Military Review

On the accession of the Baltic States and Bessarabia to the USSR

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One of the accusations that is constantly made against the USSR and Stalin is the "conquest" of the Baltic states and the territory of modern Moldova.

In this case, prosecutors miss a number of important facts, consciously or out of ignorance:

- In the autumn of 1939, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania themselves concluded an agreement of mutual understanding with the USSR, after which the Union received the right to deploy its military bases on their territories.

- In each of the countries, significant groups of the population supported the idea of ​​socialism, not small communist parties operated in them, newspapers were published. In the elections of July 1940, 92,8% who came to express their opinion voted for the “Union of Working People” in Estonia. In the Baltic countries, there were also “underground workers” from local people who were ready to defend the ideals of communism at the cost of their lives.

On the accession of the Baltic States and Bessarabia to the USSR

Riga residents meet the Soviet "occupiers" in the summer of 1940.

- In Lithuania, recalling the “occupation”, for some reason they don’t remember that Moscow returned their ancient capital to Lithuania - Vilna and the Vilno region, which Poland seized in 1923, Poland.

- Since “Sovietization” is equal to “occupation,” why the gallant armies of the Baltic countries did not offer resistance, which Western democracies would undoubtedly support. At least morally, precisely, perhaps even a war would have begun, because during the Soviet-Finnish war, London and Paris almost already started a war with Moscow. The Red Army "pumped up", too quickly won.

The armies of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania simply “joined” the Red Army. In Lithuania, the army became the 29-m territorial corps, the military even retained the old form, only insignia was replaced. Political officers - commissioners, often Lithuanians from the inhabitants of the USSR or members of the Lithuanian Communist Party, added to the officers.

Why did the guerrilla movement against the "invaders" not start?
- There are lots of photos where residents of the three Baltic states meet Red Army men with flowers and bread and salt. That is, at least for a significant part of the population, the changes were met positively.

- Few modern politicians recognize that restoring the integrity of the Empire was a positive development for the Russian people and for Estonians, Latvians, and Lithuanians, completely in their interests.

The USSR actually saved the Balts from the real occupation of the Third Reich. During the "occupation" of the Soviet Union from 1939 of the year to 1991, Estonia lost thousands of people from repressions of 5-7, another approximately 30 thousand were exiled, we will not go into details for what. The Germans killed 1941 thousands in Estonia from an incomplete 1944 year to 80 year, another 70 thousand fled from “civilizers”. In the incomplete 4 of the year, half of the industry was destroyed, almost all the livestock was selected, and agriculture was almost completely destroyed. And under the rule of the Soviet "occupiers" the Baltic States flourished, it was a "showcase of the USSR".

In Lithuania, during the Soviet era, thousands of people were repressed by 32 (to clarify, this does not mean that maybe they were exiled or planted for a year or two), the Nazis only physically killed 270 of thousands of Lithuanian citizens.

In Latvia, the Soviet government repressed approximately 20-30 thousand people, the Nazis destroyed 150 thousand.

And if you recall the plans of Berlin (the plan “Ost” and other developments), then the inhabitants of the Baltic states were very fortunate that the Red Army won. All three nations were considered inferior and were part of the destruction, part of the eviction of the Urals, part of being servants of the new owners, this territory was going to repopulate the Germans (already had experience of the Teutonic and Livonian orders).

- Prosecutors do not take into account the logic of wartime. In Moscow, they were not stupid and knew that a terrible world war was coming. In peacetime, it is possible to allow artificial formations to exist, and during the war years it is a springboard. If you don’t take this territory by yourself, Berlin will take it, but you can’t pick it out from there - this is war. This is a terrible strategic defeat: after the collapse of the Russian Empire, we already lost vast territories, including Finland, Poland, and the western borders shifted to a threatened proximity to Leningrad and Moscow. The further Moscow succeeded in shifting the border to the west, the better, the more time it will be for mobilization.

Imagine for a moment, we did not take the Baltics, and Hitler took. In reality, the Wehrmacht approached Leningrad on September 6. 1941 of the year was already significantly "exhausted." There is nothing from Estonia to Leningrad - 120 km, if Army Group North had struck a blow from the Baltic States, how long would it take them to reach the second capital of the Union? Five days or ten? Yes, and the divisions would be fresh.

- We must not forget such a military-strategic aspect of the occupation of the Baltic states, and of Bessarabia, as human and economic resources. They were not fully used by the enemy. The Baltic countries put together 11 divisions, one cavalry brigade, two cavalry regiments, one tank brigade, one tank regiment, 12 artillery regiments. In wartime, the Baltic countries exhibited a total of more than 420 thousand soldiers. If Hitler occupied this territory, he would be able to use this force against the USSR. And so Berlin, in addition to the punishers, was able to form only three SS divisions in the Baltic. This despite the fact that 3 corps fought on our side: Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian. Then, in view of their low combat readiness, new units were formed: the 130th Latvian Rifle Corps, the 8th Estonian Rifle Corps and the 16th Lithuanian Rifle Division. These units fought quite worthy. They participated in the liberation of the Baltic states in 1944-1945.

