Military Review

Black Sea Fleet: from Gibraltar to Socotra

31
Black Sea Development fleet is one of the most important areas of development of Russian sea power. This is due to a number of objective factors.




The Black Sea is a zone of vital interests of Russia. The Krasnodar Territory is located on the Black Sea coast, and the Rostov region is on the Azov Sea coast. Here is located the largest in Russia Novorossiysk sea trading port, which is also non-freezing, and a number of other ports (Azov, Anapa, Gelendzhik, Yeisk, Caucasus, Rostov-on-Don, Sochi, Taganrog, Taman, Temryuk and Tuapse). In 2013, the turnover of the seaports of the Azov-Black Sea basin amounted to 174,4 million tons (about 30% of total Russian), including the turnover of the port of Novorossiysk - 112.6 million tons (19% of all-Russian).

There are countries on the Black Sea coast, relations with which are of particular importance for Russia — above all, Ukraine and Georgia. In the interests of Russia - to prevent destabilization of the situation in Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.
Through the Black Sea, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles lies the shortest route from Russia to the Mediterranean Sea and through it to the Indian Ocean, which is strategically important from both an economic and a military-political point of view. The overlap of the Black Sea cuts off strategic communication, significantly complicates maritime trade and naval activities.

The need to ensure Russia's naval presence in the Mediterranean has become clear, including after the events in Syria. This was enshrined in the decision to create an operational connection, which will be permanently solving tasks in the Mediterranean, as well as in the Atlantic and Indian oceans.

As part of the compound, it is planned to have at first 5 – 6 ships and vessels, which will be provided on a rotational basis by the Northern, Baltic, Black Sea and even Pacific fleets. In any case, it is the Black Sea Fleet that will be the rear of the Mediterranean operational formation of the Russian fleet, play a key role in ensuring its activities, providing ships, ship repair facilities, basing points, training base, etc.

Unfortunately, the ship structure of the Black Sea Fleet does not correspond to the tasks assigned to it. It is based on the few aging ships of the “Soviet heritage”: after 1990, the fleet did not receive a single 1-th ship - 2-rank. Now it includes one non-nuclear submarine (B-871 Alrosa, commissioned in 1990), one missile cruiser (GRKR Moskva, 1982), three patrol ships (commissioned in 1969— 1980 years.), Seven large landing ships (entry into service 1966 — 1990 years.).

For comparison, the fleet that controls the straits and is a member of NATO Turkey significantly exceeds the Black Sea fleet of Russia in its ship composition, which creates a direct threat to the balance of forces in the region and the national security of Russia.

The basis of the Turkish fleet are 16 frigates, including four relatively new ships of the Barbaros type, eight corvettes, including two new ships of the Ada type, and fourteen non-nuclear submarines (half of them were commissioned after 1994). In perspective, the Turkish fleet should be replenished with 6 with new corvettes, 4 frigates, 6 submarines and one or several universal landing ships.

Black Sea Fleet: from Gibraltar to Socotra


In the near future, this situation needs to be reversed. Now for the Black Sea Fleet is the construction of six new submarines Ave 636.3 and six frigates Ave 11356. It is also planned to replenish the fleet with seven combat boats of various purposes, Su-24 M aircraft.

Perhaps the fleet will receive small artillery and rocket ships of the project 21630 / 21631, new sea and roadster minesweepers. At least, the Vice-Admiral Alexander Fedotenkov, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, mentioned this. There is also a hypothetical possibility that the Black Sea Fleet will receive one of the universal landing ships of the Mistral type.

This is not enough to ensure the effective operation of the permanent operational formation in the Mediterranean, but also to ensure the balance of power in the Black Sea. But, given the need to upgrade other fleets, six frigates and six submarines in the near future are a necessary minimum for the Black Sea Fleet. After that, when the opportunity arises, further strengthening of the fleet with new ships of the 1 and 2 ranks, submarines, auxiliary ships, and other forces and means is necessary.

But for the functioning of the fleet of new ships is not enough. Developed coastal infrastructure is required. Now, within the framework of the relevant federal target program, the Novorossiysk naval base is being actively developed, which should ensure the all-weather basing of ships and submarines, including new ones. In addition, it plans to create ship repair facilities and training base of the fleet.

Nevertheless, Sevastopol remains for the foreseeable future the main basing point for the Black Sea Fleet.
The Novorossiysk naval base, even after the successful implementation of all measures for its development, can only supplement, but not replace, the base in Sevastopol. Sevastopol bay is much more convenient for the basing of ships in comparison with the Novorossiysk bay, famous for its regular and destructive boron.

Thus, the powerful Black Sea fleet of Russia is necessary. In the list of priorities, it is second only to the Northern and Pacific Fleet and more significant than the Baltic Fleet and the Caspian Flotilla.

