Military Review

"Black Wing" for Russian aviation

43
"Black Wing" for Russian aviation



Today, the more perfect the aircraft, the more non-metallic materials. Unique “black wing” - high strength, and most importantly, lightweight aviation detail. Inside - aluminum honeycombs, above and below - about a hundred layers of carbon fiber, because of the characteristic color of which the wing is called "black".

Wings need almost all aircraft, except that balloons and airships can do without them. Even the blades of a helicopter are nothing more than rotating wings. After all, when air is flown around the wing, a lift is created - a necessary condition for flight.

The first aircraft had wings made of wood and covered with cloth. To give the fabric strength and in order to protect the design of the aircraft from precipitation, the fabric was impregnated with a special aviation varnish. To make a turn or turn during the flight, the pilot bent such wings with the help of wire rods.

Of course, airplanes with such “cloth” wings could not withstand considerable speed and temperature loads. There was a need for other materials, primarily in the metal.

All-metal wings on many aircraft models began to install from the 30-s of the last century. To bend in flight such a wing would not be enough for the pilot. Therefore, the designers found a way out - on the rear edge of the wing began to install moving planes - ailerons, changing the angle of which the pilot could turn the plane left and right, or vice versa, eliminate involuntary roll.

As a result of the evolution of aircraft alloys, composites have replaced metal. Today, the more perfect the aircraft, the more non-metallic materials it contains. Already designed aircraft more than half, consisting of composites. For example, in a Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft, the proportion of composite materials is about 50%.

The most widely composite materials are now used in the wings. After all, it is precisely their configuration, size and surface that largely determines the efficiency of the liner as a whole and its flight characteristics. In addition to reducing the weight characteristics of composite materials allow for greater elongation of the wing. The aircraft will significantly improve aerodynamic performance, which affects fuel consumption. According to experts, this factor alone can save up to 8% fuel. At the same time, the difference in weight can be up to 300 kg, the “black wing” of the aircraft weighs less.

Thus, despite the fact that composites are six times more expensive than metal and difficult to manufacture, their mass production remains profitable.

In addition, for example, fighter wings, taking into account superloading, cannot be made of metal, but only of CFRP. At Obninsk enterprise "Technology", part of the holding "RT-Chemcomposite", composites are already being created for some Russian fighters. Civil aviation without composites also can not do. In the new Russian mainline aircraft MC-21 there will be more than 30%.

There are two main ways of producing composite elements. The first method is traditional, autoclaved. It is this technology that makes all of its components Boeing and Airbus. In the same way, the wing of the promising Russian fighter T-50 is created. Inside - aluminum honeycombs, above and below - about a hundred layers of carbon fiber. In this case, the layers are cut and stacked with the help of a laser projector layer by layer at the right angles. After the calculation, this “sandwich” (prepreg) is sent to the 8 watch in an autoclave, where it turns into a high-strength, and most importantly, light aviation component.

For the same classic autoclave technology, composite elements of wing mechanization are produced for the new Russian Superjet 100 airliner. Production is adjusted at one of the enterprises in Kazan.

The second method for the production of composite elements is infusion technology. Its advantage is that it allows for the production of highly complex structures, such as wing panels, for one technical redistribution. When using prepregs, this is not possible: the entire unit would have to be assembled from individual parts, that is, use fasteners that increase weight and be used for decent labor costs.

In addition, for the infusion technology does not need autoclaves, which require significant costs for large parts. These advantages can significantly save on the production of "black wing" and achieve competitive advantages in an economic sense.

The only Russian plant for the production of aircraft parts made of composite materials created using infusion technology is located in Ulyanovsk. This company is one of the five largest industries in the world with similar characteristics. It is here that the entire “black” wing is made for MC-21.

