Military Review

Soviet mortars during the war. Part 2

54

In addition to relatively light mortars intended mainly for the defeat of manpower, in the USSR in 30-s was the development of mortars capable of destroying long-term firing points and shelters.


In 1939, the arsenal developed in KB BI was adopted for armament of units operating in mountainous conditions. Shavyrina 107-mm regimental mountain-mortar mortar arr. 1938 d. However, mass production of mines to an 107-mm mortar was only established at the start of the 1941 year.

The mortar barrel consisted of a pipe and screwed breech. The shot was made in two ways: by the action of the percussion mechanism of the firing device, which was cocked after the mortar was loaded, and by the samonakol of the mine when lowering it into the bore of the barrel.

The mortar was unsprung, consisting of a frame, two wheels and a spares kit. The front end is designed to carry 20 final equipped mines in trays and for traction wheel travel. The front with the wheel of the mortar was transported by horse-thrust with the help of a four-box sled. A wheel drive with a front end ensured good mobility on flat and sharply intersected terrain.



For the transportation of the mortar, a truck was also used with special body equipment for loading the horse-drawn course with a mortar and 24 mines into park laying boxes, in addition, a mortar crew was getting into the car body.

Each mortar was supplied with a set of horse packs with styling devices (13 packs for each mortar). On the sections of the road that allow movement on wheels, the mortar was to be transported on wheels with a front end, and along mountain trails - on packs.

Mortar fired 9 kg mines at a distance of up to 6300 m, the minimum range was 700 m. The rate of fire 15 rds / min.

Soviet mortars during the war. Part 2


In January, 1940, the troops began to receive 120-mm regimental mortar arr. 1938 d. It was also developed under the guidance of B.I. Shavyrina.



The mortar had a detachable wheel travel, enabling the four horses to be towed or a truck (with speed limit due to a simple rigid suspension), or loading into the body. The same wheel travel allowed the mortar to be rolled by the forces of calculation, which was unusual for an artillery system of such power.

The shot was made by impaling a capsule under the weight of a mine, or with the help of a trigger mechanism - for safety reasons when firing powerful charges. The charge was located in the mineshank. To increase the range, there were additional charges in fabric cards, which were manually attached to the shank.

The weight of the mortar in a combat position - 275 kg. The rate of fire reached 15 shots per minute. The maximum firing range is 5900 m, the minimum one is 460 m.

By 120-mm mortar was created a wide range of ammunition. The main was considered 15,9 kg high-explosive mine containing 1,58 kg of TNT. There was also a 120-mm mine "large capacity". The weight of such a mine was 27 kg, and the weight of the explosive (8 kg) was twice the weight of the explosive in a conventional 120-mm mine. In the soil of medium density, such a mine made a funnel with a depth of 1,5 m and a diameter of 4,0 m. In addition to high-explosive fragmentation mines, various types of lighting, smoke and incendiary mines were produced.

By 1941, each rifle division had 12 120-mm regimental mortars in its composition (on a battery of 4 mortars in the rifle regiment). On 1 June 1941, the Red Army was armed with about three thousand 120-mm mortars.

Already the first fights showed that a powerful 120-mm mortar is not only “weapons close combat ”, as the instructions said, but also a valuable firepower for infantry, especially with a shortage of artillery. Regimental mortars not only destroyed the enemy's manpower and destroyed his fortifications, but also repeatedly participated in repelling tank attacks. Of course, a direct hit from a mortar into a tank is unlikely, but with a close burst of 15,9 kg of a mine, its heavy fragments are capable of penetrating the side 30-mm armor and turning the chassis of the German PzKpfw III and PzKpfw IV medium tanks. In the case of a direct hit, the upper armor plate of the tank, as a rule, broke through. After being hit by massive fire with powerful 120-mm mines, the nerves of the German tankers often could not stand it, and the tanks turned back.

Soviet regimental mortars were appreciated by the enemy, several hundreds of captured 120-mm mortars consisted in the Wehrmacht in service under the designation GrW 378 (r).



German mortar clone arr. 1938, put into mass production at the beginning of 1943, after studying Soviet trophy samples and trophy documentation, was in service with the Wehrmacht under the name 12-cm Granatwerfer 42. The ammunition was interchangeable than the opposing sides successfully used.




Despite the fact that the 120-mm mine was inferior in weight to the 122-mm howitzer projectile (15,9 kg versus 21,76 kg), the fragmentation effect of the shelling mine was significantly higher. When the projectile was broken, about half of the fragments went into the sky or into the ground.

After the beginning of the war, a simplified 120-mm mortar mortar was produced to compensate for the huge losses. 1941
Conducted comparative tests of a simplified mortar with a regular sample. 1938 showed that the simplified mortar is not inferior to the standard in combat performance, and even surpasses it in some indicators.
The launch of the mortar at the end of the year 1941 allowed on the same equipment to increase the production of mortars 1,8 times. The complexity of manufacturing was reduced by almost half, the consumption of materials - by 26%.

In 1943, the design team of the serial plant under the leadership of A. A. Kotov carried out the modernization of the structure, and the 120-mm regimental mortar of the model 1943 of the year was adopted.



Significant changes undergone mortar barrel. The design of the firing mechanism built into the breech barrel was simplified. In addition, if earlier, to replace a broken striker, it was necessary to disassemble the mortar and screw the breech from the barrel, then the new design of the firing mechanism allows replacing the striker without disassembling the mortar, which is especially important in a combat situation.



