Military Review

Protection for armored vehicles (Part 2)

Protection for armored vehicles (Part 2)
Slow motion (therefore poor quality) demonstrates the interception of a Panzerfaust 3 warhead with defensive ammunition produced by Diehl Defense AVePS active defense system

Active deterrence threat

Destroying a projectile before it hits a vehicle is the best way to protect the crew. Control over the latest versions of the most lethal anti-tank weapons was violated due to recent events in North Africa and the Middle East. AT-14 Cornet rockets were used in Libya, and are now being delivered to Syrian rebels. A large number of RPG-7, RPG-29 and Kornet were taken from the warehouses of the Syrian army. The number of Russian military-oriented weapons and BMPs of Russian origin, destroyed daily in these hostilities, was very significant.

The fact that they will be used sooner or later against the machines of Western countries participating in some hostilities is only a matter of time. In order to counter these threats, decisions were made on the basis of passive systems, since the Western armies want to get full certainty that the active systems will not cause any indirect damage even with very little probability, and only Israel has installed active protection complexes (KAZ) on its MBT Merkava. It seems that the legislation of Western countries tends to be more prudent for indirect losses than to protect their own soldiers.

If only a few years ago, KAZ was at an early stage of formation, now some of them have been refined and have reached a sufficient level of technological maturity so that they can be installed on existing and prospective armored vehicles. The official KAZ estimate by the US Army is scheduled for 2013 year, and the German Bundeswehr is also awaiting a decision, along with many other armies. Thus, this year may be a landmark for the development of the KAZ market.

Raytheon's Quick Kill system, whose development was part of the Future Combat Systems program, is the only system with vertically mounted protective ammunition launchers. It is based on a multifunctional radar with electron beam scanning installed at the top of the machine, which ensures reliable detection and tracking of attacking missiles. The computer determines the speed, trajectory and interception point and gives a signal to the protective ammunition. It is fired by the so-called soft start technology, which allows you to install the system on light machines. Then the protective ammunition with a length of 480 mm turns over and accelerates to the meeting point, near which it shoots its warhead, creating a directional blast wave that destroys the attacking missile in the air. The vertical launch system allows you to cover 360 °, ensuring the destruction of several threats from different directions at once, since the launchers are not “assigned” to any particular sector. Quick Kill demonstrated the ability to repel attacks from several directions, hitting two attacking missiles simultaneously. The tracking of several targets at once and their defeat are part of the basic system. The last tests were carried out in December 2012, they included the fight against an expanded set of threats, including one of the most lethal RPGs destroyed on the approach.

Raytheon Quick Kill. The company conducted a series of additional tests of this complex at the end of 2012.

Figure Crosshair - Iron Curtain (developed under the auspices of DARPA), which combines active protection and acoustic detection system. According to some information, the system was tested in Afghanistan.

With the acquisition of 51% of the shares of Artis from Virginia, Plasan Sasa not only expanded its presence in the United States, but also entered the business of KAZ. Artis is a leading Iron Curtain system development company, overseen by the US DoD Advanced Research Agency (DARPA). The development team also includes the company Mustang Technology Group, which has developed an inexpensive C-band radar for this system. Radar using its innovative signal processing determines the range, the rate of change of range, angle, and calculates the time for each attacking ammunition. The system works as follows: the radar switches the system into a ready state, optical sensors classify the threat and determine the target point with an accuracy of 10 mm. Then one of the protective modules is activated, the system shoots it down in order to minimize indirect damage in the immediate vicinity. The Iron Curtain program is aimed only at use by the US Army, and DARPA and two development companies refuse to comment on its status. It is known for sure that the Iron Curtain system was connected to the Crosshairs acoustic detection and countermeasure system and that the resulting system had to be deployed in Afghanistan as a prototype in the 2012 year. However, this information has not been confirmed by any official sources.