Thanks to the development of composites production technology for new and promising liners, the Russian aviation industry continues its steady development today and can gain technological superiority among world leaders in the industry.
Originator:
http://rostec.ru/research/project/4333
43 comments
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  1. Alex
    Alex 6 March 2014 08: 28
    +29
    I would like to believe that the sanctions that threaten the United States will give an additional impetus to the development of the domestic aviation industry.
    1. Letun
      Letun 6 March 2014 10: 02
      +21
      The aviation industry is without a doubt good, but I am more concerned about domestic machine tool construction. Here they write to us about laser cutting machines, but I'm sure that they are either Japanese or German (well, in general, Western European). Let them think at the top how much, if sanctions are imposed, this equipment can work. I understand that there is still China, but all the same, the technological power of the state should be provided at least by half, well, to hell with it, even by a third, with its own equipment.
      1. saturn.mmm
        saturn.mmm 6 March 2014 13: 03
        +9
        Quote: Letun
        I understand that there is still China

        In Russia, they also produce similar
        http://tetalaser.all.biz/ например.
        Economic sanctions can benefit Russia, they can finally seriously engage in domestic industry and agriculture (the benefit is where to turn around).
        1. ultra
          ultra 6 March 2014 19: 14
          +5
          Quote: saturn.mmm
          Economic sanctions could benefit Russia,

          I am 100% sure of this! There will be an incentive for the development of domestic production!
      2. Nayhas
        Nayhas 6 March 2014 14: 39
        +1
        Quote: Letun
        Here they write to us about laser cutting machines, but I'm sure that they are either Japanese or German (well, in general, Western European).

        You are absolutely right. Equipment as well as production technology is entirely imported. I won’t be surprised if the materials themselves are also bought abroad (except for luminescence)
        1. Kir
          Kir 6 March 2014 21: 42
          0
          I advise you to read on composites, if only those who were stupid from here didn’t flog it and patented it, so We took the first positions in Carbon Fiber and Par-Aramids, and we were leaders in some other materials.
          By the way, read the laser indicated in the article more closely together with Letun, it is the equivalent of what is usually called laser sharpening - the pointer is actually no more.
    2. inkass_98
      inkass_98 6 March 2014 10: 11
      +1
      Yeah, and Americans with Europeans will lose the market. What-what, and pennies these comrades know how to count.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. fisherman
      fisherman 6 March 2014 11: 35
      +4
      Your glory be to God in the ears.
    5. Sirocco
      Sirocco 6 March 2014 12: 12
      +6
      Quote: Ralex
      I would like to believe that the sanctions that threaten the United States will give an additional impetus

      You are right to give a push.
      For example, in the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, the proportion of composite materials is about 50%.
      And this push will get the Boeing company. All titanium and racks of these aircraft are delivered from Russia. And how many of our engineers work for this company, I hope they will be the first to feel this push under the ass.
    6. Nayhas
      Nayhas 6 March 2014 14: 53
      -4
      Quote: Ralex
      I would like to believe that the sanctions that threaten the United States will give an additional impetus to the development of the domestic aviation industry.

      Push back. All hardware and software used is not ours. The imposition of sanctions will lead to a halt in production because all spare parts for machines come from there. At the expense of materials for composites. I believe that some of them are also purchased abroad.
      But that's not all. Recently, the military-industrial complex has been rising due to foreign-made equipment, the imposition of sanctions will make it impossible to obtain spare parts for them. Take the same company, Schwabe, they have the production of thermal imagers licensed on the equipment of the Tails company, if they impose sanctions, we will remain without thermal imagers ...
      1. Starina_hank
        Starina_hank 6 March 2014 18: 54
        +2
        The Chinese brothers will help us, and through third parties it is possible, only prices will rise.
    7. Kir
      Kir 6 March 2014 21: 37
      +1
      Ralex, but what about the fact that many composites and parts are made of composites, for such flagships as Boeing and Airbus we do, and the composites themselves will often be Our development, so let them think who will be left without what.
  2. Alez
    Alez 6 March 2014 08: 29
    +8
    "Can our aviation industry gain technological superiority among the leaders of the global automotive industry?" There are still no clear measures to support our aviation industry, the same Aeroflot, the face of Russian civil aviation, flies on Boeings and Airbuses. Who owns Aeroflot? Private traders about whom no one knows anything.
  3. rugor
    rugor 6 March 2014 08: 36
    +4
    gain technological superiority among world industry leaders


    This is the main thing, this is the goal. The goal is extremely ambitious, but absolutely necessary for us.
  4. shevart89
    shevart89 6 March 2014 09: 23
    +3
    Foreign technology example: и like such robots work in Ulyanovsk
  5. abrakadabre
    abrakadabre 6 March 2014 10: 12
    +4
    In addition, for example fighter wings taking into account superloads cannot be made of metal, but only carbon fiber.
    And now what are they from? On current fighters?
    belay
    1. edeligor
      edeligor 6 March 2014 10: 34
      +10
      Quote: abrakadabre
      And now what are they from? On current fighters?