Another experience in the design of the barrel was also due to the experience of combat use - a double-loading fuse was installed on its muzzle. The fact is that a well-trained calculation can be fired from a mortar with a very high rate of fire. A well-known calculation of a mortar, made up of the Shumov brothers, shot so that there were eighteen mines in the air at the same time. This means that when the first mine is torn at the enemy’s positions, the twentieth mine is lowered into the barrel, and eighteen are already flying at the enemy.

At this rate of fire in the troops, there were cases when another mine was dropped on the remaining mine in the trunk as a result of a misfire. The explosion of two minutes meant the inevitable death of the calculation. For a long time, such losses were attributed to a direct hit by an enemy projectile, until one of the miraculously surviving commanders of the crew told about the case of double loading. For mortars of caliber 82-mm and 120-mm, a fuse design was urgently developed, the metal flag of which prevents the second mine from being lowered into the bore of the mortar. The 120-mm mortar of the 1943 model of the year was already produced with such a fuse.

120-mm regimental mortars proved to be excellent at the front, but after the Red Army seized the strategic initiative and the transition to offensive operations, a more powerful mortar was needed to destroy the long-term fortifications.

The difficulty of creating a large-caliber mortar was that when using the well-proven 82-120 mm mortar with an imaginary triangle with loading from the muzzle, it was necessary to develop a device for feeding mines weighing more than 40 kg up to 3 m and loading mortar. Due to the large weight, such a system inevitably lost its advantages over conventional artillery guns. For this reason, a group of designers under the leadership of I.G. Teverovsky only in 1943 was able to create a fairly simple, easy and convenient to use 160-mm mortar.



Due to the fact that the high height of the barrel does not allow charging the mortar from the barrel, the mortar is made breech-loading. To open the barrel when loading and locking it at the moment of firing, the barrel is divided into a swinging part and a breech. It was enough one turn of the handle - and the swinging part of the trunk took a horizontal position for loading. After the mine was sent to the barrel, this part returned to the shooting position under its own weight.

The obturation of powder gases is provided by the introduction of a short sleeve with means of ignition into the set of shots. The mortar's carriage, which is the base of the mortar in combat and traveling positions, also has an original design. It is equipped with a sprung wheel motion, which is not separated during firing.



The carriage collected rotary lifting and balancing mechanisms, as well as sighting devices. To speed up the development of a mortar in the production of its base plate is created on the basis of the base plate of a regular 120-mm mortar arr. 1938 g. A steel shell welded by additional stiffening ribs was welded along the perimeter of this plate.

When weighing in combat 1086 kg, 160-mm mortar fired heavy 40,53 kg mines, filled with 7,78 kg of explosives, to a distance of up to 5100 m, with a rate of 3 rds / min.


120-mm and 160-mm mortars


160-mm mortars arr. 1943 was armed with heavy mortar brigades, which were part of the artillery divisions of the breakthrough of the reserve of the Supreme High Command. Each brigade consisted of three three-battery divisions. The battery had a mortar 4.

In the feedback received from the front, it was noted that the 160-mm mortar is an effective means of destroying all types of field fortifications and a reliable means of suppressing and destroying the enemy’s artillery and mortar batteries. These mortars were successfully used in street battles in large settlements. Until the end of the war, not a single army in the world had such powerful mortars.

It is interesting to compare the production of mortars during the Second World War in the Soviet Union and in other countries. In the United States, from July 1940 to June 1945 were released 110 thousand mortars, in Britain 1939-1944 years - 96 thousand, in Germany 1941-1944 years - 68 thousand. In the USSR from July 1 1941 year to 30 June 1945 years made 347900 mortars, that is, an average of 86975 mortars per year. On the one hand, these figures reflect the scale of the losses suffered by the USSR during the initial period of the war, on the other hand, the importance and relevance of mortar weapons. If at the beginning of the war mortars were considered as a means of direct support for infantry, by the end of it they had become one of the main types of artillery.


Based on:
http://ru-artillery.livejournal.com/33102.html
http://dresden43435.mybb.ru/viewtopic.php?id=49&p=2
http://infoguns.com/minomety/vtoroy-mir-voiny/sovetskie-legkie-minomety.html
Author:
Articles from this series:
Soviet mortars during the war. Part 1
Soviet mortars during the war. Part 2
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  1. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 13 March 2014 09: 25
    +13
    "It is interesting to compare the volume of mortar production during the Second World War in the Soviet Union and in other countries. In the United States from July 1940 to June 1945, 110 thousand mortars were produced, in Britain in 1939-1944 - 96 thousand, in Germany in 1941-1944 - 68 thousand.In the USSR from July 1, 1941 to June 30, 1945, 347900 mortars were manufactured, that is, an average of 86975 mortars per year.On the one hand, these figures reflect the scale of losses that the USSR suffered in the initial period of the war "
    Here it is ... the "worthless" Soviet economy. And at the same time low labor productivity in the USSR.
    Maybe liberal economists thought something was wrong?)))
    1. Bongo
      13 March 2014 09: 38
      +11
      Quote: Nagaibak
      Here it is ... the "worthless" Soviet economy. And at the same time low labor productivity in the USSR.