The fleet needs a sufficient number of modern ships, as well as the preservation and modernization of the main points of deployment, including Sevastopol. The development of the Black Sea Fleet should be one of the key areas of Russian military policy.
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  1. soul
    soul 8 March 2014 08: 24
    +15
    We are waiting for the results of the referendum on Crimea. Probably soon there will be news on the RRC pr.1164 "Admiral Lobov" although the old one already. And the ship's composition, yes - the 90s were not in vain, Gorbach s ... ka ...

    Lovely Ladies Happy Holiday!
    1. Arberes
      Arberes 8 March 2014 11: 54
      +13
      Quote: alma
      We are waiting for the results of the referendum in Crimea.

      Crimean peninsula. must and will be Russian. This is the key to owning the entire Black Sea basin! I have no doubt that everything possible and impossible will be done for this!
      Another such opportunity may no longer be presented.
      1. tchoni
        tchoni 9 March 2014 15: 50
        +1
        Here! Crimea as an unsinkable aircraft carrier is the key to control of the entire Black Sea about the countries it washed. And to build a large fleet on the Black Sea - if only you can agree on the straits with Turkey or buy a base in the Middle East.
      2. alexkross83
        alexkross83 10 March 2014 22: 44
        +2
        Crimea and Sevastopol Russian !!! As for the modernization, it would be nice to restore the base of PDL in Balaclava, for a start ...
    2. xomaNN
      xomaNN 8 March 2014 17: 18
      +2
      It is unlikely that the Nikolaev corps of RKR 1164pr. will sell the Russian Federation. Rather, they will cut it into scrap metal in the light of the current Crimean events.
  2. malikszh
    malikszh 8 March 2014 08: 26
    +2
    Still, after repairing the nuclear cruiser, Ushakov may urgently repair the Admiral Kharlamov’s BOD and here.
    1. No Name
      No Name 9 March 2014 02: 32
      +2
      What for the World Cup nuclear cruiser of 25 kilotons? smile
      Yes, and Ushakov will not be reanimated most likely ...
  3. barbiturate
    barbiturate 8 March 2014 10: 37
    +10
    a bald, stupid man gave Crimea, now such holivars, Putin, for all his shortcomings, even though he looks like a statesman and performs functions, the Ukrainians have a mess, the president has a rag, and the Black Sea Fleet is needed and will be
  4. siberalt
    siberalt 8 March 2014 11: 19
    +7
    The problem is being solved. Oddly enough, with the unexpected filing of the SGA. Well, their computers cannot calculate the Russian spirit and ingenuity.
  5. 222222
    222222 8 March 2014 12: 35
    +14
    "In the list of priorities, it is second only to the Northern and Pacific Fleets and is more significant than the Baltic Fleet and the Caspian Flotilla."

    ..this is an erroneous and even harmful message .. Each fleet has its own strategic task .. own role and mission ..
  6. Leshka
    Leshka 8 March 2014 14: 01
    +4
    if we get the Crimea, then we will have to increase the fleet and even the Vedas in the Crimea there are good shipyards
    1. zeleznijdorojnik
      zeleznijdorojnik 9 March 2014 10: 30
      +2
      Any such shipyards in Crimea ????? In Nikolaev 61-th plant - yes !!!! And in the Crimea ????
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 10 March 2014 09: 57
        +4
        Quote: zeleznijdorojnik
        Any such shipyards in Crimea ????? In Nikolaev 61-th plant - yes !!!! And in the Crimea ????


