution itself. In general, quite pro-Western audience. Although, strictly speaking, these are not “hirelings”, but simply supporters - of the West and the Western way.

But as for the "healthy part of society," then it is worth understanding.

Muammar Gaddafi did not trust his own army, in contrast to it, he created an alternative armed forces - the Katyba (in Arabic - battalions), a kind of privileged personal guard. The Katybs were formed not so much from the number of Libyans as by the Murtazaks (mercenaries, mostly from Chad). Each of these katybov was led by one of the closest relatives of Gaddafi himself. If the army bases were always outside the cities, the Kabybs were always stationed in their center. It was these units that were the backbone of the regime, it was the mercenaries who opened fire on the demonstrators, then still unarmed.

Khatys (the subordinate to the son of Muammar Gaddafi Khamis) attacked Benghazi, the first onslaught were beaten off just by the townspeople, while NATO had not yet joined. With the murtazak Khamis fought really desperately. Why? Yes, because they were afraid, they knew: no one will be spared.

But the story of Ukrainian doctors. They were taken to the hospital with the wounded from both sides, and after the operations both of them were placed in the same wards. Libyans, even those who fought on different sides, keep each other friendly, calmly discussing various household trifles. Wounded Qaddafi Libyans and prisoners are considered conditional. Everyone knows: the war will end, they will be cured and let go home. Another thing - mercenaries. You deliver this from the operating room to the ward, he has not yet had time to move away from the anesthesia, but he is being dragged to the backyard and, if he does not have time to intervene, he is killed there. What is most surprising, in these executions, and the prisoners of the Libyan-Gaddafists also participate, although it seems to be from the same camp as the mercenaries.

To say that Gaddafi has no support at all inside Libyan society is to lie. There is such a structure in Libya - Lezhan Savriya (revolutionary committees) - civilian supporters of Muammar Gaddafi. About these committees, Professor Mohamed Hassan says: “They are above the law. People from them walked the streets with weapons, they had the right to kill you even for some purely personal reasons. The only thing they need to say then is that the dead person was suspected that you had something against Gaddafi. ” You can make an amendment that this is the story of the enemy regime, but what is in the bottom line, is still impressive.

Mohammed Hassan teaches political science at a local university, and for a long time we selected with him an analogue of Lezhan Savriy in other countries.
- Does Iran Pazdoran look like?
- No, there is an Islamic ideology there, these have nothing like that, just as long as they are for power, they can do anything.
- Does the Chinese Red Guards look like?
- No, they were young people, there was a conflict of generations, there is nothing like that here.
- And about the Russian "Nashi" you heard?
- No, I don’t know anything about these.
- Maybe it looks like a Colombian drug mafia?
- In something similar, but not quite.

We have not picked up the analog. I even wanted to tell him about Shvonder, but I realized that the vocabulary is not enough. It's a pity. It seemed to me that the chairman of the house committee with a revolver in his pocket - just that - is the social support of Gaddafi.
Author:
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14 comments
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  1. Egor
    Egor April 9 2011 21: 01
    0
    I don’t know how it is with Gaddafi’s opposition. But the main social pillar of the opposition of Gaddafi is Orhan Cemal
    and similar govnojournalists, who regularly receive the Borovik Prize and the like for the deflection before the flock.
  2. slan
    slan April 9 2011 23: 18
    0
    It is hard to believe that relying on mercenaries and schoneders can successfully defend and develop an offensive against NATO and the recipients of their feeding.
  3. cabin boy
    cabin boy April 9 2011 23: 38
    0
    It turns out to kill a wounded man without a weapon because he is "not from our village", is this normal, is it democratic?
  4. datur
    datur April 9 2011 23: 41
    0
    Another controversial point of view.
  5. cabin boy
    cabin boy April 9 2011 23: 52
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    The author did not at all voice the topic of people's self-government and the distribution of benefits from oil production. Thus, he said nothing. Finding a situation when "8 families are huddled in corrugated iron houses, electricity from a gasoline generator, 3 kilometers away - a well with muddy water" in the "Light of Dermocracy" on the border with Mexico will not be difficult.
  6. cabin boy
    cabin boy April 10 2011 00: 08
    0
    "There is no one in the National Transitional Council who would insist on a different form of government than the Republican" "of 30 councilors, most of whose names are kept secret." So I did not understand, the author found out the opinion of all 30 members of the council, or did one grandmother tell him?