      Never mind, the person is a little "far" from the topic. The choice of composites, in contrast to metal, is more influenced by the declared characteristics in terms of weight and radio signature. As for the strength characteristics, they are approximately the same.
  6. AVV
    AVV 6 March 2014 10: 51
    0
    More new needs to be introduced and applied in conditions of enormous competition !!! And thereby to force out Boeings and Airbases from our market !!!
    1. Penzyac
      Penzyac 6 March 2014 20: 24
      0
      To do this, first of all, it is necessary to oust Manturov and Poghosyan from our civil aviation.
      1. Kir
        Kir 6 March 2014 21: 46
        0
        Well, if the first one under the knee is clear as they say ....., since he seems to be somehow a sociologist, not even a hto, but according to Poghosyan the question is, he’s all his life in Aviation and it’s kind of like his whole life in the Sukhoi Design Bureau, so it turns out and then change it to whom?
  7. Leshka
    Leshka 6 March 2014 12: 39
    0
    looking forward to see you soon
  8. Nester
    Nester 6 March 2014 13: 48
    +1
    I wonder how the "black" wings will "keep" the hits of fragments or shells (bullets)? How much will the strength of the entire assembly (wing, for example) be broken?
    1. FID
      FID 6 March 2014 14: 18
      +9
      And nobody knows! Moreover, there are carbon fiber inserts, but the whole - the wings, the body - have not yet been made and have not been tested. How they behave is a question. An airplane is not a surfboard or a yacht ...
      1. Forget
        Forget 6 March 2014 15: 58
        +1
        How they will behave - a question

        another question, these materials have not yet been worked out
      2. Locksmith
        Locksmith 6 March 2014 17: 22
        +4
        Quote: SSI
        And nobody knows!

        You can guess, I’m engaged in modeling, Р \ У helicopters, a lot of frames and other carbon elements, there is also metal, usually of type B95. So when you dig a turntable, the metal usually bends and is already weakened - the outer oxide layer is broken, it is significantly strengthens the aluminum alloy, at most it is possible to straighten and use it temporarily, until replacement, and carbon, the dust is shaken off and again in flight, but if it exceeds the tensile strength, it breaks and is immediately ejected, this place is almost impossible to fix. Another plus of carbon is light weight, the density of aluminum alloys is about 2.7, carbon 1.6, while the carbon part of the same strength with aluminum weighs several times less.
    2. aviator65
      aviator65 6 March 2014 20: 07
      +2
      There was already a precedent with a "black" wing. This is exactly what was on the C-47, which was popularized at one time, aka "Berkut", aka Su-47, aka "prototype" of the 5th generation fighter, a star of a pair of MAKS and other other ... Exactly only due to maximum use composites in the structure of its wing managed to solve the problem of creating its backward sweep. This was his sentence, like a combat aircraft. For, when receiving possible combat damage, such a wing, at best, would require a complete replacement. Apparently the prospect of having an expensive "disposable" fighter jet did not inspire the military.
      1. Kir
        Kir 6 March 2014 21: 51
        0
        I just wanted to remember Berkut as a composite one, and you already got ahead of him, but there are questions on the verdict, because they say a lot that he was a test bench and not a prototype of a production aircraft, and then as a former locksmith from Su, a locksmith told me the problem was I remember roofing felts in tanks, in short, there was some kind of hemorrhage with the fuel system.
        1. aviator65
          aviator65 6 March 2014 23: 21
          0
          Originally conceived as the successor to the Su-33, a purely decked car. Reverse sweep could solve the drawdown problem when jumping off the springboard due to the best load-bearing properties. And as for hemorrhoids with the fuel system, for an experimental car this is not the worst problem.
  9. Fantazer911
    Fantazer911 6 March 2014 14: 27
    0
    Maybe they’ll start to implement their ideas soon, so that they can plug the West into a belt !?
  10. Sol_jah
    Sol_jah 6 March 2014 15: 27
    +2
    Quote: edeligor
    radio visibility.