      Albert Speer, Reich Minister of Arms and Ammunition during the war, advocated the introduction of the Soviet military industry management system in Germany.
      Partly in the second half of the war he succeeded. The 1944 year saw the peak of military production in Germany.
    2. srub40
      srub40 13 March 2014 09: 42
      +2
      Regarding the production of weapons in the USSR, there is an alternative version:
      - during the years of the Second World War on the production of basic weapons (tanks, guns, airplanes), according to the official statistics of the USSR, it significantly exceeded Germany;
      - this begs the question, why did they fight for so long? Yes, and the comparison of losses is not in our favor? and Germany still used part of the technology against the allies?
      - Why the Fuhrer in 42-43 did not believe in the figures for the production of tanks in the USSR, and the rest too, he said that the generals are cowards, the Bolsheviks do not have so much equipment?
      - why in 44-45gg. did the Germans think that tens of thousands of tanks and planes were acting against them on the Eastern Front, but in fact much less?
      - according to the recollections of veterans, did a significant amount of equipment appear only in 44-45gg?
      - I do not believe that under Stalin there could have been postscripts at defense plants, as some now claim, this is direct sabotage;
      - and here the conscious manipulation of numbers in order to gigantic disinformation of the enemy, this is a noble cause, approximately by analogy with the Cold War
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 13 March 2014 11: 17
        +5
        srub40 "- but deliberate manipulation of numbers for the purpose of gigantic misinformation of the enemy, this is a noble deed, roughly analogous to the Cold War."
        Greetings!
        But what figures on the production of weapons were published directly during the war years? Yes, so that the Germans would know? And were you afraid? Did I understand correctly?
        As far as I remember, the numbers began to be published much later. And openly to say how much and what we produced probably began under Brezhnev. When they began to widely celebrate Victory Day. Or I'm wrong?
        srub40 "There is an alternative version regarding the production of weapons in the USSR"
        Recently, I have read these alternative versions and heard enough so much that I'm afraid I will be allergic even to interesting versions.)))
        srub40 "- this raises the question, why did they fight for so long? And the comparison of losses is not in our favor? and Germany still used some of the equipment against the allies?"
        By the way, this topic, your beloved historian, reveals generally well in his books.)))
        srub40 "- according to the recollections of veterans, a significant amount of equipment appeared only in 44-45?"
        No matter how much they talked with the veterans, everyone has different memories, if only because of the fact that they were called at different times. But they completely went through the war and survived to our time ... alas, a little.
        The decline in production was certainly and associated with the evacuation of industry. Then production was restored and by the end of the war they began to produce ... mountains of weapons. And hundreds of kilometers more they built railways and highways, commissioned new oil fields, pulled pipelines. New cities formed during the war.
        1. srub40
          srub40 13 March 2014 11: 44
          +1
          An interesting discussion is formed, the main thing is that this does not turn into mental masturbation:
          1. Numbers were published openly ... of course, unlikely, but the Fuhrer was informed about 1500 tanks / month, from where the Abwehr took it, definitely not from Pravda and Tagil Worker, most likely there was a "black sheep" in the General Staff or the People's Commissariat of the heavy prom-ty here he / she leaked information.
          2. As for whether or not to be afraid, it all depends on the tasks set ... read the Chinese "Art of War".
          3. Figures later ... I agree, but what's the argument?
          4. An alternative, sometimes even useful, I personally do not use it in sexual activities.
          5. My beloved historian, I have my own well-founded opinion, which in no way can be a dogma
          The rest ... all this is so, interesting, and you can connect the Lend-Lease theme: why did we need "bad" tanks, planes (up to September 45), if we produced wonderful weapons in large quantities?
          1. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 13 March 2014 11: 55
            +2
            srub40 "5. My dearly beloved historian, has his own reasoned opinion, which can in no way be a dogma
            The rest ... all this is so, interesting, and you can connect the Lend-Lease theme: why did we need "bad" tanks, airplanes (up to September 45), if we produced wonderful weapons in large quantities? "
            It seems to me that the numbers of tanks, planes and other things we had were real. Gigantic work was carried out in the rear.
            1. srub40
              srub40 13 March 2014 12: 10
              +1
              Excuse me, I just have a profession like this: ask yourself more questions, and then answer them, for that people pay me decent money.
              By numbers:
              - Imagine the following situation: in the era of "catch up - overtake", suddenly published figures on armament in the years of the Second World War, less ..., what will ordinary Soviet people think? Probably: and what is the role of the party in VICTORY, if less weapons were produced, the quality is lower than the damned fascists? Although even less, does this detract from the feat of the PEOPLE, of course not, in a party it can.
              - even if we compare the economic and human potentials of the USSR and the united Europe of that era, we lose. Is it possible to produce more equipment and goods? Yes, of course, the Germans are a civilized people: during the war they produced baby strollers, pots, but ours did not.
              - In the USSR, heavy industry and, accordingly, technical culture existed, only 10 years old, but how much is in the rotten west?
              - the heroic feat of the rear of the country is undeniable, even Tolstoy (a little earlier) emphasized this in "VM".
              1. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 13 March 2014 12: 21
                +4
                Read the article by M. Mukhin Soviet industry in the Second World War journal Domestic History 3/2003
                Below is the conclusion of the article. A competent article involving a significant number of sources.
                "In 1939-1941, the Soviet aircraft industry expanded significantly. In total, 466400 people were employed in the industry, of which 174361 were at aircraft and engine factories. By the beginning of the war, the NKAP included over 100 enterprises, of which 24 were aircraft manufacturing, 7 were engine-building, 10 produced units intended for installation on airplanes, and 13 - units for motors, 17 more enterprises produced aircraft devices and 6 were part of GUM [115] Other factories performed auxiliary functions.

