Military Review

How do Russian snipers

40
How do Russian snipers



Sniper is a special profession, surrounded by a veil of secrecy. Lifting the veil, we learned where Russian snipers are trained, what Alpha shoots from, why shooters have old tires, how to lure a target on a fly and why snipers do not behave like in the movies.

Hard to learn

Army snipers are trained in every military district. In Solnechnogorka, near Moscow, there is, if I may say so, an academy - here snipers of elite units train, and their colleagues from military units improve their skills. In addition to shooting and masking, the training course includes ballistics, survival, meteorology, observation, sapper, tactics and communication. And this is not a complete list of knowledge necessary for a sniper.

From time to time, officers of the Solnogorsk center are sent to practice in the “hot spots”.

- Our first trip took place in early November. The fourth we were thrown under Bamut, - said the sniper, nicknamed Sasha the Great. - Here we were given to army units, worked on the front end. A sniper woman worked against us. Calculated it for a long time. And one day, when she changed position, I got her. The distance to it was almost a kilometer. SVD at such a distance is ineffective, but for my B-94 just right. Replacing the position, the sniper hid behind a tree, but in the thirteen-fold sight I clearly saw her croup, protruding from behind the trunk. He took the first shot.



Tire Shot
To work, a sniper needs a comfortable, protected, invisible position, and not one - after two or three successful shots the place must be changed, otherwise you risk becoming a victim of antisniper and artillery. In addition, we need positions of observation, a jump — from where one can quickly advance for firing — and safe escape routes. They, too, should be several and the way these snipers are prepared in the first place.

- A very comfortable position - padded armored vehicles with an emergency hatch in the bottom. Inside the sniper is invulnerable to small weapons. The abundance of hatches and embrasures expands the area of ​​shelling, and the hidden protected exit allows you to quietly and safely leave the position, ”said the officer Sasha the Little.

Before entering the position, the sniper inspects the background and masks it. A gross mistake will be located on the crest of the rock, where the shooter in the best camouflage will stand out clearly even on an overcast day. A skilled sniper will descend from the ridge to the slope, facing the enemy, and take a position in the shadows. One should be friends with a shadow - it conceals the outlines, the optics does not shine in it. But not with everyone. New shadow on a well-known enemy area will cause suspicion. Therefore, working in the morning and in the evening, the sniper chooses a position so that his oblique shadow does not catch the eye.

Disguise - sniper rescue. In case of detection of an arrow on him hurricane fire from all that is at hand. Either they try to capture him alive - it is still unknown what is worse. Therefore, the art of camouflage in sniper schools is taught carefully and camouflage their graduates are engaged daily and painstakingly.

The most comfortable suit for the sniper is shaggy. It is poorly detected by ultrasonic and infrared equipment, night vision devices. Turned "wool" inside it warms perfectly, it can be used as a laying, blanket or hammock for sleeping. Before entering the position, the shaggy camouflage is additionally painted under the terrain.

The main principle of disguise - the eye of the observer on it should not stop. Garbage is best suited for this, and snipers often arrange their positions in landfills. The arrows of the Great Patriotic War carried with them an artificial stump, in modern snipers it was replaced by an old tire. The embrasure in it is disguised as a natural impulse, from the inside is inserted an anti-slat.

Ready or not, here I come
In war, all tricks are good - for example, bait. A great way to deliver a target to the affected area is a weapon. Sniper tries to shoot an enemy soldier so that his machine gun remains on the parapet. Sooner or later, someone will try to pick him up and also get a bullet. A sniper can ask scouts during a night raid by a reconnaissance group to leave in the field of his activity a spoiled pistol with a silencer, a brilliant clock with a broken mechanism, or another lure. Whoever crawls after her will become his client.