    "About a hundred layers of carbon fiber, because of the characteristic color of which the wing is called" black "."
    I think also in a figurative sense, the radio visibility of plastic (if I'm not mistaken) is practically zero
    1. Locksmith
      Locksmith 6 March 2014 17: 27
      +2
      Quote: Sol_Jah

      I think also in a figurative sense, the radio visibility of plastic (if I'm not mistaken) is practically zero

      , You are mistaken unfortunately, radio visibility is determined by the electrical conductivity of the surface — carbon is electrically conductive, fiberglass is non-electrically conductive and therefore RADIO-TRANSPARENT screens are made of it, but they are not made of carbon fiber — it does not allow radio waves to pass through wink
      1. edeligor
        edeligor 6 March 2014 21: 52
        0
        Quote: Locksmith
        , fiberglass is not electrically conductive and therefore RADIO-TRANSPARENT screens are made of it, but they are not made of carbon fiber, it does not pass radio waves

        I understand, you know, but do not dissemble, you understand what the conversation is about. 1 course of the Faculty of Radio Electronics ... smile
  11. Gagarin
    Gagarin 6 March 2014 15: 35
    +5
    Maybe thanks to the sanctions imposed against Russia, WE FORCED TO START UP YOUR SCIENCE, rather than relying on someone else's developments, under Stalin, for this reason, science was able to make a tremendous breakthrough, to this day we use the groundwork.
  12. Alex
    Alex 6 March 2014 15: 58
    +3
    Quote: Nayhas
    Push back. All hardware and software used is not ours. The imposition of sanctions will lead to a halt in production because all spare parts for machines come from there.

    Yes, you are right. The pack of influential officials and businessmen has done everything to deprive Russia of its political and technological independence. But the imposition of sanctions will give us a unique chance to finally abandon import dependence and begin to revive our industry. Yes, it will be difficult, but there is no other way. In Soviet times, such problems could be successfully solved, and now I think not everything is lost.
  13. orsker
    orsker 6 March 2014 19: 08
    +1
    Handsome !!!
  14. Beck
    Beck 6 March 2014 21: 20
    0
    I was always surprised that the designers only in the 70s came to the location of the wings on top of the fuselage, which together make up a single streamlined surface, increasing lift, all other things being equal.

    After all, even before the start of aircraft construction, Bernoulli's aerodynamics law was known, showing lift. Yes, and birds have exactly the same wing arrangement as today's aircraft. And then all the low planes and midplanes were designed.
    1. shevart89
      shevart89 7 March 2014 13: 13
      0
      The way you "called" the integrated circuit shows your incompetence in this matter, so study the mathematical part, and then talk about the current)))
    2. shevart89
      shevart89 7 March 2014 13: 15
      0
      and more, mid-planes are most beneficial in terms of aerodynamic interference
  15. saag
    saag 6 March 2014 22: 07
    0
    Quote: Beck
    only in the 70s designers came to the location of the wings on top of the fuselage

    But what about the An-24, which has been in operation since 1962, the An-22 of 1965, the An-12 of 1959?
    1. aviator65
      aviator65 6 March 2014 23: 26
      0
      Airplanes are the same old-timers as biplanes. You need to know history at least. smile
    2. aviator65
      aviator65 6 March 2014 23: 30
      0
      Quote: Beck
      After all, even before the start of aircraft construction, Bernoulli's aerodynamics law was known, showing lift

      Respected! You are clearly overworking. lol
    3. Beck
      Beck 7 March 2014 07: 31
      0
      Quote: saag
      But what about the An-24, which has been in operation since 1962, the An-22 of 1965, the An-12 of 1959?


      These aircraft still have a separate wing, a separate fuselage. They do not form a single streamlined surface as in Migov, Su, Raptors. But a single surface of the wing and fuselage, the wing and the back of the bird are. And then evolution probably chose the most optimal option - all birds with "upper" arrangement of wings and there are no middle and lower plans among birds.

      Quote: aviator65
      Airplanes are the same old-timers as biplanes. You need to know history at least.

      Quote: aviator65
      Respected! You obviously did something


      Sorry of course, but you somehow didn’t fully understand what I wrote. Read my answer to the sahu. And then Migi, Su, Raptor with their contours are very similar to birds and cabins like the heads of birds, and biplanes and high-planes of 30-60 are like shelves.