                Despite numerous negative aspects, the pre-war "spurt" had a generally positive result. By October 1941, 118 [116] aircraft factories [117] were evacuated, producing three quarters of all aircraft production before the war. The fact that even in such conditions the Soviet aviation industry was able to maintain production rates that were unbearable for the German Ministry of Aviation is one of the greatest achievements of the USSR in that great war. "
                There are figures for the production of aircraft, engines and so on. The structure of the aircraft industry is given and why, before the war, ours set up so many aircraft factories.
                1. srub40
                  srub40 13 March 2014 12: 36
                  +2
                  Again, my job: to answer the questions posed, you have to study a significant amount of information, and the information is sometimes extremely contradictory, you are looking for a "golden mean".
                  - Mukhin is a well-known "defender" of our VICTORY over fascism, but often such zeal leads to a negative result.
                  - Remember what blew the public up in the history of the Second World War, which made it more active to do this, publish secret materials earlier ... yes, yes, he is Rezun-Suvorov himself ... an alternative person ... his mother ... leg
                  - We need an objective, average-weighted look, those who are engaged in this are my dearly beloved ... and they are not afraid to report about losses in the ratio of 1: 5 (for certain operations, of course).
                  - I read Yakovleva (a well-known aircraft designer), so sometimes he crashed under the censorship that many factories are actually listed on paper: there are walls but there are no machine tools and vice versa, there are problems with the human and technical personnel, it’s like they made airplanes on the site .. and there is no varnish to cover them and such
                  1. Nagaibak
                    Nagaibak 13 March 2014 13: 47
                    +3
                    srub40 "I read Yakovleva (a well-known aircraft designer), so under the then censorship it sometimes slipped that many factories are actually listed on paper: there are walls but no machine tools and vice versa, there are problems with human and technical personnel, it seems that the planes were made on the site. . and no varnish to cover them and things like that. "
                    I also read Yakovlev. And, what to do whole productions were moved east. And these plants did not have walls; people worked under the open sky. Even in Stalingrad, tanks were released under bombing, and in Leningrad too. True, these tanks were for one battle. So it wasn’t necessary anymore, the main thing was to stop the enemy.))) And the teaching staff in the besieged city designed and mastered the production.
                    And how can one explain the construction of the gas pipeline in October 1942, the height of the Battle of Stalingrad, Yelshanka-Saratov. Or is it desa?)))
                    "During the first two days,
                    3500 m of trenches were dug. Collectives 107 construction companies
                    organizations, workers of the city of Saratov worked on the highway
                    enthusiastic gas pipeline seeking
                    to provide the greatest assistance to Stalingrad. Average
                    work of workers in the northern zone amounted to 250%, while the south
                    Noah - 220%. Yelshanka — Saratov State District Power Station gas pipeline
                    18,6 km long with poor equipment
                    mechanisms was built in record short
                    term - in 35 days. October 22, 1942 Saratov
                    the regional party committee decided to put it into operation
                    tion.
                    In our country, everything is possible.))) I do not have a drop of doubt about the fact of the production of weapons declared by the authorities. But quality is another question. Although it depends on what and where. Only the manufacturability of our weapons smoothed out all the blemishes of production.
                    1. srub40
                      srub40 13 March 2014 14: 02
                      +2
                      Undoubtedly: there was also built a railway line bypassing Stalingrad, and huge oil storage facilities (although the primitive ones are pits in the ground, but what to do).
                      Everything is really possible in our country!
                      Nobody can defeat us!
                      The only "opponent" to whom they often lost was Russia itself, we are with you!
                      And the line "Stalin", "Molotov", which the Germans were so afraid of, even dragged heavy artoo from the very border in order to break into the declared impregnable forts ??? Where did it go, a couple of pillboxes, 100m. trenches, fiction, misinformation ??? ... let my beloved historian understands, he is paid for it ...
                      1. Nagaibak
                        Nagaibak 13 March 2014 15: 26
                        +1
                        srub40 "And the line of" Stalin "," Molotov ", which the Germans were so afraid of, even dragged the heavy arty from the border to break into the declared impregnable forts ??? ? "
                        Excuse me. Have you read all of Isaev? In my opinion, he gives a normal answer. Nothing went anywhere. Suvorov in this matter, he seems to expose. And the fact that the Germans easily hacked them enough, so Isaev has an answer on this topic.))) Did you read it carefully?))) Because a man is a runner talking about a couple of pillboxes, he seems to be a rezun referring to Grigorenko. So Isaev then writes that no one blew up anything.)))
                      2. Nagaibak
                        Nagaibak 13 March 2014 15: 32
                        +2
                        This I added. Just in case.
                        Bibliography.