A sniper will shoot a person in an open area so that he loses the ability to move. And he will wait for him to come to the rescue. They will shoot the assistants, and then finish off the wounded. If the sniper shoots at the group, then the first shot will be at the one coming from behind - so that the others will not see that he fell. While the comrades of the murdered person realize what's what, the sniper will shoot two or three more.



Matrimony
Snipers "Alpha" and "Vympel" shoot from British AW rifles, put into service in the middle of the 80-s. The abbreviation stands for Arctic Warfare - arctic warfare and means that the weapon is adapted to work at low temperatures. Created a rifle by Malcolm Cooper, world and Olympic shooting champion. It uses NATO NATO ammunition caliber 7,62 millimeters, and its accuracy is such that at a distance of 550 meters a series of five shots fit into a circle with a diameter less than 50 millimeters.

Army experts use the Dragunov sniper rifle and the Tula V-94 "Burglar". The SVD was good in the first series, until in the 70-ies for the sake of firing armor-piercing incendiary cartridges did not change the pitch of the barrel rifling. The accuracy of the "Burglar" is one and a half times higher, and the initial energy of the bullet exceeds that of the SVD five times. The 12,7 mm B-94 chuck penetrates an armored vehicle. However, the rifle is long - 1,7 meters, heavy and very noisy. Use it recommended in headphones.

About sights for sniper rifles, you can write a book. We can only say that for different tasks different ones are used: the required multiplicity, day and night, with and without laser illumination of the target. By the way, AW has different trunks for different purposes ...

Not like in the movies
They like to show snipers in action movies - the truth is, the work of screen shooters is far from reality. Experts pointed to the two most common mistakes of filmmakers:

- The real sniper never works alone. Usually there are two people in the firing position: the shooter and the observer, who corrects the fire and monitors the situation. The sniper looks at the sight, and his viewing angle is small. It happens that a whole group helps a working sniper: the observer corrects the fire, the machine-gunners cover the flanks, the sappers undermine the approaches - but this group is less mobile and much more visible. The most common option is a couple, ”said Viktor Petrovich, a sniper.

While aiming the victim, the cinematic sniper usually slides the barrel of the rifle out of the window - so the screen will be more effective. This shooter is firing from the depths of the room: the sound of the shot is significantly muffled by the walls, the powder gases also remain inside, and it is difficult to see the sniper in the dim window.

Author:
Originator:
http://www.rg.ru/2014/03/09/sniper-site.html
40 comments
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  1. Rus86
    Rus86 14 March 2014 08: 44
    +9
    interesting points, but too loud a name
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 14 March 2014 12: 11
      +10
      A set of standard sniper stamps. For instance:
      It uses AW cartridges of NATO caliber 7,62 millimeters, and its accuracy is such that at a distance of 550 meters a series of five shots fits into a circle with a diameter of less than 50 millimeters.

      It turns out that this device has a accuracy of 0,1 MOA, but in reality 0,5 MOA, that is, 25 cm at a distance of 550 meters.

      The Cracker's accuracy is one and a half times higher,
      A bunch of them have the same good quality SVD, release until the mid-70s gives 0,7-0,8 MOA, a bunch of later releases rarely go beyond 1 MOA, although 1,04 MOA (30 mm.) According to the instructions self-loading rifle is an excellent result.
      The most comfortable suit for a sniper is shaggy.
      The costume unfortunately preserves the contour of the person, the cloak fits better.

      machine gunners cover the flanks
      Usually a machine gunner leads a disturbing, distracting fire. To hide the sound of sniper shots.
      So there are not enough matches. The author studied the material poorly ...
      1. jjj
        jjj 14 March 2014 15: 50
        +4
        Marxists have other tasks. With close contact to 300 meters and optics are not needed. So everything is visible, besides the angle of view is full. You can work well in a group where there are several people with light machine guns, and several Marxmen with well-shot machine guns. I really liked to shoot from the first issues of the AKS-74. I won’t say anything about a nickel, but in a box from a hundred meters it’s stable
        1. Timeout
          Timeout 14 March 2014 16: 14
          +5
          Quote: jjj
          With close contact up to 300 meters, optics are not needed.

