Military Review

Soviet mortars during the war. Part 1


Mortars as a means of "trench warfare" appeared during the First World War. The main features of the modern mortar were formed when the first sample of such weapons Stokes constructions. At first glance, this is a rather primitive weapon, which is a pipe-barrel on a simple two-leg carriage, resting on a flat plate, absorbing the force of recoil into the ground.

Soviet mortars during the war. Part 1

The 3-inch mortar designed by Captain Stokes according to the “imaginary triangle” scheme, which became classical, was created in 1915 year and was originally intended for firing non-fixed chemical mines.

Unminted Mine Mortar

When it hit the target, such a mine broke apart, scattering poisonous substances. Subsequently, mortar mines filled with explosives, streamlined shape, equipped with tail feathers were created.

In fact, the caliber of “three-inch mines” was equal to 81 mm, since the diameter of the caps in the front and rear of the cylinder is 81 mm. A hollow tube of a diameter smaller than a mine — a chamber with fire-transmitting holes — was attached to the bottom of the mine. A blank 12 caliber cartridge cartridge was inserted into the tube in a cardboard sleeve. On top of the chamber, additional powder charges of a ring-shaped form were imposed. The firing range depended on the number of rings, although when firing at the minimum distance the mine could have been used without them.

Loading mine was made from the barrel. Mina had a smaller diameter than the caliber of the trunk and freely fell to the bottom of the channel under the action of gravity. Mina stumbled upon the striker head, while the primer-igniter of the hunting cartridge, inserted into the chamber, worked. The ignited powder, burning, developed a pressure sufficient for the powder gases to pierce the shell of the cartridge opposite the fire-transmitting holes. At the same time, additional charges ignited. Under the pressure of powder gases, mine was ejected from the trunk.

Thanks to the ease of loading, a huge rate of fire was achieved for those times (25 rounds per minute), which no mortar or field gun had. Accuracy of shooting, especially with unguided chemical mines, was mediocre, which was compensated by high rate of fire.

In the 20-30 years, the mortar was significantly improved in France by Brandt specialists. Mortar became easier, maintenance and shooting from it greatly simplified. Pointing the elevation in a small sector was carried out using a screw-turning mechanism located on the mount of the sight. New, heavier, streamlined mines were developed, in which not only the mass of the charge, but also the range of flight increased.

The Brandt 81-mm Mortar 27 / 31 was widely used and became a role model. Mortars of this type were produced under license or simply copied, including in the USSR.

Before the war in the USSR, there was an excessive fascination with mortars. The military leadership believed that light, inexpensive, easy-to-manufacture and service mortars could replace other types of artillery weapons.

Thus, under the pressure of the “mortar lobby”, projects of light infantry howitzers were buried, and the Taubin automatic grenade launcher, which proved itself well on the tests, was not adopted.

At the end of 1939, the simplest type of mortar was created - 37-mm mortar-spade of minimum caliber. They planned to replace the Dyakonov infantry rifle grenade launcher.

In the stowed position, a mortar weighing about 1,5 kg was a shovel, the barrel of which served as its handle. Mortar-shovel could be used for digging trenches. When firing from a mortar, a shovel served as a base plate. The shovel was made of armor steel.

The mortar consisted of a barrel, a spade - a support plate and a bipod with a cork. The trunk tube is connected tightly with the breech. In the breech pressed the hammer, which was superimposed priming chuck cartridge mines. The tail part of the breech ended with a ball heel, which serves to swivel the trunk with a plate (shovel). The barrel and spade in the hinge connection are made one-piece. To connect the barrel with a shovel in a traveling manner on the breech breech there was a rotating ring. The bipod served to support the trunk and in the stowed position was placed in the trunk. The barrel with a barrel closed with a stopper. Before shooting, the fry was connected to the barrel. Mortar rate of fire reached 30 rds / min.

Any sighting devices in the mortar was absent, shooting was carried out by eye. An 37-mm frag mine with a mass of about 500 grams was developed for shooting. Mines were worn in the cartridge belt.

In the winter of 1940, when using 37-mm mortar-shovels in battles in Finland, its extremely low efficiency was suddenly discovered. The mines' flight range at the optimum elevation angle was small and did not exceed 250 meters, and the fragmentation effect was weak, especially in winter, when almost all the fragments stuck in the snow. Due to the absence of sights, the accuracy of the shooting was extremely low, only “disturbing” shelling of the enemy was possible. All this was the reason for the negative attitude to the 37-mm mortar in the infantry units.