In 2011, the share of Rheinmetall in the ADS Gesellschaft für aktive Schutzsysteme joint venture increased to 74%, and the remaining share is held by IBD Deisenroth. Its AMAP-ADS (Advanced Modular Armor Protection - Active Defense System) complex is based on Ladar sensors connected via optical fiber to control electronics that provide data to actuators installed around the machine’s perimeter. Having a reaction time of less than 1 milliseconds, the system can respond to weapons released from less than two meters, which is less than the average warhead initiation distance. The actuators create “focused concentrated energy blades” that intercept the projectile in 1,5-2 meters from the vehicle. When installing partially overlapping sectors, they provide protection against simultaneous attacks from multiple directions. Quick replacement of actuators allows you to quickly restore the protection of the machine after the attack. The system allows you to intercept approaching missiles flying at speeds up to 2000 m / s, which means that the KAZ can be effective against 120-mm armor-piercing sabots with an elongated core, provided that the actual armor can withstand the residual kinetic energy. Concerning the indirect damage, the company claims that it will be limited to a radius of 5 meters around the vehicle. The newest version, shown in 2012 year under the designation ADS CAB, was installed on the cab of the truck; The number of subsystems has been changed to achieve the desired level of protection. The cost of this option is expressed as a digit with four zeros in euros. This solution has a mass of 70-90 kg and power consumption 150 watts. These numbers increase to 100-200 kg and 250-300 W for a light machine, 200-350 kg for an average car and 350-600 W for an average car and 400-600 W for a heavy car. Of course, the cost of the simplest configuration may differ by an order of magnitude from the cost of the most complex solution. KAZ is currently fully qualified and serially produced for unnamed buyers. One of the customers has signed a contract and deliveries are already underway, while others are integrating the systems on their platforms in order to qualify them. KAZ qualifies against a wide range of anti-tank, shoulder-launched missiles, as well as guided missiles, and in a general sense, it demonstrated the ability to cope simultaneously with three attacking threats in one place and with more than one threat at a time.

German car Fuchs with installed KAZ Diehl AvePS; Launchers are clearly visible on the roof of the car. On heavy machines, two AvePS launchers are installed (a collage in the center). The system, which is currently at the prototype stage, is awaiting the decision of the German Bundeswehr

Diehl Defense focused on the development of non-contact active protection systems. To date, the AVePS prototype consists of a radar / infrared system, a fire control computer, a multi-barreled launcher with several non-fragmentation defensive ammunition, and protection electronics. The sensors are capable of detecting and tracking threats at a distance of several hundred meters, and also allow you to accurately establish the opponent's firing position. These data are sent to the combat module, which opens high-precision fire to kill. AVePS provides all-aspect hemispherical protection, including protection of the conveyor itself from threats from above, as well as vehicles in the immediate vicinity - a rather unique feature among KAZ. Even if the same part of the machine is repeatedly attacked, the protection is triggered without delay. Due to the use of non-fragmentation explosive protective ammunition, indirect losses are practically excluded. The safety concept ensures high reliability and optimum protection against accidental starting. AVePS can fight a whole range of RPGs and modern anti-tank missiles equipped with a tandem HEAT warhead. The effectiveness of large-caliber armor-piercing shells can also be significantly reduced. AVePS can be installed on a variety of platforms, from light to heavy. The prototype is available in two system configurations: a single launcher version (<350 kg) for light armored vehicles, and a dual launcher configuration (<500 kg) for heavy vehicles. Diehl is awaiting the decision of the German army on this KAZ.

Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW), whose Aktives Schutzsystem system was shown at the AUSA 2012 exhibition, entered one of the last areas of KAZ. The sensor part consists of radars operating in the 25-35 GHz band; this is the optimum frequency to achieve an accuracy of ± 10 cm, which is necessary for the appropriate activation of the actuators. A typical layout of the system components on a Dingo machine may be the following: by radar at each corner and one from each side. Optical sensors can also be installed to further enhance system capabilities. Modules with executive elements of width 30 cm are installed around the roof of the car. When a threat is detected, three such modules detonate, sending the blast wave down to intercept the warhead. The actuators have a valid range in the range from 4 cm to 2,5 meters and contain minimal charge without metal parts. Thus, the safe distance around the machine is estimated at about three meters. KMW basically completed the development of the basic components of its system, work began more than eight years ago, and AUSA was an opportunity to get feedback from potential customers before investing in a full-fledged technology demonstrator and system qualification. According to KMW, it will take about two years to bring KAZ Aktives Schutzsystem to mass production.