                        Antisuvorov. The big lies of the little man. - M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2004 .-- 352 p.
                        Antisuvorov. Ten myths of the Second World War. - M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2004 .-- 416 p. -
                        From Dubno to Rostov. - M .: AST Publishing House LLC: Transitkniga LLC, 2004.
                        1941: Fights in Ukraine. - M .: Publishing house "Strategy KM", 2004. - 80 sec. - ISBN 5-901266-01-3
                        A short course in the history of the Second World War. The offensive of Marshal Shaposhnikov. [2] - M .: Yauza, 2005.]
                        Battle of Kharkov February-March 1943. - M .: Publishing house "Strategy KM", 2005.
                        When the surprise was gone. The history of the Second World War, which we did not know. - M .: Eksmo, Yauza, 2005 .-- 479 p.
                        "Boilers" of the 41st. The history of the Second World War, which we did not know. [3] - M .: Eksmo, Yauza, 2005 .-- 400 p.
                        George Zhukov. The last argument of the king. [4] - M .: Eksmo, 2006 .-- 480 p. - ISBN
                        Breakthrough of the Mius Front July-August 1943. - M .: Publishing house "Strategy KM", 2006. - 80 p. - ISBN 5-901266-01-3
                        Battles in the den of the beast, 2007 [5]
                        Stalingrad. There is no land beyond the Volga for us. [6] - M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2008 .-- 448 p.
                        Isaev A.V., Drabkin A.V. June 22. Black day calendar. - M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2008.
                        1943 ... From the tragedy of Kharkov to the Kursk breakthrough. - M .: Veche, 2008 .-- 336 p. -
                        1945 ... Triumph on the offensive and on the defensive: From the Vistula-Oder to Balaton. - M .: Veche, 2008 .-- 256 p.
                        Dubno 1941. The greatest tank battle of the Second World War. - M .: Yauza; Eksmo, 2009 .-- 192 p.
                        1945. The Last Circle of Hell. [7] - M .: Yauza; Eksmo, 2009 .-- 352 p. - ISBN 978-5-699-34969-9
                        Isaev A.V., Kolomiyets M.V. The rout of the 6th SS Panzer Army. The grave of Panzervaffe. [8] - M .: Yauza, Eksmo, KM Strategy, 2009. - 160 p.
                        Myths and truth about Marshal Zhukov. - M .: Yauza; Eksmo, 2010 .-- 480 p.
                        Unknown 1941. Blitzkrieg stopped. - M .: Yauza; Eksmo, 2010 .-- 480 p.
                        The defeat of 1945. The Battle of Germany. - M .: Yauza; Eksmo, 2010 .-- 360 p. -
                        Other 1941. From the border to Leningrad. - M .: Yauza; Eksmo, 2011 .-- 416 p. -
                        Frontier Battle 1941. [9] - M .: Yauza; Eksmo, 2011 .-- 704 p.
                        Great Patriotic alternative. 1941 in the subjunctive mood. - M .: Yauza; Eksmo, 2011 .-- 288 p.
                        The liberation of 1943. "The war brought us from Kursk and Oryol ...". - M .: Eksmo, Yauza, 2013 .-- 554 p. - (War and we). - 4000 copies.
                        In which of these books Isaev speaks of the destruction of the lines of Stalin, Molotov. Tell me, I'll take a look. I have almost all of the houses in stock.
                      3. srub40
                        srub40 13 March 2014 15: 53
                        +2
                        Congratulations, you exposed me, brought me to clean water.
                        I’ll tell you a secret: I’ve put pluses on all your comments, you don’t need gratitude at all.
                        Do you have discs with recordings of Isaev’s interview?
                        Very good nice to talk to. No trolling. Thank.
                      4. Nagaibak
                        Nagaibak 13 March 2014 17: 33
                        +2
                        srub40 "Do you have CDs with Isaev's interviews, too?"
                        What is not, what is not. I love to read. Suvorov is also there by the way. Believe it or not, they taught us that way at the institute. If you read the book where it is written that let us say E.I. Pugachev is the defender of peasants and other disadvantaged. Read about how he executed nobles and officers who did not change the oath. And then draw your own conclusions. It was in 1987, under the "terrible" and totalitarian state of the USSR.)))
                        "Very nice to talk to. No trolling. Thanks."
                        Mutually.
              2. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 13 March 2014 20: 22
                +1
                srub40- Mukhin is a well-known "defender" of our VICTORY over fascism, but often such zeal leads to a negative result. "
                Forgot to answer. This is not that Mukhin. This is Mukhin Misha. And the one about which you wrote Mukhin Jura.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Why was Stalin killed? - M .: "Eksmo", "Yauza", 2004. - 157 s (Reprint: 2005)
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Who killed the Americans on September 11, 2001? - M.: “Yauza”, “Eksmo”, 2004. - 159 s (Reprint: 2005)
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Crusade to the East. "Victims" of the second world. - M.: “Yauza”, “Eksmo”, 2004. - 351 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Secrets of Jewish racists. - M .: “Yauza”, “Eksmo”, 2004. - 158 s (Reprint: 2005)
                A.Z. Lebedintsev, Yu. I. Mukhin. Fathers are commanders. Stars on shoulder straps - stars on graves. - M .: "Yauza", 2004. - 605 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Ases and propaganda. Blown Luftwaffe wins. - M .: "Yauza", "Eksmo", 2004. - 477 s (Reprint: 2007)
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Get rid of the dollars! - M .: “Yauza”, “Eksmo”, 2005. - 157 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Poland to NATO? There she is dear! - M .: "Yauza", 2005. - 159 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Secrets of Israel. - M .: "Yauza", "Press", 2005. - 158 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. How to disfigure the history of your homeland? - M .: "Yauza", "Eksmo", 2005. - 220 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Yeltsin Code. - M .: "Yauza", "Press", 2005. - 159 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Antiapollon. Lunar scam USA. - M.: “Yauza”, “Eksmo”, 2005. - 427 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Assassins of Stalin. The main secret of the XX century. - M .: "Yauza", 2005. - 671 s (Reprint: M .: "Yauza-press", 2007.)
                Yu. I. Mukhin. According to the summons and draft. Non-frame soldiers of the Great Patriotic War. - M.: “Yauza”, “Eksmo”, 2005. - 351 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. If not for the generals! Problems of the military estate. - M .: "Yauza", 2006. - 735 s (Reprint: 2007)
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Selling girl Genetics. - M.: “Publisher of Bystrov”, 2006. - 415 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Jews about racism. - M.: “Algorithm”, 2006. - 399 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Power over power. - M.: “Algorithm”, 2007. - 368 p.
                Yu. I. Mukhin. Mass nonsense. - M.: “Algorithm”, 2008. - 336 p.
                This is not a complete list of his publications. The names of the books show ... everything is specifically there ...
                1. srub40
                  srub40 13 March 2014 20: 28
                  +1
                  Thank you more, I'll try to read both of them at my leisure, it's good that Ivanov's last name is not. Although Yura Mukhin judging by the names of his "masterpieces" will not be very interesting to me.