37-mm mortar mine

At the end of the 1941 of the year, due to poor combat effectiveness, the 37-mm mortar was discontinued. However, it could be found at the forefront of the year before 1943. According to the recollections of the front-line soldiers, it was relatively successfully used in a stable front line after targeting landmarks.

In 1938, the 50-mm rotary mortar was developed by the design bureau of the plant # XXUMX. He was a rigid system with an imaginary triangle scheme. The mortar had a mechanical sight without optics.

The design feature of the mortar was that the shooting was carried out only at two elevation angles: 45 ° or 75 °. Adjustment in range was made by the so-called remote valve located in the breech breech and releasing some of the gases to the outside, thereby reducing the pressure in the barrel.

The elevation angle 45 ° provided the greatest range of fire with an 850-gram mine to 800 m, and with a fully open faucet, the angle of inclination of the trunk at 75 ° provided the minimum range in 200 m. When shooting at all distances, only one charge was used. An additional change in the firing range was also carried out by changing the path of the mine in the barrel relative to the base of the barrel by moving the striker, as a result of which the volume of the chamber was changed. The angle of horizontal guidance without moving the slab to 16 °. 30 firing rate / min. The mortar weighed about 12 kg.

During the operation in parts and during combat use during the conflict with Finland a whole list of shortcomings of a company mortar was revealed. The most significant of these were:

- Large minimum range (200 m).
- Relatively heavy weight.
- Large size, which made it difficult to disguise.
- The remote tap device is too complex.
- The discrepancy of the scale of the remote range crane.
- Unsuccessful location of the outlet in the remote crane, because of this, when shooting, the outgoing gases, hitting the ground, raised dust and thus made the calculation difficult.
- Unreliable and difficult mount sight.

50-mm mortar mine

In 1940, a modernized 50-mm company mortar entered service. In the 50-mm rotary mortar arr. 1940, the barrel length was reduced and the design of the remote crane was simplified. This reduced the length of the mortar and reduced the weight to 9 kg. On the stove of a mortar there was a visor designed to protect the calculation from powder gases.

However, it was not possible to eliminate all the shortcomings without a fundamental change in the design of the mortar. Before World War II, more than 30 thousand 50-mm mortars were produced.

During the war, a mortar of the 1941 model of the year was created, which was created at the Special Design Bureau under the direction of designer V. N. Shamarin. It was missing a two-leg, all elements were attached only to the base plate, a remote valve with the exhaust gases up. Mortar plate stamped membrane type. The weight of the mortar in the combat position of about 10 kg.

Shamarine mortar compared to previous samples has become much easier and cheaper. Improved performance of the mortar.

Although the range and effectiveness of the fire remained the same, the 50-mm rotary mortar arr. 1941 of the year was popular among the troops, being often the only means of fire support for Soviet infantry in the company-platoon link.

In 1943, 50-mm company mortars were removed from service and withdrawn from the troops. This happened because of their low combat effectiveness and the transition to offensive operations.

A significant amount of 50-mm mortar mines produced was converted into manual fragmentation grenades.

In this case, the regular instantaneous head fuse and tail section were removed, and instead of the head fuse, the UZRG-1 fuse was screwed in, which was used in the F-1 and WP-42 manual fragmentation grenades during the war.

In the 1934 year, after studying the Stokes-Brandt mortar, an 82-mm mortar was created in the USSR under the direction of engineer N. A. Dorovlev. Within two years, the mortar was tested and compared with foreign models, and in 1936, he entered service with the Red Army.

The choice of the caliber was based on the fact that 81-mm mortars of foreign armies could be used when shooting from Soviet mortars, while 82-mm domestic mortar mines were not suitable for shooting from foreign armies. But, most likely it was due either to the fear of the designers of mines jamming in the mortar channels, or it was decided to round off the caliber from 81,4 mm to 82 mm to simplify documentation and pre-production.

82-mm battalion mortar arr. 1936

82-mm mortar arr. 1936 was the first Soviet battalion mortar and was intended to suppress firing points, defeat manpower, destroy wire barriers and destroy the enemy’s equipment, located behind cover and inaccessible for flat-fire and artillery fire, and also located openly.

A mortar weighing in the combat position of about 63 kg fired 3,10-kg mines at a distance of up to 3040 m, with a rate of 20-25 rpm. For shooting, 82-mm fragmentation and smoke mines were used.

