Two intellectual forces in their interaction tried to find a general idea of a formidable, but inevitable process that began in the country: the state returns to where it should be, gaining potential, strength, ability to manage society, world processes.
The meeting was a unique event. The intellects and worldviews of the defense industry and society, the Moscow patriots and the Urals thinkers have united.
In strengthening the position of the state both inside the country and on the world stage, one of the leading places is occupied by gunsmiths: new systems weapons, new forms of the defense industry, which has always been the engine of the economy and the focus of the country's scientific forces. This was the conversation.
My visits to defense enterprises over the past years have been convincing again and again that the creation of new weapons, the renewal and modernization of the defense industry complex are transferring Russia from one civilizational level to another. New plants, new technologies, new forms of production management and entire regions will allow Russia to move to a different, not just economic, but civilizational structure. After all, in order to create the Borey submarines, for example, it is necessary to accumulate energy, the capabilities of thousands of different enterprises and groups: Dagestan, Tatarstan, Siberia - all regions of Russia. And it connects, integrates a huge number of people, consciousnesses, experiences. And in the process of modernization of the defense complex, we gain a long-awaited common cause.
Creating a common cause is inevitable with the perception of threats that have advanced on the country. Threats from all flanks: from the north, from the south, from the west - generate defense consciousness. That precious consciousness that was throughout the twentieth century in the Soviet Union, but lost in the damned nineties.
Gunsmiths, creating a technique that repels threats, contribute to the return of defense consciousness to society. And it directly leads to the state thinking: the defense self-perception of the people is connected with the restoration of the state idea almost as a religious feeling living in the Russian people.
The rush to industrialization, to the creation of a new weapon gives rise to a complex of accompanying humanitarian phenomena and tendencies: a new philosophy, sociology, new aesthetic forms. In the grandiose action at the opening of the Olympics, we saw a fragment of a stunning Russian avant-garde - machinery to the sound of the music of the great Sviridov. This aesthetics poetic machines, poetic avant-garde leap to the Russian cosmism.
Russian weapons are sacred. Holy because it has always been associated with the protection of our shrines. Homeland and independence are the highest shrines, our religious independence and self-sufficiency. And Russian weapons, whether modern "Iskanders", Tanks, boats, carries in its genes the mysterious weapons of the Battle of Kulikovo and the Battle of the Ice. It was already holy then, because it was worn by the holy Russian princes. And his holiness is being broadcast today.
The second industrialization, which is associated with the restoration of the defense-industrial complex, is accompanied by the second Christianization of Russia. No wonder the defense enterprises have chapels or temples. And in front of the Uralvagonzavod in Nizhny Tagil, the temple of St. George the Victorious was recently built. Together with the weapon, the idea of holiness, the idea of the mystical destination of the country and the people, returns to the consciousness of the Russian person.
It is necessary to establish a sign - "Golden Weapon". Not the kind that in the Romanov times was awarded to St. George Knights. "Golden weapons" will be assigned to the best gunsmiths of the country, who are famous for creating new types of weapons. Awarded to the military that these samples are used in the new conditions. And also to those philosophers, artists and humanities who are able to glorify these weapons, to create in the depths of today's culture a new technocracy.
Igor Kholmansky, plenipotentiary representative of the President of the Russian Federation in the Ural Federal District.
I propose that our meeting be held in the form of a production meeting: the formulation of the problem, the ways proposed to solve it, and a discussion of the solutions and, possibly, the definition of the most effective of them.
The problem, in my opinion, is that modern Russian society does not understand the importance that the defense industry complex has for it.
I was born, raised and worked in Nizhny Tagil. The Urals is the industrial heart of the country, the center of heavy industry. The unique mining and civilization, which was created by our ancestors more than three hundred years ago, is still fascinating. And modern writers with delight describe how the metal from the Ural factories was delivered to the European part of Russia along the Chusovaya River - the only waterway that crosses the Ural ridge from east to west.
Our ancestors, making great efforts, did it because the country needed guns and other weapons, they needed metal. And Peter the Great carried out reforms, contributing to the creation of the first ironworks in the Urals, not for the sake of the reforms themselves. At that time, the country needed a well-armed army, because without such a force it is impossible to build an independent state.