                  What else do you recommend? ... due to my employment, I do not have time to keep track of new items ... even according to my beloved historian ... I look, there are several omissions.
                  Thank you
                  1. Nagaibak
                    Nagaibak 14 March 2014 07: 41
                    0
                    srub40 "What else do you recommend? ... due to employment, I have no time to keep track of new items ... even according to my beloved historian."
                    As for the new products, I am also not strong. For the same reason as you. Job...
                    And over the period, I am interested, at the moment 1 World War and Civil War in Russia. I read memoirs and interesting reds and whites do you know reading ...
                    The excellent site "Military Literature" is full of everything I recommend. You can download.
                  2. srub40
                    srub40 14 March 2014 08: 06
                    0
                    As for the Civil War ... for me it was always hard to read: as with rapture, that the red marshals, that the white generals, chopped each other into cabbage.
                    It is interesting to read about the 25th Chapaev’s division, the struggle against, Basmachi, white whites, White Poles, White Chinese, White Negroes ... damn ... a little brought forward .. this is about Ethiopia 35-36gg
                    There was a special interest in 1MB, the main question: Why did they lose, what is the reason for the failure?
                  3. Nagaibak
                    Nagaibak 14 March 2014 11: 21
                    0
                    srub40 "Interesting reading about the 25th Chapayev division"
                    The site "Don Cossacks in the fight against the Bolsheviks" - it seems that is the name. It was closed at one time. Now I do not know. There I met the memoirs of Kutyakov, Eikhe, Guy, and so on, not much. Newspapers of the time.
                    srub40 "There is a special interest in WW1, the main question is: Why did you lose, what is the reason for the failure?"
                    The reason for the loss. And you do not know?)))
                    srub40 "Regarding the Civil War ... it was always hard for me to read: as with ecstasy, that red marshals, that white generals, chopped each other into cabbage."
                    What marshals? Then the commanders.))) And who do you work with if not a secret?
                  4. srub40
                    srub40 14 March 2014 12: 33
                    0
                    The reason for the loss. And you do not know?))) [/ Quote]
                    The revolution, this is just one of the reasons for the defeat: as I know in the confrontation, there are basically two fronts: the internal and the external, here on the internal, they failed completely, respectively, this also pulled the external one, although everything was also there
                    What marshals? Then the commanders.))) And who do you work with if not a secret? [/ Quote]
                    I looked a little ahead, I work as an analyst in finance, economics, real estate, trade, investment ... just for the fact that people are willing to pay money
                  5. Nagaibak
                    Nagaibak 14 March 2014 13: 18
                    0
                    srub40 "here on the inside, they suffered a complete fiasco, respectively, it pulled the outside along with it, although everything was also there."
                    Thank you for the February revolution. The abolition of the institute of unity of command and other revolutions. The Bolsheviks had simply finished off the army, because it was not only they, the Socialist Revolutionaries and the Cadets, who destroyed it.
                    srub40 "I looked a little ahead, I work as an analyst in the field of finance, economics, real estate, trade, investment ... just for what people are willing to pay money."
                    I get it. I work as a simple worker. I have some relation to oil production.
                  6. srub40
                    srub40 14 March 2014 13: 27
                    0
                    Thank you for the February revolution. The abolition of the institute of unity of command and other revolutions. The Bolsheviks had simply finished off the army, because it was not only they who destroyed it — the Socialist-Revolutionaries and Cadets. [/ Quote]
                    I do not want about Ukraine, but still no one canceled the historical parallels: the February one has come to pass, we are waiting for the great socialist October revolution ... without gloating
                    I get it. I work as a simple worker. I have something to do with oil production. [/ Quote]
                    A simple worker, I have some relation to oil production ... most likely this is exactly what R. Abramovich himself positions himself, therefore he lives relatively calmly
                  7. Nagaibak
                    Nagaibak 14 March 2014 13: 43
                    0
                    "srub40" A simple worker, I have something to do with oil production ... most likely this is how R. Abramovich positions himself, therefore he lives relatively calmly. "
                    Many people do not pretend to be my place. Youth is not eager for workers. It’s better to yawn in a white shirt with a badge in the supermarket.)))
  • nnz226
    nnz226 13 March 2014 19: 55
    +1
    The black sheep was found in Kharkov, where, during the evacuation in 1941, all the drawings for the production of 120-mm mortars were left at the plant !!! The Germans did not hesitate to take advantage of this "gift" and set up production of this magnificent weapon. And how many of our soldiers later died from the German reincarnation of "our mortar" ?! Such a fool (if not a pest) should have been shot according to the laws of wartime and not groan about the "bloody Stalinist regime" !!!
    1. srub40
      srub40 13 March 2014 20: 02
      +2
      You are right .. Sheep has been enough at all times. But mortar systems up to 120mm are not particularly complicated things, copying is quite possible even without drawings. After all, the Fritzes got the Katyusha intact, and I think there was also the documentation for them, but the composition of gunpowder for the RS, especially their component for the Fritzes, was not available for various reasons.
      By the way, the Fritzes also had "sheep" ... why the heck did they need an 81mm mortar? Better 82mm. mortar, it's not about size. And in the type of shot, we could use their mines, they don't
  • stillrat
    stillrat 13 March 2014 18: 59
    +1
    everything is not so simple, they really released dofigischi, the question is how they used it? It's not even about losses, but about the psychology of the command staff. Many drank from the shell famine back in 1914, and those who were younger were under the impression of the same shell famine only in 1941, so they "rowed" for themselves everything they could reach with their grabbing hands. According to the stories of the grandfather (tanker 41-45) and other memoirs, tank regiments (after 44g) resembled a camp with a bunch of regular and non-regular borokhl. This is at the grassroots level and above it was all the same only on a larger scale. An extra tank regiment is never superfluous. So it turned out that the Germans were maneuvering with the same means and forces on a wide front and we often have the same tank, artillery and other regiments for months were fed the lice.
  • Bongo
    13 March 2014 09: 48
    +3
    Quote: srub40
    if you believe the official statistics of the USSR significantly exceeded Germany