    I just don’t want to comment on the disclosures of the first two myths because of their meritoriousness.
    Dear editors of the site, please choose the authors for publication more carefully, not because the author expresses a point of view different from mine, but because this article is not intended for "vegetable people".
  7. Pofigcomm
    Pofigcomm April 10 2011 03: 20
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    Jung, you are this very "vegetable man". And instead of a head you have a roach. How many of these vegetables have you grown? !!!
  8. slan
    slan April 10 2011 11: 39
    0
    pofigcomm, write more)) And who is Putler? Ask you to learn the Russian language. Moldovan-Ukrainian govnobloger-grantoed?
  9. huginn
    huginn April 10 2011 12: 29
    0
    The tendency is simply there. Not a word about the mythical victims of the Benghazi bombing. But as an illustration of poverty under Gaddafi found a whole Bedouin (such a wimp in the states can be found). The author saw the rebels: everyone is a professor. But the author only introduced the Gaddafists - schwonders, he believes that they are like that, although he could see it with his own eyes. And if he considers it too dangerous, he could say that he didn’t see it, I don’t know. Then, the bias in the article would not have been.
  10. Sasha
    Sasha April 10 2011 14: 09
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    and before that they received 150-200 dollars. We also earned less then. And for most Libyans, even today, $ 200 is considered normal income.
    =====
    Well, so what? and? in Russia, in the outback, we also have salaries of 150-300 dollars (in terms of course) ... and there is no general standard of living ... In general, if the author does not have CERTIFICATE INFORMATION, then there’s nothing to write, such slag is completely driven into the head by the population ... in short, who, as a result of this mess, will be in the plus, he has brewed it, time will tell ...
  11. datur
    datur April 10 2011 15: 18
    0
    AMERICOS IGNITED A FIRE WICK, AND NOW THE CRUSHES ARE SCRATCHED ON WHICH IT WOULD LIKE TO DETACH. TO WHICH THE CAUCASIANS HAVE contacted, they are naughty, unprincipled, dastardly, SHORTLY. HERE AND HERE ARE RIDING ON PICK-UPS. FIRING IN THE AIR ON A CAMERA, IF WESTERN JOURNALISTS WILL PAID. AND AS ONLY THE SMALL THREAT OF MILITARY COLLISION WITH THE MILITIES, AVOID AS WALKARA.
  12. Pofigcomm
    Pofigcomm April 10 2011 17: 24
    0
    What kind of Putler will you learn over time. And of course I will write more so that you choke with anger with your tie, -Removed- you are a clerical, Mongol-Tatar gebist ...
  13. cabin boy
    cabin boy April 10 2011 19: 01
    +1
    datur "NONDELIEFS. THEM SERVE ALL FREE OF CHARGE, THAT WOULD NOT HAVE ANYTHING TO DO!
    Dear, you are wrong, among them there are real warriors, even the author writes about this "but there is an underground group of volunteer veterans who participated in various jihads", Gaddafi said the same thing, and even generals from NADO were forced to admit this fact in confusion. But apparently for "not vegetable people" the author makes an amazing conclusion: "but who are they, who will follow them?" This is because the "secret 30 founding fathers" have a clear organization, so clear that no one knows it by sight. A clear-cut program of action, apparently calculated for decades to come, to overthrow Gaddafi at any cost. Well, the extras, she is extras on any stage
  14. slan
    slan April 10 2011 19: 29
    0
    Pofigcomm Proud ukr negodue)) But don’t you know that Gaddafi was the sponsor of your main syphilitic? However, it would be naive to expect gratitude from such people.