To get support on the peninsula, the Germans established a puppet government. Seydamet at a meeting of Kurultay was proclaimed Prime Minister. However, these plans came up against active opposition from the Russian liberals, who refused to work in the government of the Crimean Tatar nationalists. Considering that on the side of the zemstvos, city councils and party democratic structures was a big force, the Germans revised their plan and in June ordered the formation of the government to lieutenant-general Sulkevich. The commander of the 1 th Muslim corps, the Tsarist general and the Lithuanian Tatar Matvey Alexandrovich Sulkevich, seemed to the Germans a suitable compromise figure. 25 Jun new government formed. Seidamet retained in him a significant post - Foreign Minister. Sulkevich took the post of prime minister, minister of internal and military affairs.
In the declaration “To the Population of Crimea”, the independence of the peninsula was announced, the citizenship of the Crimea and state symbols were introduced. We planned to create our own armed forces and monetary unit. Three state languages were introduced: Russian, Crimean-Tatar and German. The new government has formed in Yalta a punitive detachment of Crimean Tatars number in 700 people.
However, the Crimean Tatar nationalists were not going to stop there. In July 1918, a memorandum was sent to the German monarch on behalf of Kurultay. In it, nationalists reported on the “Russian yoke”, “cruel oppression” and offered to restore “Tatar domination” in Crimea. For this, they noted the following reasons: 1) the Crimean Tatars constituted the “permanent element of the Crimea”; 2) as “the most ancient gentlemen of Crimea”, they formed the basis of the entire economic life of the peninsula and were the majority of the population of Crimea; 3) they protect the independence of Crimea; 4) having a parliament and a political national organization, they are best prepared to defend the interests of Crimea in "international diplomacy"; 5) “thanks historical and the military capabilities of their race, they can maintain peace and tranquility in the country ”; 6) Crimean Tatars have the support of the Central Council.
In their memorandum, the Crimean nationalists proposed to transform the Crimea into an “independent neutral Khanate”, which would be supported by Germany and Turkey. It was proposed to liberate the Crimea from the "domination and political influence of the Russians." To strengthen the personnel it was proposed to return to the Crimea all Tatar officials and officers who lived in the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria. Among the priority measures was the formation of the Tatar army.
Flag of the Crimean Regional Government M. Sulkevich
New invaders. White Crimea
The German government in the Crimea lasted a bit. Germany was defeated in the war and in November 1918 surrendered. Soon, new occupants began to rule in the Crimea. On November 26 a squadron of the Entente appeared on the roadstead of Sevastopol. On board the ships were British marines, French and Senegalese arrows and Greeks. The main base of the invaders was Sevastopol. Separate groups of invaders settled in Yevpatoria, Yalta, Theodosia and Kerch.
The new “rescuers of Crimea” declared that they had come to “restore order” and guarantee payment of royal debts to the Entente powers. The new liberal, puppet government of Crimea enthusiastically welcomed the "rescuers". The Crimean Tatar nationalists, seeking a new owner, arrived at the bow.
The nationalists hoped that the new government would support their aspirations. However, the new owners of the Crimea disappointed them. They relied on the White movement. In addition, the new invaders did not have time to establish themselves in the Crimea. Soviet power again occupied the peninsula. In April, 1918, parts of the Ukrainian Front successfully conducted operations to liberate the Crimea. Red troops occupied the whole Crimea, except for the Kerch Peninsula. April 28-29 was established by the Crimean SSR.
But this time the Soviet government did not last long in Crimea. In June, a white landing force headed by Major General Slashchev was landed on the peninsula. By June 26, the Red Army left the Crimean Peninsula under the onslaught of the enemy. True, this did not bring any benefit to the Crimean Tatars. The commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the South of Russia (VSYUR), A. I. Denikin, spoke in favor of a “united and indivisible Russia,” so he did not feel any sympathy for the Crimean Tatar separatists. The White Administration completely ignored the aspirations of the Crimean Tatars for independence.
Moreover, all the germs of separatism ruthlessly uprooted. So, in the summer of 1919, the Crimean Tatar directory was dissolved. The attitude of the new government to the Crimean Tatar nationalists is well characterized by the following event. Once, during a meeting of the Crimean-Tatar nationalist youth in the large garden of the Khan's palace, a Cossack detachment appeared, blocking the exits so that no one would run away. Then everyone gathered whipped.
At the same time, the Crimean nationalists continued to fight against the Soviet power. Thus, the armed groups "Milli Firka" ("National Party"), a political party of the Crimean Tatars, which had good contacts in Turkey, participated at the front in battles with the Red Army.
Crimean nationalists tried to find new owners. In April, 1920, Seidamet proposed a mandate over Crimea to Poland. However, Pilsudski did not give a direct answer. He said that this would be possible only with the approval of the League of Nations and the consent of Kiev (the Petliura government). It is clear that the Petliurists did not agree, stating that they agree only on broad autonomy. In November 1920, Seydamet visited Warsaw. The leader of the Crimean separatists told Pilsudski that the Tatars did not support Wrangel, but did not want the return of the Bolsheviks either. They hope to create an independent “Tatar republic” on the model of Estonia or Latvia. Crimean separatists have established close contacts with the Polish General Staff.