          Do not confuse the Marxman and the sniper. Marxman is a support fighter with a weapon with optics. In general, you yourself indicated the distance for firing from an automatic rifle ... By the way, the AK-74M of the latest releases had better accuracy, the first ones were pretty lousy.
  2. IsailoR
    IsailoR 14 March 2014 08: 51
    +6
    The last video just killed! What a fool. Who uses the scope as a butt laughing
    That's good too
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrFTutzHNXk
  3. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 14 March 2014 08: 55
    +11
    Galloping across Europe ... Well, at least the video is not bad ...
    The basic basic principles of camouflage are listed. The article would look good in the magazines Popular Mechanics, and earlier - in Technics of Youth or Pioneer, but it does not even reach the level of Soviet Warrior.
  4. Archikah
    Archikah 14 March 2014 09: 06
    +10
    In the army - was a senior sniper shooter. In our unit, almost everyone fired without a miss at a distance of 850 m (SVD). But then some strange pattern began. SVD - hits 1300 m. But on km. 20 percent only fell. I’m silent, then. Arrows many were former hunters. Taiga, etc. I can say that a sniper is a warehouse of character and something else from God. And at 550 meters, this donkey can also be taught to shoot. good
  5. Narkom
    Narkom 14 March 2014 09: 22
    +4
    Sniper, this is not a profession. Sniper, this is a vocation.
    1. Alexey Prikazchikov
      Alexey Prikazchikov 14 March 2014 10: 33
      0

      Narkom SU  Today, 09:22


      Sniper, this is not a profession. Sniper, this is a vocation.


      Delirium
    2. The comment was deleted.
  6. Siberia 9444
    Siberia 9444 14 March 2014 09: 38
    +7
    How Russian snipers work, QUIET. yes
    1. svp67
      svp67 14 March 2014 12: 04
      +3
      Quote: Siberia 9444
      How do Russian snipers work?

      - deadly for sure ...
      1. novobranets
        novobranets 14 March 2014 15: 38
        +5
        Riddle Will bring a glass eye, Click once and remember you. Think a photographer? Nope. lol
  7. intsurfer
    intsurfer 14 March 2014 12: 25
    0
    I am tormented by vague doubts (C) of the movie that it is unlikely that the secrets of the work of snipers will be revealed on the pages of an Internet publication. And then, what is described in the article here, can be seen in the heap of films. And in the movie, a lot is attracted by the ears for the sake of a beautiful frame.
  8. f-radar
    f-radar 14 March 2014 12: 45
    0
    Quote: intsurfer
    I am tormented by vague doubts (C) of the movie that it is unlikely that the secrets of the work of snipers will be revealed on the pages of an Internet publication. And then, what is described in the article here, can be seen in the heap of films. And in the movie, a lot is attracted by the ears for the sake of a beautiful frame.


    The same thoughts for some reason)
  9. ddd1975
    ddd1975 14 March 2014 12: 56
    +2
    A sniper is almost like a sapper - he is also mistaken twice.
    1. novobranets
      novobranets 14 March 2014 15: 40
      +3
      First time choosing a profession? bully
  10. Vasia kruger
    Vasia kruger 14 March 2014 13: 10
    0
    good article.
  11. zmeigavrila
    zmeigavrila 14 March 2014 14: 09
    +1
    And in my opinion the article is about nothing
  12. Sonik
    Sonik 14 March 2014 14: 19
    +1
    Do not run from the sniper, you will die tired. stop
  13. kplayer
    kplayer 14 March 2014 14: 34
    +2
    Quote: Timeout
    ... SVD of good quality, release until the mid-70s gives 0,7-0,8 MOA, a bunch of later releases rarely go beyond 1 MOA, although according to the instructions 1,04 MOA (30 mm.) So for self-loading rifles are a great result.