In addition, the Baltic fleet 4 submarines of Estonia and Latvia entered. And one of them, the Estonian Lembit, became the third most successful in the Soviet fleet, drowning 7 enemy ships and 17 transports.


Red Banner submarine "Lembit".

About Bessarabia

- About the attitude of the Moldovans themselves to the “occupation” of the USSR is the fact that they practically did not participate in the war on the side of the Nazis. But there are many Moldovans who honestly fought for the Soviet homeland.

- Moldova as a state and was not in stories. Moldova is part of the Russian Empire, which, when the Empire collapsed, was conquered by Romania. In Russia, no one recognized. Stalin simply demanded that Romania return its own, which Romania did.

- Moscow has also created the “germ” of the Moldovan statehood - the Moldavian SSR, having also slaughtered the territories of Little Russia, Transnistria.

- The life of Moldovans has only improved since returning to the empire. Modern Moldovans, probably, from a good life go to work in Russia, Romania, the countries of the European Union ?!

- Romania hostile to the USSR, besides seized its territory - Bessarabia. Bucharest was torn, with whom to be friends? With Paris and London or Berlin. As a result, he chose Berlin, he was not seen in the “throwing” of the allies, the example of Poland was before Romania. The USSR also solved a purely military-strategic task: as in the case of the Baltic states, it pushed the border to the west.

Сonclusion

The political elite of the USSR acted as it should act for the normal leadership of the country in the conditions of the approach of the Great War. Moscow acted in the strategic and tactical interests of the state and its people. Moreover, in the interests of both the Baltic peoples and Moldovans, they only benefited from the "occupation" by Moscow, saving thousands of lives and receiving economic benefits. The USSR almost immediately began to invest heavily in the development of these territories of a common empire.


Kishinev. 28 June 1940 of the year, thousands of people took to the streets to meet the Red Army.

Sources:
Diplomatic dictionary in three volumes. M., 1985.
Pykhalov I. The Great Obolgannaya war. M., 2006.
Russia and the USSR in the wars of the XX century: Statistical research, M., 2001.
Taylor A. The Second World War // The Second World War: Two Views. M., 1995.
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  1. Pribalt
    Pribalt April 6 2011 14: 11
    0
    Actually, the ray would have been left alone. Many mono million would have been alive, and the Wehrmacht would have been beaten on the banks of the Dnieper and the Daugava. By all the canons, Hitler had to shoot by Christmas. He had no chance, Stalin helped him with "pushing back borders "... 4:22 on June 1941, 180 Arrival of the OVO, receives a notification" Elephant ", which means an attack by the Germans. The commander's radio station, at a wavelength of 29 m, transmits one word" SHARE ". This is an order to the military councils / commander, chief of staff and political instructor / open the seif, open the "Red packet" and do what is written there. One point demanded to change the communication system: callsigns, frequencies, ciphers. The ultimate ciphers were forbidden, these are valiant security officers, and not the naivety of the Red Army command that deprived the radio communication. It was worth breaking the wire. , and the whole front ... the Chekists worked for Hitler's name. 184 Lithuanian corps, according to the plans, should move closer to the border. There is also a headquarters with a communications battalion. And in Varena / Orany / there is a Lithuanian 7 rifle division, but not a single Russian radio operator The divisional commander opened the seif, took out the codes, showed them to the Chekists and again locked He graduated from the German academy, he knew what it was. At 11 o'clock in the morning, the division received the code of the commander of the XNUMX Army. Now it is known that the advance to the border was canceled, it was tried to protect the bank of the Neman. The Chekists, of course, are heroes, but alas, read the code. the death penalty was committed for the secret codes. There is no radio operator with admission, everyone went to the "Icebreaker". What to do? They gave the papers to the Lithuanian signalman captain. That was the paper in his pocket and he gave it to the Germans in Alytus. Gen plk Got in his memoirs recalled this officer: "What is on the other side, what to do ... I learned from a captured Lithuanian officer that only Lithuanian units are beyond the rivers and in Kaunas the Russians are concentrating significant forces. Therefore, I decided ..."
    Hmm. He didn’t remember how he captured the French marshals. He had nothing to do on the first day of the war, except for interrogating the prisoners. Kapitan fled in the morning, but knew about the plan of counterattack 3 and 12 of the mechanized corps on Tilsit. Concentration began at 16 00. And miracles began .
  2. 1@1.COM
    [email protected] April 6 2011 15: 23
    +1
    - In Lithuania, recalling the “occupation”, for some reason they don’t remember that Moscow returned their ancient capital to Lithuania - Vilna and the Vilno region, which Poland seized in 1923, Poland.