Israel became the first country to adopt the Rafael Trophy-HV active defense system. This KAZ is installed on the MBT Merkava 3 and 4

Israeli MBT Merkava 4, equipped with a KAZ Rafael Trophy-HV, performs practical maneuvers. KAZ Trophy successfully confirmed its effectiveness in real conditions

KAZ Trophy-LV was developed in response to the need to protect light cars, and its actuating elements do not in any way resemble elements used in heavier versions of the system. These photos clearly show the sensors installed in the four corners of the roof and directed downwards (also downwards) actuators

Germany’s solutions are awaited by another company, Cassidian, which developed MUSS (Multifunktionales Selbstschutz-System). At this time, the company does not provide information on this multispectral complex of optical-electronic countermeasures (COEP), designed to neutralize laser-guided missiles. MUSS is based on the Cassidian Electronics AN / AAR-60 P-MILDS rocket attack warning system and the COLDS laser radiation detection system installed in a single optoelectronic unit (sensor head); Four such units are installed on the machine to provide a circular cover. The executive elements are 76 or 81 mm grenade launchers, firing grenades, setting up a smoke screen in the IR spectrum and active IR silencers. It is unclear how modern, eye-safe blinding systems could integrate into MUSS. In its current form, the MECS COEP was installed and demonstrated at the Leopard 2A4 MBT over 10 years ago.

Oto Melara is working on its KAZ Scudo and is looking for ways to install its sensors connected to the data acquisition system on the machines deployed in the troops. There is a discussion with the Italian Ministry of Defense regarding the new approach. The company would like to install its non-executive sensors (possibly on several Freccia 8 × 8 machines) in order to obtain real data on the magnitude of false alarms and sensor efficiency. The KAZ Scudo consists of four two-frequency radar stations of continuous radiation, which have an 90 ° coverage in azimuth and 60 ° in elevation, and an anti-tank threat detection range over 600. Each radar weighs 5 kg. They are installed around the hull or tower or in the form of a column above the tower. The trigger level and inactive sectors of the shelling will be set dynamically due to the integration with the data of the SICCONA command and navigation system and the Forza-NEC digital combat system. As for actuators, Oto Melara has already developed a two-tier system consisting of grenades to intercept 100 - 250 meters and active tiles installed on the machine with a range of 6-15 meters, the destruction time is 350 and 150 milliseconds, respectively. Upon completion of the sensor evaluation process, the company will consider various solutions, including the integration of third-party actuator elements, if they prove to be more efficient than their own developed executive elements.

Known in the past as Aspro, the KAZ Rafael family for armored vehicles is currently under the Trophy brand and includes three different options: HV (Heavy Vehicle - Heavy), MV (Medium Vehicle - Medium) and LV (Light Vehicle - Light) . In the first two, the same technology is used, while in the light version, while retaining the algorithms and logic of heavier systems, the threat neutralization is based on a completely different physical principle. KAZ Trophy-HV is fully qualified and installed on the Israeli MBT Merkava 4 and Merkava 3. After announcing the launch of the Israeli army in 2009, since March 2011, the complex has been tested in several clashes. It weighs 850 kg and consists of a radar, two launchers equipped with an automatic reloading system and the corresponding electronics. The basis of the system is the Doppler active radar with electronic scanning IAI / ELTA ELM-2133 WindGuard, which signals an attacking missile. On the machine, there are four antennas with anti-bullet and splinter protection with a 90 ° viewing sector, which, therefore, cover the entire upper hemisphere on 360 °. Maximum accuracy is needed for tracking, identifying, classifying and confirming an impending threat, since the adopted actuator does not use the energy of an explosion to neutralize the attacking warhead. The executive element, designated MEFP (Multiple Explosive Formed Penetrator - multiple cores formed by the explosion of the cores), creates a limited number of "shock cores" aimed at specific warhead points to destroy it without detonation at 30-60 meters with a 90-percent probability of destruction. Safety, indirect losses and legal issues were the highest priorities during development, and obtaining a certificate took four years. The experience gained has led to pay close attention to radiation, the formation of fragments, software, although developing software to further improve the system is an endless process.

Demonstration of the active protection complex Trophy

The Trophy HV has been successfully tested in the United States, where its low indirect damage and technology maturity were considered. Currently three battalions tanks Merkava are equipped with KAZ Trophy, and according to Rafael, for three years of actual operation, it has established itself as a very reliable system with respect to mean time between failures. The company is ready to fulfill the urgent requirements for the complex with a relatively short delivery time, provided that the customer selects KAZ Trophy HV.

In the MV version, recent trends in miniaturization are used, so it has a mass of 520 kg. Rafael expects the first customer to complete a qualification for which additional investments are needed. Let's see if the company will offer this option for a new round of testing by the Israeli army, given its choice of the next generation KAZ.