    I allow myself to comment. The point is not in the quality of manufacture and not in the gas outlet of the semiautomatic rifle, but in the pitch of the rifling of the barrel, which until the beginning of the 70s was 320 mm. Since with such a rifle, effective firing of armor-piercing incendiary cartridges was impossible (due to somersault of a bullet with a different ballistics), the pitch was changed to 240 mm., After which the accuracy indicators deteriorated.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 14 March 2014 15: 31
      +2
      Quote: kplayer
      It's not about manufacturing quality

      I didn’t specifically write about the rifling step, some rifles with these trunks gave a bunch of 0,5 MOA, only many consider it more like a fairy tale, you can hardly find such ones. So he noted more mundane results.
      The quality of weapons produced after 1989 has fallen significantly compared to the early years. Both in manufacturing and in the accuracy of trunks.
  14. Lyton
    Lyton 14 March 2014 15: 09
    +1
    Quote: Timeout
    So there are not enough matches. The author studied the material poorly ...

    Well, apparently the author and 95% of the truth did not say because he did not need to know this, like everyone else who has nothing to do with it.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 14 March 2014 15: 38
      +7
      The article is a compilation of excerpts from articles from "Brothers", "Popmekh" and information from Popenker's website. Real instructions for snipers, both the Soviet-Russian school and Western shooters, have long been circulating on the network. By the way, the Soviet sniper school after the Second World War and before the collapse of the union was considered the best in the world.
  15. kplayer
    kplayer 14 March 2014 16: 09
    0
    Quote: Timeout
    I didn’t specifically write about the rifling step, some rifles with these trunks gave a bunch of 0,5 MOA, only many consider it more like a fairy tale, you can hardly find such ones.

    Of course, the resource of the trunk is not eternal.
    Quote: Timeout
    The quality of weapons produced after 1989 has fallen significantly compared to the early years.

    I agree, this could not be mentioned, it meant (beginning, first half of the 70s) a stable Soviet period.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 14 March 2014 16: 36
      +1
      Quote: kplayer
      Of course, the resource of the trunk is not eternal.
      Not only, similar trunks were almost all withdrawn from the troops. So, they are more likely now in long-term storage warehouses along with three-rulers and CBT.
  16. Evgeny_Lev
    Evgeny_Lev 14 March 2014 16: 23
    +8
    The aunt got "Metina an idiot". And the man could tell her how to aim))

    I remember back in 2000, we were transferred to the Caspian Sea, to form the combined brigade of the MP.
    Well, as usual in such cases, the formed unit undergoes combat coordination.

    We, by that time, had already served half on Sputnik (SF), fired from all the infantry that was, but the flyers, who were only released from the "Zelefan" school for only a year and put us to steer, apparently not))

    Well, we got together for one of the first shooting, got the task, which means we have a smoke. Lethekhi boast, they say, they are super fighters and all that, we naturally giggle "into a tube." Loads, made for standing shooting, as he did not notice that my sniper, a seasoned dude and a black elastic band, only interfered with his shooting, he always wore it in a pouch ...

    plya ... memories)) In short, the flyer had an eye, the akurat aimed at the cross-section of the sight and shot ... I thought then I would get pi..yes, for that, every time I could not restrain the laughter, at the construction)

    By the way, I laughed like that one more time ... when our company commander was appointed a new, former tanker (!!). The story also began with the exit to the test site. We did not immediately understand then what kind of body was going next to our acting. company commander. The dude was really in shock, he somewhere "figure" the frontier nadybal went in it, but it doesn't matter, the trouble was on his face)) He put on a mask ala Zorro, also from the "figure" ... how was it funny when acting the company commander, himself barely holding back laughter, introduced us to the new commander at the range)))))))))))))


    pysy But the new company, turned out to be a normal brow, at first dulled a little, but after half a year got used to it ..
    May God grant them all good health. Thank.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 14 March 2014 16: 32
      +1
      Quote: Evgeny_Lev
      seasoned dude and black gum

      The eyecup really makes it difficult to shoot, a feature of the PSO-1. So your letekha is not the only one who gets that way. It’s good that the eye never dropped ...
  17. dFG
    dFG 14 March 2014 18: 00
    0
    article offset but not enough details
  18. Lyton
    Lyton 14 March 2014 18: 41
    0
    Quote: Timeout
    By the way, the Soviet sniper school after the Second World War and before the collapse of the union was considered the best in the world.