82-mm mortar mine

The weapon combined the sufficient effectiveness of the shot with the ability to be carried by infantrymen: the mortar in the traveling position weighed 61 kg and disassembled for carrying into three parts - the barrel (weight in pack - 19 kg), biped (20 kg) and base plate (22 kg). In addition to the mortar itself, the calculation carried ammunition to it - a tray with three mines weighed 12 kg, a pack with two trays - 26 kg. Mortar rate of fire was up to 25 shots per minute, and an experienced calculation could hit the target with 3-4 shots.

Battle check 82-mm mortars arr. 1936 were held in battles with Japanese troops at Lake Hassan and on the river Khalkhin Gol. In battles on the Khalkhin-Gol river, 52 mortars were used, which accounted for about 10% of all field artillery. Despite the design flaws that emerged during the fighting, such as a small angle of horizontal guidance and the need to disassemble the mortar during the transfer to the battlefield, the mortars deserved a high estimate of the troops. During the fighting, 46,6 was spent thousands of minutes.

In 1937, the design of the mortar was modified to improve manufacturability and combat effectiveness. In particular, the shape of the base plate was changed - the mortar of the 1937 sample of the year became round.

82-mm battalion mortar arr. 1937

By the beginning of World War II in the Red Army there were 14 200 pcs. 82 mm mortars.

82-mm battalion mortar arr. 1941 was different from arr. 1937, the presence of detachable wheel travel, base plate arch design, as well as a bipedal other design. The wheels were put on two-legs on the half-legs of the legs and were removed when firing.

Constructive improvements were subordinated to the technological capabilities of production and aimed at reducing the mass of the mortar, labor costs in its manufacture and improvement of maneuvering characteristics. Ballistic characteristics of the mortar arr. The 1941 of the year was similar to the 1937 of the year.

82-mm mortar arr. 1941, the year was more convenient during transport compared with the arr. 1937 of the year, but was less stable when fired and had worse accuracy than arr. 1937 of the year.

In order to eliminate the shortcomings of the 82-mm mortar arr. 1941 of the year was upgraded. During it, the design of the bipods, wheels and mount the sight was changed. The upgraded mortar was called 82-mm mortar arr. 1943 of the year.

During the war, attempts were made to increase the mobility of the mortar units. Mortars were installed on off-road vehicles, trucks and motorcycle strollers. This became especially relevant after the transition of our army to offensive operations.

82-mm mortar mines, yielding by weight 76-mm projectile regimental guns in two times, not inferior to him in the fragmentation effect. In this case, the battalion mortar was several times lighter and cheaper.

Based on:
Articles from this series:
Soviet mortars during the war. Part 1
Soviet mortars during the war. Part 2
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  1. Gray 43
    Gray 43 12 March 2014 08: 18
    Devilish weapons, but effective.
    1. Fedya
      Fedya 12 March 2014 22: 22
      Unfortunately, the Fritzs were very effective at using mortars against partisans. Mina, in view of the sensitive fuse, exploded hitting the branches of trees in the forest, rain from the fragments was obtained. It was difficult to hide.
      1. srub40
        srub40 13 March 2014 09: 21
        The use of mortars against partisans and vice versa was systematic in nature, for a simple reason: the mobility of the system is still irrational to drag larger calibers into the forest off-road.
        And about the feelings of the fuse to the tree branches and the desired effect ...... well, a very big question .... yes, indeed, when you touch the branches, an explosion occurred ... yes, the peculiarity of the fragmentation mine is that the fragmentation of the fragments is persistent .
        Here is a case: fighters of the 316th rifle division dug themselves in a pine grove on Volokolamsk Highway ... and did not regret it ... the branches covered the soldiers from direct landmines ... while some discomfort brought rain from the fragments ... as eyewitnesses recall, literally drummed on the helmets of the fighters, but at the same time was not striking
        1. Fedya
          Fedya 13 March 2014 22: 14
          So drumming on helmets, and on the rest of the body? My grandfather told me this, but he certainly knew the warrior!
          1. srub40
            srub40 14 March 2014 07: 55
            Yes, this incident was described in their memoirs by people who were also not in Tashkent.
          2. pilot8878
            pilot8878 April 30 2014 22: 17
            He drummed on a steel helmet, and tapped on his ass and shoulders. Distracting, but safe (relatively not entrenched).
        2. Biggi_2006
          Biggi_2006 23 July 2017 14: 05
          Our 50 mm mine had a "tight" fuse, which gave a huge number of failures when it fell into soft soil and snow, but excluded accidental mine detonation due to shaking, bumps, falls, prolonged shots, and collisions with branches and raindrops.
          The Germans, on the contrary, the fuses were very sensitive, there were much fewer failures, but mines could explode even when shooting in the rain, from a collision with water drops.
          A kind of two extremes in the safety / efficiency dilemma. Considering that the Germans equipped their mines with various low-grade surrogate guano like schneiderite, premature mine detonation in the branches completely extinguished the destructive power of the fragments for those on the ground. And the trajectory of the mines, coupled with a fragmentation field eliminated the threat to those below. Potentially, only a small fraction of killer fragments reached green.
  2. avt
    avt 12 March 2014 08: 43
    Quote: Gray 43
    Devilish weapons, but effective.