On the frame of high-speed shooting of the KAZ Trophy-LV operation, a vector of energy is seen directed downward and neutralizing the flying RPG

CV90 prototype equipped with Saab Leds sensors. The protective ammunition in this KAZ is a Moongose ​​1 rocket from Saab Avitronics

The LV variant is a rooftop system along with the main alert sensor. Additional sensors (possibly optoelectronic) are installed around the machine to accurately assess the position and time of the encounter with the attacking threat. The data from them activate the release of the corresponding energy jet directed downwards in order to intercept and neutralize the projectile. KAZ Trophy-LV is optimized to combat RPG threats; for a HMMWV class car, it has a mass of 200 kg. Option LV successfully passed the test phase and is currently waiting for the first customer before final qualification.

The Iron Fist system, first shown at the Eurosatory 2006 exhibition by Israel Military Industries, is a combination of direct attack systems and optical-electronic countermeasures that can be installed on machines of various weights, from light to heavy. Laser silencers can counteract anti-tank missile guidance systems, quick-set smoke screens can impede target tracking or tracking, and direct defeat can neutralize an attacking threat. The main sensor is a compact digital hemispherical radar, developed by Rada, providing coverage in the azimuth 120 ° and in the vertical 90 °. From the very beginning it was developed as an armored system, its antenna has protection against small weapons and splinters. The complete system weighs 17 kg, three blocks provide full coverage on 360 °. Data from infrared sensors are combined with data provided by the radar. The direct strike component is a two-pipe launcher using so-called soft start technology to deploy a stabilized container; to minimize indirect damage, it creates only the blast wave (the body itself is completely burned). The container, driven by a remote fuse, destabilizes the attacking projectile, whether it is an RPG, a missile fired at close range, or even a kinetic projectile. The complete system usually includes two towers, however, an easy solution based on one tower is also available for small machines. The last version, called Bright Arrow, consists of two launchers and IR sensors, as well as an 7,62-mm machine gun with optoelectronic devices; thus, it combines the functions of KAZ with the functions of the combat module, the mass naturally grew and amounted to 250 kg without weapons and ammunition.

After tests conducted in Germany in the middle of 2011, the Iron Fist was successfully tested by the US military on an MRAP class car using the capabilities of KAZ and KOEP against missiles and armor-piercing cores. In the United States, IMI has teamed up with General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products in order to act as a “core” in the national market. The KAZ Iron Fist was selected by Israel for its Namer BMP based on the MBT Merkava 4 chassis.

Saab Electronic Defense Systems offers its LEDS (Land Electronic Defense System - Ground Electronic Defense System), which consists of a set of sensors, a central controller of active defense, high-speed directional launchers and protective components. The LEDS-50 laser detection system provides a full-length 360 ° coverage using four LWS-310 sensors, while the addition of a top attack detection sensor LWS-500 provides complete hemispherical coverage. The sensors are connected to the Active Defense Controller (ADC) controller, which signals the potential threat of laser exposure, allowing the crew to take targeted measures.

Brief description of the LEDS-150 system

In the first place, as a rule, the functional damage mechanism embodied in the LEDS-100 complex is activated. It includes infrared silencers and high-speed directional launchers charged with high-speed multispectral smoke ammunition that interfere with detection, tracking, range determination and guidance. However, this option only works against laser-guided threats. To combat other types of threats, such as RPGs, Saab has developed the LEDS-150 complex, which includes active (radar) and passive (infrared) sensors and protective ammunition in the form of a Saab Avitronics Moongoose 1 mini-missile.

The main sensor here is the radar of continuous radiation with frequency modulation from Reutech Radar Systems. It is able to detect RPGs within a 5,2 millisecond from the time it was started, then going into accurate tracking mode within 14,3 ms. When fired from a distance of 20 meters, the RPG will reach the target in about 190 ms. Thus, taking into account the reaction time of the Moongoose system and counter-projectile, RPGs can be neutralized six meters from the vehicle. The 12-tube launcher, which is part of the complex, has a strike range in azimuth 360 ° and vertically from -15 ° to + 65 °, it is compatible with 81-mm Galix and Moongoose mini-rocket. The latter is effective against RPGs, armor-piercing missiles, anti-tank guns firing high-explosive fragmentation, armor-piercing high-explosive and cumulative anti-tank ammunition. In March, 2012, the company Saab conducted additional tests of the launcher under the designation DSL-306, developed in collaboration with the Swiss company Curtiss-Wright Antriebstechnik. It was created in order to guarantee complete hemispherical coverage and protection against multiple hits while reducing weight and size characteristics and power consumption. Obviously, Saab EDS is looking for the further development of its LEDS family, which is able to cope with multispectral threats, as well as anti-armor-piercing cores.