    And now whose school is considered the best, I'm sorry I just do not know, I would like to know.
    1. Obliterator
      Obliterator 14 March 2014 20: 37
      +1
      Quote: Lyton
      And now whose school is considered the best, I'm sorry I just do not know, I would like to know.

      If we talk purely about the army, then of course the United States.
      Quote: Timeout
      By the way, the Soviet sniper school after the Second World War and before the collapse of the union was considered the best in the world.

      Just at the time of the Union, it was ruined, even before Afghanistan. This is just evidenced by the absence of any information about the success of Soviet snipers in Afghanistan.
      1. Timeout
        Timeout 15 March 2014 03: 25
        +2
        Quote: Obliterator
        Just at the time of the Union, it was ruined, even before Afghanistan. This is just evidenced by the absence of any information about the success of Soviet snipers in Afghanistan.

        The school was and trained snipers perfectly. Only here the military doctrine in the USSR was a little special, the global advancement of tanks (that is, a quick and maneuverable war with total destruction), there was practically no place for snipers in it. But another thing is the training of snipers for the GRU and KGB special forces for reconnaissance, sabotage and anti-terrorist activities, as well as the training of snipers for the friendly countries of the Middle and Far East. The actions of snipers on the Soviet system can be observed now in Syria, they were trained by our instructors until 1991. In Afghanistan, snipers worked fine, no one counted just killed dushmans, and the lack of statistics is no reason to believe that the system was destroyed.
        1. Obliterator
          Obliterator 15 March 2014 12: 26
          0
          Quote: Timeout
          The school was and trained snipers perfectly. Only here the military doctrine in the USSR was a little special, the global advancement of tanks (that is, a quick and maneuverable war with total destruction), there was practically no place for snipers in it. But another thing is the training of snipers for the GRU and KGB special forces for reconnaissance, sabotage and anti-terrorist activities, as well as the training of snipers for the friendly countries of the Middle and Far East. The actions of snipers on the Soviet system can be observed now in Syria, they were trained by our instructors until 1991. In Afghanistan, snipers worked fine, no one counted just killed dushmans, and the lack of statistics is no reason to believe that the system was destroyed.

          Yes, all this does not matter. The Soviet experience of sniping is primarily the experience of army sniping. Who was Vasily Zaitsev and other masters with hundreds killed on a personal account? Ordinary soldiers, not fighters from the Omsbron NKVD USSR and others. And their experience should be preserved in the army too, and not just in all kinds of super special forces. And what did the army have in Afghanistan? Guys with shooting skills are above average and nothing more. Therefore, the story when our fighters needed to drag armored personnel carriers (or something like that), which could get the Afghans out of their guns to destroy the enemy shooters, does not seem incredible at all.
          And it was also lucky that the Afghans themselves did not have snipers, otherwise the K-43 would have been organized even earlier, and not only after the 1st Chechen, when our blood was washed from Chechen riflemen.
          1. Timeout
            Timeout 15 March 2014 13: 43
            +1
            Quote: Obliterator
            And it was lucky that the Afghans themselves did not have snipers

            Dear you went a little away from reality. For your information, since the Iran-Iraq conflict, there have been no position wars in the world in which a sniper has fully shown themselves. The same Syria, at the moment it is local battles. In Afghanistan, there were enough sniper gunners trained in Pakistan, as well as at training bases on the border with it. So anti-sniper measures were fully applied. More than once personally observed the work of groups of anti-snipers who harassed the mattress students as cockroaches.
            Guys with shooting skills above average and no more