    But I confess I see a 82mm photo on Harleys for the first time. For my taste, the article would not be prevented by tables with the performance characteristics of weapons. There would be a complete historical excursion. I'm greedy, but from a pure heart " laughing
    1. Snoop
      Snoop 12 March 2014 09: 50
      Norm good I also want a note from myself, why in the article there is no information about mortars of a larger caliber? After all, they were.
      1. Bongo
        12 March 2014 09: 57
        About them in the 2 part.
        1. Snoop
          Snoop 12 March 2014 10: 43
          Okayushki))) Read)
          By the way, I remember the stamp of the 80s. supposedly the Soviet stupid command did not pay attention to this type of weapon, the stupid Kulik denied the role of mortars in battle))))
    2. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 12 March 2014 11: 26
      My father (while alive and active) during the war, at the end of the training brigade, was appointed commander of the calculation of packaged mortars (82 mm), but I did not have to fight with a mortar gun, because he was sent to an officer school. He fought already as a saber platoon commander.
      He told me that the calculation consisted of 3 people and 4-5 units of equestrian staff. In rugged, and especially in wooded and swampy areas, such a calculation was very mobile.
    3. srub40
      srub40 12 March 2014 14: 44
      Benchmarking ... why ??? Our grandfathers already carried out the analysis in 41-45gg, ours is better in all respects
  3. Bongo
    12 March 2014 09: 54
    Quote: avt
    Maybe I'm greedy, but from the bottom of my heart

    TTX tried to consider, as regards tables and comparative analysis with foreign analogues, but then it would have turned out to be too stretched.
    And so it was necessary to divide the parts into 2.
    1. avt
      avt 12 March 2014 10: 16
      Quote: Bongo
      but then it would turn out too stretched.

      It's clear . But the topic is too interesting, it seems that the weapon is not very tricky at first glance, but at least take the rather complicated history of the introduction of this type of weapon into service with the Red Army. After all, it was very difficult, and sometimes on the verge of the tragedy of the people who created it and promoted the Red Army into service. What was the "competition" with the then all-powerful Kurchevsky.
  4. Bongo
    12 March 2014 10: 21
    Quote: avt
    the weapon is not very sophisticated at first glance

    At first sight!
    Quote: avt
    What was the “competition” with the then all-powerful Kurchevsky