    It is not only the number of units produced, but also how reliable this technique was and how well used.
    It is no secret that our tankers did not always have the proper skills, the engine life was small, the tactics of using tanks especially in the initial period of the war were not always justified.
    At the same time, in the field of small arms and artillery weapons, the enemy did not have a qualitative advantage.
    1. srub40
      srub40 13 March 2014 09: 57
      0
      Where the breeze is blowing from, I know that: the author of your version, my dearly beloved historian, he "stole" my "golden donkey" a little as a reproach to him. Of course: Zhiguli with a resource of 200000 km and Maybach with 1 million km, they are not the same thing.
  • vietnam7
    vietnam7 13 March 2014 09: 49
    +6
    Plus, definitely, even in the comments to listen to people communicating with mortars live, and then again everything will turn into battles of "well-read" specialists who have a longer barrel, etc.
    1. srub40
      srub40 13 March 2014 10: 08
      +12
      I introduce myself: a hereditary mortar man - grandfather served in a min battery (120mm.) - I served there (82mm.) - brother too (120mm.) - Dad is a little off topic - he is a naval gunner.
      Regarding the article: a huge plus, the guy not only pumped up information from a wise Internet, he even thought a little, it causes respect.
      Now in 2 parts, in mortars fluently:
      - about 18 minutes in the air and 19 in the barrel, this is not a record, there was such a GSS captain Nekrasov, he achieved 23 minutes in the air and 24 in the barrel;
      - about the fuse, an ambiguous opinion: yes, this is insurance, we did not use it, because it reduced the rate of fire, very often the "tongue" of the fuse wedged and did not get into place, which made it impossible to throw the next mine, we had to unscrew it and put the "tongue" in place, a problem in a weakened spring.
      - how were you insured? when firing, the commander of the crew put his hand on the barrel and felt whether the mine had come out of the barrel, if not, then with an "energetic" loader, he could give him in the ear so that the fighter was in no hurry
      1. vietnam7
        vietnam7 13 March 2014 14: 32
        +3
        These are the comments from "hereditary" ones that interest most of all. On me, the mortar dynasty was interrupted - my grandfather fought on guards mortars, my father was the commander of an 82mm mortar crew, he served in the border guards on the Chinese border, but I went to another grandfather who went through four wars in reconnaissance (God forbid, repeat, one was enough for me). I look forward to continuing from the author of the article about the post-war period and the present. From you, respectively, the comment is extensive, there is something else to read on the bulletin besides Ukraine.
        1. Bongo
          13 March 2014 14: 40
          +4
          Quote: vietnam7
          From you, accordingly, the comment is extensive, there is still something to read on the bulletin except Ukraine.