            These guys with above average skills, at a distance of real machine gun fire, calmly fell from an AK-74 into a target the size of a machine gunner target from 400 meters, and an ordinary platoon sniper, before being sent across the river, must pass the standard for hitting 5 targets at a distance of 500 up to 800 meters in 1 minute. K-43 was just created on the remnants of the past experience, since by 1999 all the specialists who had passed the Afghani, who simply quit their jobs or drank themselves to death, and someone died in hot spots like Karabakh or Abkhazia (there are enough options) ...
            drag an armored personnel carrier (or something like that) into the mountain, which could get the Afghans out of its gun
            For your self-education, there are no guns on BTRs up to BTR-80, they appeared only on BTR-80A which, in principle, could not be in Afghanistan, adopted for service in 1994. And they carried ZU-23 or ZPU-2 on their hands that were trophy , such cases were enough. The anti-aircraft gun standing on a skyscraper discouraged all spirits from attacking.
            when our blood washed from the Chechen riflemen

            Just from those shooters who passed Afghanistan in the SA, in most cases ...
  19. parusm
    parusm 15 March 2014 00: 55
    -2
    dzіnok Putіnu vid gutsul
    - Pane Putіn, we thought and virili ogolositi you vіynu
    - Yes, it is interesting, and how many of you are there?
    - Ivan, Stepan, Vasil nu cholovik 10
    - and I have hundreds of thousands
    - you know, I’ll call you back at once ...
    - Mr. Putin, we thought and didn’t say anything about the way
    - and why is it?
    - rosumіte, the village is small in us, the tsvintar is small, de mi you m o with a l і in the style of pohovova
    1. The comment was deleted.
  20. leonardo_1971
    leonardo_1971 15 March 2014 07: 16
    +4
    and this is me in Chechnya.
    1. Aristocrat
      Aristocrat April 9 2014 23: 04
      0
      Something extremely new camouflage without traces of abrasions on the stomach, elbows and knees. I can say the same about boots. The outsole is particularly impressive for its pristine cleanliness and lack of signs of wear. And the face is perfectly visible. Unnecessary self-promotion for a "sniper" in particular and a member of the database in the sounded republic.
      On the hunt? Or a strike? ;)
  21. kplayer
    kplayer 15 March 2014 18: 24
    0
    Quote: Timeout
    ... there are no guns on armored personnel carriers up to armored personnel carriers-80 ...

    Regarding the BTR-80, the 14,5-mm CPV is a serious weapon (up to 2000 m), the other thing is that its effectiveness is limited by poor viewing conditions typical of armored vehicles and manual mechanical guidance drives (min. Tilt angle, only -4 ° ), the reaction time is insufficient (especially in motion), as well as the low magnification of the sight (1,2x-4x) and the absence of a night (passive) channel, although a thermal imager would be more relevant in this case.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 16 March 2014 03: 36
      0
      Quote: kplayer
      limited by poor viewing conditions typical for armored vehicles and manual mechanical guidance drives

      Until remotely controlled modules appeared, such a solution was still the best. Yes, "eighty" was developed when such bells and whistles were not even dreamed of ...
  22. kplayer
    kplayer 16 March 2014 09: 29
    0
    Quote: Timeout
    ... such a solution was still the best.

    What are we talking about!
  23. figter
    figter April 26 2014 04: 38
    0
    Nothing is better than ACS with PBS! At such ranges that the article lists (up to 300 m), you can work without optics. But quietly, calmly. And if, what, then it’s more convenient to shoot back.
  24. The comment was deleted.
  25. Makarych
    Makarych April 28 2014 23: 59
    0
    Quote: dfg
    article offset but not enough details

    For details, please, to the commissar