However, the fate of the Crimean Peninsula was not decided in Warsaw and not by the Crimean nationalists. Soon the troops of the Southern Front launched a decisive offensive, breaking through the defenses of the white troops at Perekop. By 17 November 1920, the Crimea was liberated from whites. On the peninsula, Soviet power was restored again. Some nationalists "repainted" the Social Democrats, others went underground.
Crimean Tatars on the way to World War II
In October, the 1921, the Central Executive Committee and the CPC issued a decree establishing the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the RSFSR. 7 November The 1 All-Crimean Constituent Congress of Soviets in Simferopol proclaimed the creation of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The Constitution was adopted and the leadership of the autonomous republic was chosen.
In the 1920s, when the positions of the internationalist Trotskyists were strong in Moscow and in the provinces, who saw all the problems in “Great Russian, great-power chauvinism”, the course was set for the so-called. "Indigenization". According to the concept of internationalists in the Russian Empire, small nations were "oppressed", so in the new Soviet state they received all sorts of benefits, privileges, national areas received the opportunity to prioritize the development of various cultural, social and economic programs. At an accelerated pace, they created the national intelligentsia of small nations, nominated their representatives for leadership positions in the state and party apparatus, the education system and the economy. In essence, ethnocracy was created at an accelerated pace, which ultimately became one of the prerequisites for the demise of the Soviet Union.
No exception and the Crimean peninsula. At the same time, a significant number of “former” Crimean Tatar nationalists, who “repainted” in time, fell into the leadership of the republic and into leading posts in various spheres. In addition, they could argue that during the rule of the White Army in the Crimea, they suffered from the "great-power manners" of the leaders of the white movement, and before that they suffered under the "oppression of tsarism."
A typical representative of the Crimean ethnocracy was Veli Ibraimov. His story pretty well describes the negative picture that has developed in the autonomous republic. Ibraimov lived in Turkey and the Transcaucasus for several years. In 1916, he headed the Crimean Tatar Union. The revolution and the Bolsheviks' course on the nomination of national cadres opened up a brilliant career for the former cashier. In 1919-1920 he served as a member of the Special Division of the Cheka on the Caucasian Front, in 1921 he became chairman of the Special Troika for Combating Banditry in Crimea, then People's Commissar of the Workers and Peasants Inspection (RCT) of the Crimean ASSR. In 1924, he became chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
The cause of the collapse of Ibraimov’s career was his comrade, the nationalist Amet Hayser, who “repainted” the Bolsheviks. It was a very remarkable person. The person is physically developed, tall, broad-shouldered, frightening look. A former officer of the tsarist army, in 1918, he fought in the ranks of the White Army against the Reds. He served in the Crimean Tatar formations. In 1920, he served in counterintelligence in the army of Wrangel, more than once took part in reprisals against Soviet officials, party workers, members of the underground fighters and partisans. After the fall of the White Crimea, Hayser organized a gang formation and went into the mountains, from where he committed predatory raids.
However, this did not lead him to a deserved highest degree. In May, Hayser and his henchmen were amnestied. Moreover, the former White Guard and gangster became the commandant of the detachment, who was in the Special Troika. His accomplices also entered the same squad. Hayserov was even presented with a personal revolver for good service, as a “selfless fighter on the gangster front.” The revolver was presented on behalf of the Deputy Chairman of the Crimean Central Election Commission Ibraimov. Soon Hayser became the personal secretary, the security guard and attorney Ibraimov. He held this position until 1926, then he went to work at the House of the Peasant. In the same year, the Municipal Court held the trial of the Muslumov brothers, who led a revolt of the local kulaks. In this case, was involved and Hayser. He escaped punishment only through the intervention of Ibraimov.
Ibraimov decided to kill the witnesses for the prosecution A. Seidametov and I. Cholak. They did not accept the decision of the court and continued to denounce Khayserov. Hayser and his associates 28 May 1927, attacked Seidametov. The witness received 13 wounds, including several severe ones, but he miraculously survived. Cholaku less fortunate. 12 July he was lured into the apartment Ibraimov and strangled. The body of the former red partisan was dumped in a city dump. However, the killers miscalculated. Before going to the meeting, Cholak informed the duty officer of the Red Army that he had been summoned by the CEC chairman and that he would go to him, but he was afraid for his life.
Ibraimov unlocked in every way, but was exposed. In addition, during the investigation revealed other crimes of a prominent figure. He turned out to be a robber of considerable sums of money spent on personal needs and on the support of hiding thugs and other private individuals. In 1928, Ibraimov was removed from his post as chairman of the Crimean CEC, arrested and shot.
It should be noted that during the years of perestroika and reforms, Veli Ibraimov (Ibrahimov) became for the Crimean nationalists a “hero” who “fought for the tatarisation of the Crimea”, for the resettlement of the indigenous people from uncomfortable and small plots to the best lands and personally confronted Stalin. Another "great martyr" who suffered from Stalin's "bloody tyrant"! .. Although in reality it was a typical thievish head of the national region who promoted "his own", connected with local crime and did not shun personally to commit serious crimes. Therefore, he was shot for "terrorist act", "participation in a gangster gang" and "embezzlement".
This case gives an understanding of why during the invasion of German troops, the Crimean Tatars massively betrayed the Soviet Union. The infection that manifested itself in the years of the revolution and the Civil War, not only was not bred, but also took deep roots. Disguised as communists and Komsomol members, the Crimean Tatar nationalists did not forget about their true goal.