    IN VILNIUS IN 40G, 40% WERE BELARUS, AND THE ANCIENT CAPITAL VILNIUS WAS IN THE GREAT PRINCIPLE OF LITHUANIA WITH MAJOR CITIES NEW HORIZONS, POLOTSK, GRODNO, SLUTS - THANKS TO RUSSIA

    THANKS TO THE COMMUNISTS - THUS BATTLE US WITH THE ROMANIANS ON THE EVE OF THE BOB.
  3. Igor
    Igor April 6 2011 15: 28
    0
    The general tone of the article is, in principle, correct and I can subscribe to most of the theses. However, individual inaccuracies blur the overall positive impression. For example - "Moldova as a state has never existed in history." It would be correct - at that time the state of Moldova did not exist. Modavia has already been 650 years old and it has not been on the political map of Europe since 1858, when the part of Moldova that remained without Bessarabia became part of Romania. What is now called the Republic of Moldova is just a fragment of a rather large country, parts of which are now in Romania and Ukraine.
  4. His
    His April 6 2011 16: 21
    -2
    All legal rights to these territories are with the Russian Empire, then transferred to the USSR, and then to the Russian Federation. This is not a fictional story. And the fact that each satellite invents its own great and unique history, it will never be remembered without cramming, and outside of these territories is unknown. It creates some kind of story within the inner borders
    1. Valentin
      Valentin 29 July 2011 01: 04
      +1
      Russia does not have Maldov right. This is not Russian land
      1. Roman Skomorokhov
        Roman Skomorokhov 29 July 2011 01: 50
        0
        No right? Okay, and not so worried ... THERE IS EARTH AND THERE IS A WAY FORWARD TO OTHER TO OTHER.
  5. Pribalt
    Pribalt April 6 2011 16: 52
    0
    Let us, the aborigines, decide whether they captured us or liberated us. As we remember our dear Leonid Ilyich, "Russia never attacked anyone." Liberated and liberated for 1000 years. That's right, Vilnius was returned. Thank you for that. This return sows sweep in the souls of commoners: " Willnius is ours and we are Russian slaves. "Stalin wanted to annex East Prussia to Lithuania, but the local communists were indignant that they would choke on and" become Abkhazians in Abkhazia. "Then Stalin had his reasons. Well, he really wanted to conclude the Anti-Hitler Pact in 1939, to render Poland "gratuitous international aid", through the Vilna corridor, which Polshe did not belong to. Take an interest in the plans of the USSR soldiers from 28.03.1938/5000/120, What would Hitler do if the Anglo-French agreed, signed the Moscow Treaty, took away the Vilnius region, gave it to the rightful owner, and began to create aerodromes for 2 aircraft, perish the railway under the Soviet standard for the delivery of the costly 15 divisions? Yes, he would have immediately covered Prusia by seizing Lithuania. And this is "indirect aggression", Che mberlein and Daladier should declare warriors. There was no nobility on the part of Stalin. But the seizure of Lithuania and the terror caused an all-out revolt, which allowed the Germans to milk to the Dnieper for a week. They stayed in the Baltic for 20 weeks, advancing according to the charter 77-XNUMX km per day -on the Dnieper they would have been met by a chef from the XNUMXth division of the Second Strategic Echelon. Military science is ruthless: Hitler should have been beaten on the Dnieper! "Stalin was too smart for himself," as Georgy Konstantinovich remarked.
    1. Roman Skomorokhov
      Roman Skomorokhov 29 July 2011 01: 51
      0
      You will not please ...
  6. Friend of Russia
    Friend of Russia April 6 2011 20: 32
    0
    I'll be brief. None of the Soviet-occupied republics assumed that the Bolshevik sadists would begin mass repression, robbery and deportation to Siberia. So now they are very "grateful" and pay with the same coin. And the unsuccessful imperials can only feel sorry for bleating at the "ungrateful".
    1. Roman Skomorokhov
      Roman Skomorokhov 29 July 2011 01: 49
      0
      There are still a couple of friends, and it is not necessary to have enemies.
  7. Baltic friend
    Baltic friend April 7 2011 06: 29
    +2
    Unforgivably humane were the Bolshevik sadists. Would be a little more principled - you look, and there would be no one to defile on March 16 in Riga on the day of SSman ...
    1. Roman Skomorokhov
      Roman Skomorokhov 29 July 2011 01: 48
      0
      Bravo!!!!
  8. 1@1.COM
    [email protected] April 7 2011 10: 31
    +1
    I'll be brief. None of the Soviet-occupied republics assumed that the Bolshevik sadists would begin mass repression, robbery and deportation to Siberia. So now they are very "grateful" and pay with the same coin. And the unsuccessful imperials can only feel sorry for bleating at the "ungrateful".

    HISTORY OF CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA IS NOT AND WILL NEVER BE EVEN, EVEN NO ARCHIVES, AND IN THIS WAR ALL ANTANTA took part and ALL GERMAN ALLIES ARE FIRSTLY GOING TO BE CONFINED.

  9. solzh
    solzh 14 December 2016 13: 42
    0
    In 1924, Grigory Ivanovich offered Frunze a bold plan for reuniting Russia with his native Bessarabia. It was assumed that he, with one division, would cross the Dniester, immediately defeat the Romanian troops, raising the local population for an uprising (among which he himself was very popular). After this, Kotovsky will create his own government, which will propose reunification. Frunze, however, rejected this plan.
    1. Chervonny
      Chervonny 22 November 2020 02: 30
      +20
      Quote: solzh
      Frunze, however, rejected this plan.

      Then it was not possible to carry out the reunification. After the start of the implementation of the Kotovsky plan, the Entente countries could begin a new intervention against the young and fragile Soviet Republic.