        In Kerch there is a shipbuilding plant, in Soviet times it produced the SKR project 1135, super tankers, and the nuclear lighter carrier "Sevmorput" was built on it. There was a very respectable plant under the union!
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 10 March 2014 15: 01
          0
          Serg65 "There is a shipbuilding plant in Kerch, in Soviet times it produced SKR pr.1135, super tankers, and the nuclear lighter carrier" Sevmorput "was built on it. There was quite a solid plant under the union!"
          I saw this "Sevmorput" in the years 1986-1987. When I was in the hero-city of Kerch. It was just then being built. The tankers were built 200 meters long. And the plant was called the plant "Zaliv im Butomy". There is also a shipyard in Feodosia. He built hydrofoils. And a shipyard in Sevastopol. Not a small factory, I must say.
          1. internatio
            internatio 13 March 2014 00: 54
            +1
            Sevastopol ship repair actually destroyed under the previous government. The plant was divided into small enterprises, which were bought by the owners. Then the owners sold everything they could. Therefore, Sevastopol residents put forward a demand for the nationalization of everything that used to be a factory. Let's see how this is being implemented now. Crimeans and Sevastopol residents will support everything that, as a result, will lead to the restoration of the North shipbuilding plant.
      2. 23424636
        23424636 10 March 2014 12: 59
        +2
        The Zaliv plant builds ships up to 100 thousand kW, there are no orders, and here is Russia with plans for new aircraft carriers.
      3. Marine1
        Marine1 13 March 2014 13: 46
        +1
        in Sevastopol, a good repair base for the Ordzhenikidze plant and the 13th pest plant and in my time were built in Feadosia SDKVP ZUBR of what we now lack
  7. erdixi
    erdixi 8 March 2014 21: 42
    0
    Chesma, Gangud and Sinop.
  8. erdixi
    erdixi 8 March 2014 21: 55
    0
    On gyusah three.
  9. erdixi
    erdixi 8 March 2014 22: 32
    0
    There are three strips on the guis.
  10. wolf1945
    wolf1945 8 March 2014 22: 59
    0
    This is not the first time the Black Sea Fleet has been revived, and now with the city the hero SEVASTOPOL will be one of the best fleets of RUSSIA !!! soldier
  11. Fantazer911
    Fantazer911 8 March 2014 23: 24
    +1
    Hello everyone! According to the social survey, on March 16, a two-point vote will be chosen for joining the Crimean peninsula to the Russian Federation!
    For the development of the navy and its replenishment of modern warships, if Ukraine wants to sell its ships to the Russian Federation, then it will be possible to buy them as scrap metal, to reconstruct them and in a good way to protect the fatherland.
  12. moremansf
    moremansf 9 March 2014 17: 10
    +4
    The Black Sea Fleet is one of the components of the Russian Navy, an outpost on the southern borders of the country, access to the Mediterranean Sea ... Its strategic importance is very important in solving many geopolitical problems in this region ... Sevastopol is a city of Russian glory ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. malikszh
      malikszh 11 March 2014 07: 57
      0
      Are these ships stationed in the Crimea? BOD Ukraine where is now in the Crimea?
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 11 March 2014 08: 12
        +3
        Quote: malikszh
        Are these ships stationed in the Crimea? BOD Ukraine where is now in the Crimea?


        BOD Ukraine is who? There was once on the Black Sea Fleet BPK "Komsomolets Ukrainy" pr.61, the most wonderful ship of the 30th division, one chief prod of which only cost and the battalier was a match for him laughing ... And about the BPK "Ukraine" I have not even heard!
        1. malikszh
          malikszh 11 March 2014 08: 22
          0
          I apologize for the Ukraine missile cruiser (former Lobov Fleet Admiral)
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 11 March 2014 08: 27
            +3
            "Lobov" - "Ukraine" stands in Nikolaev, tightly tied to the wall of the 61st plant.
  13. Gorinich
    Gorinich 10 March 2014 12: 53
    +1
    Until the 16 date, the Kiev authorities will try to force the Crimea to be overcome. The only question is how far they have gathered. It is one thing to try to capture the isthmus, another is to drive out the Black Sea Fleet. Someone’s hands are already dirty in blood, so he will give the order. And the only question is what decision will be made by the officers of Ukraine.
    1. internatio
      internatio 13 March 2014 01: 16
      0
      Fiery, you, Gorynych! You can't forbid anyone to dream. But the Black Sea Fleet was, is and will be in the Crimea, not only in Sevastopol. After all, now the protection of the borders of Crimea and Russia is his direct task. And if decent officers are offered to serve on new decent ships ... Then not only sailors will leave the Sagaidachny. "And then any of us is not against - at least serve in the navy all his life!" ...
  14. TAMERLAN 7
    TAMERLAN 7 11 March 2014 10: 40
    +1
    For the Russian Black Sea Fleet, blocking the Bosphorus may become one of the priority tasks. Underwater minelayers can cope with this task best of all, i.e. conventional diesel submarines with mines on board. It is not in vain that the world's first specialized underwater minelayer "Crab" was built specifically for the Black Sea Fleet.

    First of all, it is necessary to equip the Black Sea Fleet with submarines. Ships of the 1st and 2nd rank for an almost inland sea are quite luxurious and wasteful! Another thing is the Mediterranean squadron! I think it is necessary to distinguish between the Black Sea Fleet and the Mediterranean squadron.
  15. internatio
    internatio 13 March 2014 01: 24
    +1
    When veterans of the Black Sea region tied pioneer ties to the boys on the legendary Sapun Mountain in the hero city of Sevastopol, no NATO will defeat such boys. They have grown. But they are in the forefront of the patriots of the Russian land. The cherished dreams of fathers and grandfathers come true - there will be new Nakhimov’s people in the renewed Sevastopol.