          Thank! I don’t write about Ukraine in principle, and without me there is someone!
          As for the post-war period and the present, I’ll get involved if people ask.
  • Bongo
    13 March 2014 10: 21
    +1
    Thank you, I am that guy hi
    Quote: srub40
    - about the fuse, an ambiguous opinion: yes, this is insurance, we did not use it, because it reduced the rate of fire, very often the "tongue" of the fuse wedged and did not get into place, which made it impossible to throw the next mine, we had to unscrew it and put the "tongue" in place, a problem in a weakened spring. - how were you insured? when firing, the commander of the crew put his hand on the barrel and felt whether the mine came out of the barrel, if not, then with an "energetic" loader, he could give him in the ear so that the soldier was in no hurry

    But I did not know this, although it was possible to observe how they were firing from the 120-mm mortar, but they didn’t shoot with self-piercing. It is very interesting to read the opinion of an experienced person!
    1. srub40
      srub40 13 March 2014 10: 26
      +4
      Ask questions
  • Bongo
    13 March 2014 10: 23
    0
    Quote: srub40
    Where the breeze blows from, I know that: the author of your version, my dearly beloved historian, he "stole" my "golden donkey" a little in reproach.

    Are you talking about whom if not a secret?
    1. srub40
      srub40 13 March 2014 10: 25
      0
      His surname is very similar to the surname of a famous scout
      1. Bongo
        13 March 2014 10: 30
        0
        On the Ш does it begin?
        1. srub40
          srub40 13 March 2014 10: 31
          0
          For the Germans, yes, but for their own on And
          1. vietnam7
            vietnam7 13 March 2014 14: 23
            +2
            Isaev probably does not give you peace? What I didn’t please, if not a secret, of course, I read it myself, but I’m more interested in Drabkin’s works.
            1. srub40
              srub40 13 March 2014 14: 35
              +1
              It’s just the opposite: his works as a balsam (Riga) on my soul. Interesting, easily digestible (with my gastritis), has its own point of view, can reasonably prove, bring iron arguments and facts.
              I’m afraid it’s not spoiled ... I expect more work from him ...
              Drabkin is good too.
        2. srub40
          srub40 13 March 2014 10: 33
          +5
          I am a big fan of military history, I have interesting thoughts, materials .... maybe they can be posted on your resource?
          1. Bongo
            13 March 2014 11: 08
            +3
            I am not a moderator if thoughts are formulated digestible, I am sure they will be published.
  • mechanic driver
    mechanic driver 13 March 2014 18: 43
    0
    Quote: srub40
    Regarding the production of weapons in the USSR, there is an alternative version:
    - during the years of the Second World War on the production of basic weapons (tanks, guns, airplanes), according to the official statistics of the USSR, it significantly exceeded Germany;
    - this begs the question, why did they fight for so long? Yes, and the comparison of losses is not in our favor? and Germany still used part of the technology against the allies?
    - Why the Fuhrer in 42-43 did not believe in the figures for the production of tanks in the USSR, and the rest too, he said that the generals are cowards, the Bolsheviks do not have so much equipment?
    - why in 44-45gg. did the Germans think that tens of thousands of tanks and planes were acting against them on the Eastern Front, but in fact much less?
    - according to the recollections of veterans, did a significant amount of equipment appear only in 44-45gg?
    - I do not believe that under Stalin there could have been postscripts at defense plants, as some now claim, this is direct sabotage;
    - and here the conscious manipulation of numbers in order to gigantic disinformation of the enemy, this is a noble cause, approximately by analogy with the Cold War

    And you have data on the Far East, new equipment also went there.
    1. srub40
      srub40 13 March 2014 19: 24
      +2
      No data ... but most likely left ... for example: exactly a few hundred Sherman and T-34-85 in July-August 45g. And so between us, hundreds of BT and T-26s took part in the defeat of the Kwantung Army, it was difficult for me to judge new, used or relatively new ones ...
  • vkrav
    vkrav 13 March 2014 23: 11
    +1
    About 160mm mortars writes chief artillery marshal N. Voronov:
    "When new mortars were first massively used on one of the fronts, they made a huge moral impact on the enemy. The shots of these mortars are deaf, the mine takes off very high along a steep trajectory, and then falls almost vertically downward. At the first explosions of such mines, the Nazis decided, that they were bombed by our aviation, and they began to give air raid signals. "
    (c), "In military service"
    Interesting effect ...
  • kplayer
    kplayer 14 March 2014 00: 17
    0
    They joked about the mortarmen, calling them MINETCHES (I am wildly sorry! I heard it in 2000 in the North Caucasus), at a fire request it happened to our signalman: "NO MINUTES!"
    1. srub40
      srub40 14 March 2014 07: 23
      0
      The infantry has always called us that: look at the 82mm mine, what does it look like ?, the guys said, bang them ZALUP
  • ICT
    ICT 14 March 2014 08: 26
    +1
    By the way, it’s not clear why the articles were moved to the arsenal section --- the point is that the mortar is still a weapon
  • The comment was deleted.
  • uhu189
    uhu189 16 March 2014 00: 33
    +1
    Good articles, thank you very much to the author. Always interested in mortars and their combat use, it was very interesting to read.
  • Trdtt
    Trdtt 24 March 2014 19: 46
    0
    Thanks to the author. I read it with pleasure !!!
  • Gonzalles
    Gonzalles 5 May 2014 16: 16
    0
    Good day! Maybe someone will tell you what kind of ammunition for the mortar in the photograph from the museum. Signed "mine cat". The museum did not answer)
  • E.S.A.
    E.S.A. 1 December 2019 12: 06
    0
    Mortar fired 9 kg mines at a distance of up to 6300 m, the minimum range was 700 m. The rate of fire 15 rds / min.

    In fact, the firing range was shorter and ranged from 800 to 5000 meters, according to the 1941 Service Manual. He began to shoot at a distance of up to 6,3 km (and even then, a number of authoritative publications mention the figure of 6,1 km), he began after the modernization of 1944, when one more charge was added.
    In addition, the weight of a 107 mm mountain pack pack regimental mortar, which was 170 kg, is not indicated.
  • evgeniy13
    evgeniy13 25 May 2021 22: 03
    0
    Good afternoon, dear. I am writing a book about a hit in the Second World War, one of my heroes wants to adapt a mortar on a T-27 wedge heel. Maybe someone from knowledgeable people will advise on these issues?