    There was no direct confrontation between the “mortars” and Kurchevsky. At the suggestion of Tukhochevsky, they tried to replace the cannon artillery with "no-rolls".
    On the other hand, the "mortar lobby" buried quite a few interesting projects and samples built in metal.
    1. Snoop
      Snoop 12 March 2014 10: 47
      Tukhachevsky did not even listen to Grabin’s explanations. The problem was not only in recoillessness, he also wanted to introduce universal weapons of the battlefield. Despite the ardent protests of experts about the impossibility of this, a decision was made and they had to spend time developing a universal tool, a doomed project.
    2. srub40
      srub40 12 March 2014 10: 53
      Mortars have been my weakness and love since 99, mainly for Trays and Cornflowers.
      1. There are quite interesting photos: 3 from below, you can take the wheel drive into the armament of the Republic of Armenia: convenient movement / limited over rough terrain, most likely faster deployment to combat position compared to packs;
      2. 2 photos from the bottom: on the basis of the motorcycle is also instructive: proves that 82mm. mortars can actually be used on a lighter chassis compared to current experiments: MTLB, KAMAZ, GAZ66, Gas;
      3. Smaller calibers of mortars (37,50 mm.) Will probably become a thing of the past, because more effective systems have appeared: AGS, grenade launchers, hand-held grenade launchers;
      4. 82mm tray according to Khar-Am is a good enough weapon: simplicity of design and maintenance too, respectively, cheapness in production. Range 4km, rate of fire 25 rounds per min., Affected area / actual 25m., Mobility on the battlefield, makes it an excellent tactical weapon;
      5. The calculation according to the current state is 5 people. Practice has shown that 3 people are enough, and the calculation may not lose its functions as shooters, which suggests that the combined use of mortars in infantry is possible: a) fire control: bussolist, calculator, radio operator .... - calculation of the shooters of an infantry platoon, a company with shooting skills.
      6. And of course the future: increasing mines, firing ranges, guided shots, improving sights, devices for geo-referencing and fire control, reducing the weight of the system, and the chassis for more mobile movement
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 12 March 2014 11: 49
        srub40 "2. 2 photos below: based on a motorcycle is also instructive: it proves that 82mm mortars can actually be used on a lighter chassis compared to current experiments: MTLB, KAMAZ, GAZ66, Gaz;"
        That's what I want to say. Everything new is well forgotten old.
        Have you ever ridden a motorcycle in winter? Very sexual occupation you know.
        Maybe UAZ is better? Let’s say a loaf. He has a hitch. And a place for calculation and cross.
        1. srub40
          srub40 12 March 2014 12: 10
          I have a positive attitude to sexual activities, but without extreme: in the photo do the fighters seem to be waist-deep in the snow ?, therefore, considering your irony, we conclude that using motorcycles as a chassis for Trays beyond the Arctic Circle is ineffective and generally depending on climatic zones, may be subject to restrictions.
          I hope you got what I meant! No offense! Write me even very nice
          1. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 12 March 2014 13: 35
            srub40 "The Arctic Circle is ineffective and, in general, depending on climatic zones, may be subject to limitations."
            I agree.
            srub40 "I hope you understand me! No offense!"
            God forbid! What insults can be ...)))
            I knew one person. He served in the militia in the 80s. Was a district inspector. In winter he cut the Ural on a service motorcycle. He did not have an official car, but he had to get there, since he served more than one village. This happened in the Khanty-Mansiysk district. I must say then even the big bosses moved in UAZs.
            1. 52
              52 12 March 2014 17: 20
              As a child, I remember that as soon as the frost was losing ground to -20 and there was no wind, then a district police officer came to our "drunks on duty" in the fence and carried out regular intimidation actions. He came in an ordinary "Irbit" and packed especially talented people into a carriage. Sometimes three. And - nothing, no climatic restrictions, and the highest possible efficiency ...
            2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Biggi_2006
      Biggi_2006 23 July 2017 14: 26
      In fact, these "interesting projects" would be buried by the war. Neither the battalion mortars nor the Taubin grenade launcher were needed in a thoughtful study of the Red Army, there was no tactical niche for them, but there were huge problems on the production scale and in supply, especially in the area of ​​ammunition. The reinforcement system of the battalion 45 mm gun + 82 mm mortar is incomparably more effective than the 76 mm mortars "not gun, not mortar".
      Similarly, a 40 mm Taubin grenade launcher was a “thing in itself” - much weaker and worse than a 50 mm mortar when mounted and did not have significant advantages with a Dyakonov grenade launcher + anti-tank missile launcher when firing, plus we add here unfinished and imperfect ammunition, design complexity, and lack of capabilities in industry (we even could not provide 20 mm ofz aviation in full volume with fuses). Well, then the emphasis was on small-caliber company guns (a worthy project, which failed later, the wash did not pull). And do not forget, there was no RDX then, and in the TNT gear of 40 mm Taubin grenade, it is a little more than useless. Mine 50 mm-850 g, Taubin grenade 40 mm-450 gr. And 50 mm mine and Dyakonovka shortly after the outbreak of war was withdrawn from service as very weak. Well, a mortar is simpler and cheaper, and a truck for transporting grenades is not needed.

      It’s incorrect to compare Taubin’s grenade launcher with modern AGS; a grenade with a steel body and high-explosive HMX type explosive is used there, which gives a large number of small destructive fragments, which cast iron with ammotol is not capable of in principle. Secondly, the ACS is the weapon of the counter-Papuan troops, with a high degree of motorization, without a problem how to carry BC. And in the third, AGS was adopted in our country against the background of border conflicts with China, as an alternative to mortars, which could not be used in border clashes for political reasons, because the use of heavy weapons turned the "border incident" into military clashes.
  5. uhu189
    uhu189 12 March 2014 10: 31
    Thank you for the article, it was interesting. About 37-mm mortars did not know at all that they were used in the army ...
  6. igordok
    igordok 12 March 2014 12: 38
    Epigraph in "Instructions for the design and use of a 37-mm mortar (1942)" -
    Believer of the Red Army, believe in the strength of your military equipment, keep calm at the moment of danger, never part with your weapons, fight the enemy to the last possible opportunity.