      And what I’ve been doing, it seems to me that you didn’t do it and do not ask yourself the eternal child’s question of a man - Why, who has advanced everything in civilization.
      1. aviator65
        aviator65 7 March 2014 12: 53
        0
        I understand that your knowledge of aviation is emphasized from the illustrated encyclopedias for children from 6 years old.
        Quote: Beck
        And what I’ve been doing, it seems to me that you didn’t do it and do not ask yourself the eternal child’s question of a man - Why, who has advanced everything in civilization.

        And such questions, such as "why do planes look like birds, but do not flap their wings?", I have not asked myself for a long time, because at one time I received a specialty mechanical engineer for the mechanical equipment of aircraft and such sciences as aerodynamics and aircraft construction, studied not from pictures in children's books.
        1. Beck
          Beck 7 March 2014 15: 36
          0
          Quote: aviator65
          because at one time he received his specialty as a mechanical engineer in the mechanical equipment of aircraft and such sciences as aerodynamics and aircraft construction, he studied not from pictures in children's books.


          I didn’t finish aviation institutes and this site is not specialized aviation. It's just people gathering here.

          And why then do you liken the upper wing of ANA to the entire upper streamlined surface of the Mig or Su, which, coupled with a low-flowed lower surface, creates lift and the best aerodynamic qualities. In AN, only the wing creates lift, and the fuselage does not create anything, it is only a load. And for Mig and Su, the wing is conjugate to the entire upper surface of the fuselage and act together as a common aerodynamic surface.

          And again about the birds. The fastest bird, the peregrine falcon, at a peak develops a speed of about 350 km per hour. Given the mass and size of the falcon, it can somehow be correlated with a fighter at a speed of 1500-2000 km. Of course it's rude. And when the falcon rushes down he does not press, tightly, wings to the body. And he does not take them back, so as to create a sweep of the wing like in airplanes, the most adapted form for high speeds.

          The falcon takes its wings, but in its own way, it creates a kind of double sweep. I drew about the diagram. And why would the designers not to study such a form of the falcon wing, you look and would find useful. Indeed, nature has honed this for millions of years.

          (And don’t need about complexity, about manufacturability, about durability and so on - these are other issues)

          I can’t insert the picture, I'll try again.

          1. Beck
            Beck 7 March 2014 16: 05
            0
            Quote: Beck
            I can’t insert the picture,


            Does not work. But sketchy, flip the letter W, or don’t turn over, looking where you are flying, and in the middle insert the body of the falcon or the fuselage of the plane. Somehow the falcon folds its wings at the peak.
            1. aviator65
              aviator65 7 March 2014 20: 21
              0
              Quote: Beck
              And why would the designers not to study such a form of the falcon wing, you look and would find useful. Indeed, nature has honed this for millions of years.

              Send your proposal to TsAGI, maybe they will say thank you, otherwise they have never seen a falcon.
              Quote: Beck
              (And don’t need about complexity, about manufacturability, about durability and so on - these are other issues)
              It is these very "other questions" that make the planes do what they are at the moment. And if you "talk cleanly", then you can raise the topic of the May beetle, he generally flies contrary to the laws of aerodynamics.
              1. Beck
                Beck 8 March 2014 10: 29
                0
                Quote: aviator65
                And if you "talk cleanly"


                So the sites for this are there to talk, and not arrogantly declare any superiority of their own.

                Quote: aviator65
                forced to make airplanes the way they are at the moment.


                Here, here are the fastest planes, fighters, and they’re doing it like a bird’s, with the combined aerodynamic surface of the wing and fuselage, rather than a low wing.

                And again about the birds. The wingtips of modern passenger liners make the top elevated. This removes turbulent turbulence from the ends of the wings, which in turn gives fuel savings of 3-5%. And they began to make such endings by studying the flights of eagles. When soaring, the end feathers of eagles are also bent top. The designers blew an eagle’s wing model in the pipe and made sure that there was no turbulent swirl of the flow, it was lifted by the bent top of the fly feather. And having studied applied this innovation on modern aircraft.

                Quote: shevart89
                parachutists also fly at a decent speed in a long jump, do you propose to build planes on their aerodynamics too?