Demonstration of KAZ Barrier

Currently KAZ Barrier, promoted to the market by the Ukrainian company Microtek, is based on models with two actuators, each in the form of a telescopic grenade launcher. Each warhead is equipped with a Doppler radar having working angles in azimuth 150 - 180 ° and in elevation from –60 ° to + 20 °. The radar of continuous radiation has a range of 2,5 meter. When an attacking projectile is detected, the corresponding cumulative warhead detonates and neutralizes it. Barrier technology reduces the reaction time to a few milliseconds. Immediately after the shooting of the first ammunition, the second ammunition is brought to combat readiness. For maximum protection, MBT requires up to six modules, however, for standard protection, three of them are enough. The barrier is effective against RPGs, anti-tank missiles and armor-piercing shells flying at speeds up to speeds of 1200 m / s. The lightweight version of Zaslon-L is also available for installation on light armored vehicles.

The picture shows the test complex Leds-150. The 81 mm caliber missile neutralizes RPGs launched from 20 meters six meters from the intended meeting point for

Car Discovery, survived the explosion on a six-kilo mine. His system from the company ABBS fully extinguished all upward acceleration and stabilized the bottom.
Armada Compendium Armored Vehicles Protection 2013
Articles from this series:
Protection for armored vehicles (Part 1)
Protection for armored vehicles (Part 2)
Protection for armored vehicles (Part 3)
Protection for armored vehicles (Part 4)
Protection of armored vehicles (5 final part)
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  1. Gray 43
    Gray 43 4 March 2014 10: 10
    An interesting article for me, I think, the result of a projectile competition and protection against it will be the cost of the complex, such systems are not put on our armored vehicles because of the high cost
    1. I think so
      I think so 9 March 2014 00: 44
      All these "defenses" work very weakly against a "scrap" ... a simple flying blank ... Well, they will certainly work against any RPG ...
  2. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 4 March 2014 12: 08
    “Such systems will have to be installed on our armored vehicles ...." The USSR had millions of ground troops with tens of thousands of tanks. The military doctrine, "assumed" to quickly and decisively crush the enemy on its territory, "in bulk", filling Europe with tanks. it is understandable: electronics "for mass consumption" then we had "not very much"; throughout the world the time of the technical "heyday" of KAZs had not yet come; the economic state was also becoming "not very good", but there were enough people and "Stalinist" The steel mills were working properly and there were "a lot of tanks" accumulated. Many Drozd KAZs could not be produced for technical and economic reasons and therefore: let the concept of "sea of ​​tanks" help us! Now is a different time and a different situation: the number of tanks in the RF Armed Forces will be less than that of the USSR. We will have to take care of both tanks and tankers. And it will be easier to produce and purchase a "not huge" number of KAZs. Now there is a problem: there are not enough recruits for the standard equipment of the Armed Forces (here's your grandmother and year of service instead of two ) -so what now: to name Uzbek-Tajik guest workers? It is better to cherish and cherish your citizens more than in Israel!
  3. MORDVIN13rus
    MORDVIN13rus 4 March 2014 14: 25
    KAZ thing is a good thing undoubtedly, but modern realities suggest using the BTC directly with the dismounted infantry. The question arises, what is the distance of the dispersion of the secondary fragments. What is the safe radius of the infantry paired with the BTC?
  4. Setrac
    Setrac 4 March 2014 15: 42
    A pathetic attempt to compensate for the lack of armor with technology, one does not interfere with the other.
  5. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 5 March 2014 00: 32
    Shield and sword. Infantry definitely hit. Apparently the next generation of KAZ, apparently, will be more accurate and faster. Maybe it will be something like flying and expanding umbrellas. However, scrap flying at all pores, you will beat the hell with a whip.
  6. bublic82009
    bublic82009 5 March 2014 01: 09
    all this is nonsense. when operating simultaneously with several directions of anti-tank weapons, machine-gun fire can overcome all these systems.
  7. schizophrenic
    schizophrenic 5 March 2014 22: 20
    All kaz are very effective in local wars, even 2-3 missiles flying from one side will be shot down and launchers destroyed including machine guns. The only way to overload the kaz with a variety of goals is to clog the locators with the help of the reb.