    If anyone is interested in the instructions.
    Instructions for the design and use of the 37 mm mortar (1942) .djvu -
    Service manual 50 mm mortar mortar mod. 1938 g. (1939) .djvu -
    Service manual 50 mm mortar mortar mod. 1940 g. (1940) .djvu -
    Service manual 82-mm mortars of sample 1937, 1941 and 1943 djvu -
    Service manual 107-mm mountain pack pack regimental mortar arr. 1938 g. (107 GVPM-1938) (1941) .djvu -
    Service manual 120-mm mortar sample 1938 g. (1957) .djvu -
    Service Manual 160-mm mortar mod. 1943 g. (1969) .djvu -
    and captured 50-mm German mortar model 1936, memory.pdf -
  7. svp67
    svp67 12 March 2014 13: 20
    At the end of 1939, the simplest type of mortar was created - 37-mm mortar-spade of minimum caliber. They planned to replace the Dyakonov infantry rifle grenade launcher.
    Here he is one of the "progenitors" of the grenade launcher ...
  8. inkass_98
    inkass_98 12 March 2014 13: 43
    This photo confused me - at first I noticed that the soldier on the left has never a Mosin trilinear, then he noticed windings instead of boots. In terms of the curvature of the personnel, it seemed to me that they were more likely Japanese than ours. Moreover, the signature was that photo Khalkhin-Golskoye.
    1. srub40
      srub40 12 March 2014 14: 09
      Yes, this is ours, although ours are different: Mongols, Buryats, Kalmyks, Russians, the first time I hear that the nationality is determined by the shape of the legs, I also have crooked legs ... but in front it does not look like a Japanese. This photo has already been sucked on
    2. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 12 March 2014 15: 50
      inkass_98 "This photo confused me - at first I noticed that the fighter on the left never had a Mosin three-line, then I noticed windings instead of boots. In terms of the degree of bow-legged personnel, it seemed to me that they were more Japanese than ours. Moreover, the signature was that photo is Khalkhin-Golskoye. "
      The photo is called, it is on the site indicated by the comrade srub40 "The Soviet mortar crew changes position in the Stalingrad region" The rifle may be German (captured).
      In 1942, ours were mostly in windings and went. Boots are a luxury. "They fought for the Motherland" remember. If you have not seen the film - look you will not regret it.
      About the crooked leg it YOU got excited.)))
      1. avt
        avt 12 March 2014 16: 18
        Quote: Nagaibak
        In 1942, ours were mostly in windings and walked. Boots are a luxury.

        My grandfather went through the war and crawled, but returned home to them. Well, about
        Quote: Nagaibak
        About the crooked leg it is YOU got excited

        So the photo is real - from the back, not staged and judging by how in a hurry - under fire. This is not a movie, you really want to live here, you’re not so heated. It’s only according to the script that the director is not scared and marching at a military pace.
      2. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 12 March 2014 22: 25
        Quote: Nagaibak
        In 1942, ours were mostly in windings and walked. Boots are a luxury.