                Here is another example of snobbery and philistine, incorrect, non-matching comparisons.

                And what did I say? I suggested a very similar aerodynamics of birds and planes. That's all. And, what is necessary in order to make an assumption it is necessary to have, here on the site, a special education. When articles appear on a site about history, stars, steel of blades, this does not at all suggest that only professional historians, astronomers, and metallurgists should talk about this on the SITE.
                1. aviator65
                  aviator65 8 March 2014 17: 32
                  0
                  I never set myself the task of declaring my superiority to someone. However, being not only a specialist, but also a simple person like you, I would not participate in a conversation, and even more so, in a discussion on a topic about which I have only superficial ideas or do not have any at all. Of course, only professionals should not speak on the site, but one must have at least a more or less competent idea of ​​the subject. Otherwise, the conversation becomes empty.
                  In your case, how can you explain or prove something, if you persistently pour in terms without delving into their essence, while trying to compare the warm with the soft.
                  Quote: Beck
                  Here, here are the fastest planes, fighters, and they’re doing it like a bird’s, with the combined aerodynamic surface of the wing and fuselage, rather than a low wing.

                  Quote: Beck
                  And what did I say? I suggested a very similar aerodynamics of birds and planes. That's all.

                  So what? MiG-25/31 - the fastest fighter aircraft, where does it have a wing, and how is it connected to the fuselage? MiG-29 and Su-27 have a similar integrated aerodynamic scheme, their fuselage is very "conditional" (experts say "body"), that is, what you mean, but this is due to the achievement of super-maneuverability, and not high speed characteristics ... And where is the wing of the Tu-160? And yet, there is such a concept as the "area rule", according to which the wing and the fuselage are mated.
                  Regarding the similarity of the aerodynamics of birds and aircraft. What kind of birds are you and what planes do you mean? The fact is that there are aerodynamics of subsonic speeds, aerodynamics of transonic speeds and aerodynamics of supersonic speeds (we will not mention hypersound). So, nature did not create living objects flying on supersonic, and almost all modern fighters possess this quality. In addition, basically all birds use the flapping principle of flight, while airplanes set in motion in a slightly different way. Will we continue? Speaking of soaring eagles. Here you are right. The aerodynamics of gliders and soaring eagles (gulls, albatrosses) are very close, because this is perhaps the only identical flight mode for birds and aircraft. But even so, the best sports gliders, which have a very high aerodynamic quality, had a wing, a distinct fuselage and tail.
                  I advise you to study this topic more deeply, if it interests you so much. I assure you, many questions themselves seem incorrect. hi
                  1. Beck
                    Beck 8 March 2014 19: 15
                    0
                    Quote: aviator65
                    I advise you to study this topic more deeply, if it interests you so much. I assure you, many questions themselves seem incorrect.


                    What you wrote above was even shorter, and there is an answer to my first comment, this is an explanation of my assumption. Delov then? And not that it’s not your mind’s business, through the stump of a deck, etc.
          2. shevart89
            shevart89 7 March 2014 17: 20
            0
            parachutists also fly at a decent speed in a long jump, do you propose to build planes on their aerodynamics too? In general, if you didn’t graduate from an aviation university or college, take at least books and read about aerodynamics, etc. they are not difficult to find on the Internet
  16. saag
    saag 6 March 2014 22: 12
    0
    In the Su-47, the carbon fiber parts of the wing degraded at high speeds, and therefore it did not go
  17. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 6 March 2014 23: 06
    +2
    I do not understand this story, with carbon fiber reinforced plastics. I played sports badminton with carbon fiber rackets. This occupation, if it is sports, is rather severe, the load on the material is considerable. So - from the moment of a certain threshold fatigue of the material, carbon fiber collapses immediately, all, entirely! The same happens if it is seriously damaged. Do not go to the grandmother, the shot-through wing will crumble into small pieces. And I have great doubts about the possibility of noticing fatigue in time. Something is wrong with this "carbon fiber fever".
  18. Diviz
    Diviz 19 March 2014 06: 55
    0
    In Soviet times, devices were tested on military aircraft that formed the plasma around the aircraft. This led to the solution of two problems at once, visibility or a decrease in air resistance. All this is classified. T50 can intermediate for long-range aviation.