        You are right, dear colleague Andrei. There was not enough leather for boots, and therefore they wore windings. Kirza only at the end of 1942 launched into production. By 1944, tarpaulin boots began to enter the army in sufficient quantities.
    3. kagorta
      kagorta 13 March 2014 08: 07
      Type 38 is similar to Arisaku, our mortar man got hold of a trophy, he took it, so to speak. laughing
  9. misham1978
    misham1978 12 March 2014 14: 06
    Unfortunately, the feat and military work of mortar bombers is not displayed at all in our cinema (tankers, pilots, artillery, anti-tank missiles, snipers, reconnaissance). According to the recollections of the Germans themselves, they suffered significant losses from mortar fire. From the mortar mine FIG hide
    1. srub40
      srub40 12 March 2014 14: 17
      I agree to all 100000%. Although the literature exists in the form of memoirs, I note that veterans write, first of all, the combat use of mortars is relevant and now, I checked it in practice.
      But the cinema is an omission: I propose to remove the following masterpieces:
      "Three mortar men and a compass"
      "Collimator in the Fog"
      "500 meters from the front line"
      "We are from the mortar"
      "Brothers in the mortar"
      "Mina, minochka, blowjob"
      "Let's start one by one"
      "Features of abortion mortar"
      "Direct fire .... ahahah..well you're chasing dude"
      "Caliber does not matter" and much more.
      1. Fedya
        Fedya 12 March 2014 22: 17
        In a quiet outpost there is a scene where spetsnaz spirits from mortars are being wetted. It turned out beautifully.
      2. Klim2011
        Klim2011 13 March 2014 18: 21
        Class, smiled laughing
  10. benq
    benq 12 March 2014 15: 23
    Could a mortar fight armored targets? Mounted fire on a tank would be effective with appropriate ammunition.
    1. Bongo
      12 March 2014 15: 40
      During the war, cases of the destruction of light and medium tanks by 120-mm RP mines were repeatedly recorded, when it got into the upper, relatively thin armor, it easily broke through. Although the probability of landmines entering the tank is not great, the 120-mm regimental mortars were used for firing. With a close gap of 120-mm mines, damage to the chassis and penetration of the side armor are also possible.
      At the moment, in foreign armies, self-aiming anti-tank mortar shots have been adopted.
    2. uhu189
      uhu189 12 March 2014 15: 44
      I’m afraid with accuracy there would be problems - the tanks are not standing still. I read in the memoirs of a mortar veteran that they opened fire on tanks in order to simulate anti-tank fire in order to gain time for the deployment of infantry and artillery. The author of the memoirs wrote that several mines fell on the tanks (medium tanks were), but they could not immobilize or damage them. As a result, the Germans retreated, then figured out what was starting to attack again, but during this time our team deployed anti-tank guns and repelled the attack.
    3. igordok
      igordok 12 March 2014 16: 11
      Quote: benq
      Could a mortar fight armored targets?

      The plane shot down, accidentally or deliberately, we no longer recognize.
      23 December 1941 years during the defense of Sevastopol a unique event occurred. The commander of the 2th mortar company of the 31th infantry regiment of the 25th Chapaevsky infantry division, Captain Vladimir Polikarpovich Simonok from the 82-mm battalion mortar hit a low-flying German Messerschmitt-109 fighter with a direct hit, storming the positions of the Seva defenders. Some may believe that this happened by accident, but Simonok himself recalled that he was aiming at the plane intentionally.

      On the same site "Mortars against tanks"
    4. Fedya
      Fedya 12 March 2014 22: 18
      There is little kinetic energy, even Katyusha could not harm the Fritz tanks!
  11. Bongo
    12 March 2014 15: 50
    Quote: uhu189
    The author of the memoirs wrote that several mines fell on the tanks (medium tanks were), but they could not immobilize or damage them.

    Perhaps it was the 82-mm battalion mortars.
    An 120-mm regiment mortar mine weighing almost 16 kg, containing more than 3 kg of TNT broke through the upper armor of the PzKpfw III and PzKpfw IV tanks.
    1. uhu189
      uhu189 12 March 2014 17: 00
      Yes, you are right, namely battalion, 82mm.
      1. Bongo
        12 March 2014 17: 03
        Then it is clear. 82-mm fragmentation mine is too light to seriously damage the tank
        1. uhu189
          uhu189 12 March 2014 18: 25
          You are right, but on the other hand, if you recall the book "Tigers in the Mud", then if you believe the author, the Tigers failed most of all from the actions of mortars, which damaged pipelines and optics
  12. avt
    avt 12 March 2014 15: 53
    Quote: benq
    Could a mortar fight armored targets? Mounted fire on a tank would be effective with appropriate ammunition.

    No, that was enough for you! Yes, there were cases when a Turkish armored steamer was sunk by an unguided shell from a mortar on the Danube, then the fashion went and mortars were already installed on the battleship "Peter I", as many as two pieces. yes, a guided mine, and even a 240mm caliber, then yes. Although I knew a veteran - Kostylev, at 41 he retreated with two 203mm howitzers and the tractor broke down. While they were repairing - he collected one gun from a field one, but sent a patrol with a telephone and on time. noticed the Germans and so successfully planted not with direct fire, but with a killer, he himself was called up from the Moscow Higher Technical School and knew how to count well, then, after the war, he worked there, that on the move one was smashed to dust, the rest were given. from IVki hell would be what remained. For which the first Red Star and received. You can say that he was lucky, by the way he thought so himself, but said that he did not shoot at random, there was time - he figured out where the German would be on the road.
  13. 52
    52 12 March 2014 17: 27
    On the question of the 37 mm mortar. In the Red Army, there was a saying: "Shoots like a shovel, digs like a mortar." And one more comment from the now deceased veteran: "Oh .... mimomet".
    1. srub40
      srub40 12 March 2014 17: 49
      Most likely, this was exactly so .... here only the Fritz in Stalingrad complained very much about these diggers - shooting games, 37 Guards. the division (landing) was provided with them in large numbers ... according to the Fritz they were literally bombarded with mines
      1. Bongo
        12 March 2014 17: 50
        It could be 50-mm company mortars.
        1. srub40
          srub40 12 March 2014 18: 23
          Could, but not they if I remember, it just says there are a lot of diggers in the division - shooters. By the way, in the museum of the Battle of Stalingrad there are just a couple of copies, and if I am not mistaken, and a footnote to whom they belonged
  14. Stas57
    Stas57 12 March 2014 18: 40
    I have already said several times that our mortar "shot" in mass exceeded not only the German volume, but also our art. shot.
    In other words, for every German sneeze, so with 43 we massively threw Germans with mines
    1. igordok
      igordok 12 March 2014 19: 12
      Quote: Stas57
      I have already said several times that our mortar "shot" in mass exceeded not only the German volume, but also our art. shot.
      In other words, for every German sneeze, so with 43 we massively threw Germans with mines

      The mortar crew of the Shumov brothers
      According to the charter, it is supposed to let out ten minutes per minute, almost other calculations give seven to eight. And with Vasily, the rate of fire reaches fifteen, or even seventeen minutes. And there were cases - in the January battles to break the blockade - up to eighteen minutes "hung in the air." This means: when the first mine, having reached the target, explodes, the brothers lower the twentieth into the barrel of the mortar, and the eighteen issued are flying one after another, approaching the target. And when the breaks then follow one after another, it seems as if Katyusha has earned. Every three seconds - a mine! ”

  15. Bongo
    13 March 2014 03: 18
    Quote: Fedya
    Kinetic energy is not enough, even Katyusha could not harm the Fritz tanks

    Let's count, the RPG-41 anti-tank grenade broke through the 25-mm armor. And in 120-mm mine explosives 2 times more, this is not counting the impact energy.
    Aircraft ROFS-132 with a gap near the tank at a distance of 1 m from it at an angle of elevation in 30 of the kinetic energy of the fragments was enough to break through German armor up to 15 mm thick. At an elevation angle in 60, the ROSF-132 gap at a distance of up to 2 meters from the tank ensured penetration of tank armor fragments with a thickness of 30 mm.
  16. vietnam7
    vietnam7 13 March 2014 08: 27
    In the magazine Arms in the early 2000s there was an article about the development of a "double-loaded fuse" for mortars, when the first mine had not yet left the barrel, and the crew, carried away by the battle, was already submitting the second, in 120 mm mortars, as a rule, the entire crew died. It seems that after the adoption of the fuse, the allies handed over the documentation. Many thanks to the author for the material (sorry + does not increase through shift), it's good that not everyone is writing about Ukraine yet, we are waiting for the continuation, please do not delay.
    1. Bongo
      13 March 2014 08: 50
      Thank you, glad you liked it! About the double-charge fuse and everything else will be in the 2 part. It should be today.
  17. Klim2011
    Klim2011 13 March 2014 18: 29
    Author +, did not know some facts.
    We are waiting for the second part.
  18. Leader
    Leader 13 March 2014 23: 16
    Quote: Fedya
    Unfortunately, the Fritzs were very effective at using mortars against partisans. Mina, in view of the sensitive fuse, exploded hitting the branches of trees in the forest, rain from the fragments was obtained. It was difficult to hide.

    From the realm of impenetrable myths that have firmly entered Russian folklore - the Germans are without exception armed with "Schmeisers", all German tanks are "tigers", "ours never fired at their own people," and so on.
    The use of mortars in the forest dramatically reduces the effectiveness of fire. The mortar is terrible for undecided or advancing infantry in an open area. Hills, mounds, pits, forest, boulders - serve the soldier as a defense.
    The advantages of the mortar - a high degree of destruction of ground unprotected targets due to the characteristics of the trajectory of the landmine; the ability to carry on your shoulders; sheltering.
    1. Biggi_2006
      Biggi_2006 23 July 2017 14: 47
      55% of the loss of German infantry in 1941-42 was from mortar fire. So in this regard, the mortars completely fulfilled and exceeded the tasks assigned to them. But shrapnel greatly let us down, largely due to the low skill of the gunners. In fact, the battalion mortars, and later the consolidated units took over most of the fire tasks of the division artillery and in many ways it was successfully replaced. Apart from the VET and the work on point targets (which the divisional officers didn’t like very much), in general, infantry mortar fire is much more effective, both psychologically and practically