And science developed largely because it was necessary for the defense industry. We created new types of armor, flew into space, we have achieved considerable success in chemistry, physics, and other sciences. This was the request of the defense complex. The defense industry concentrated the best knowledge in various industries, and advanced technologies were concentrated in it. The defense industry was the locomotive of the economy and should remain the locomotive of the development of the whole society. The defense complex attracts the best people; for it, quality personnel are trained. It is the defense industry complex that ensures the very existence of entire faculties of the natural sciences of universities, technical universities and institutions of secondary vocational education. Alexander III, nicknamed the Peacemaker, said that Russia has only two allies: the army and navy. Today we can say tougher: without a strong army and fleetand, therefore, without a strong defense industry complex, the existence of Russia is impossible.
At the end of the last century, we were persistently convinced that we had no one else to fight with, the defense industry complex was not needed. The result of this experiment is obvious: it was at that moment when the defense industry complex sank down, and our entire society weakened. Today, 90's mistakes are being corrected, the state is paying increasing attention to the development of industry and, above all, the defense industry. For the period up to 2025, it is planned to spend about 20 trillion rubles to purchase various types of Russian weapons. What does it mean - the defense industry becomes the engine of the entire economy.
Mikhail DELYAGIN, Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Director of the Institute for Problems of Globalization.
In the Soviet military industrial complex, superproductive technologies were created that drastically reduced costs, increased efficiency, and were not used because of the deep bureaucratization of our system. These technologies are largely preserved, sometimes controlled by not quite legitimate elements, but now they are able to give a quick cumulative effect. For all the existence of the so-called "new Russia" was the only systematic attempt to find them - this was done by FPK Sistema, which wanted to commercialize them in order to sell them later. But selling them sharply undermines the positions of various monopolies on the global market, and therefore has not materialized.
38 technologies were found, some of them - literally a few (lubricating engine oils that restore the engine and, for example, anti-burn cream) - are used. But if all this is put on a state basis, then with their help it is possible to sharply raise production efficiency.
Of course, it is impossible to develop a local defense complex. The Soviet Union proved that engineering cannot develop only in the military field, without the civilian sector. But how can it evolve there if we joined the WTO on knowingly enslaving conditions? When there is no systematic approach to development? It was good in the time of Peter I, when they rafted down the Chusovaya River. And where is the Perm River Shipping Company now? At a distance of 300 km, coal is already being transported by road, because it is cheaper than by rail.
Yes, there is a breakthrough at the level of propaganda in the sphere of the development of the defense industry, but if this breakthrough is isolated and is not accompanied by a comprehensive development of the economy, then not only will there not be success, but this year we will move from a fading economic growth into an increasing economic decline.
Natalia NAROCHNITSKAYA, doctor historical Sciences.
Of course, the future of our country depends on the state of the defense industry, and of course, this sphere cannot develop without the equilibrium development of other sectors of the economy, all spheres, including the social one. In addition, the re-industrialization of the country will help to solve national problems.
De-industrialization of Russia in the 90-s for its socio-cultural consequences for the Russian nation - the main core of statehood - is similar to the destruction of the Russian intelligentsia. There was a massive lumpenization of the population, especially in the provinces, when unnecessary, as they were called, production was eliminated.
Lumpmenisation of a nation is not just impoverishment, it is a different socio-cultural phenomenon. A person falls out of their social strata. He ceases to participate in the social development of society, does not fight for his rights and is not protected. Such a person is simultaneously characterized by social apathy and social aggression. This is an easy prey for politicians who create an atmosphere of irrational general accusation, arousing frustration and contempt for their own homeland as a finished project that cannot be returned to the path of development.
What is the Russian person realized? This is an engineer, designer, doctor, teacher, military, worker, nurse. And we have dominated the trading capital in recent years. But the Russian people in the trade is not strong. He realizes himself in an industrial productive economy. And now a migrant arrives, trades in greenery, and above a local engineer, who is impoverished due to the fact that the production is closed, is swaggering because he himself is richer. This is the economic background of coping problems. Therefore, the need for an industrial push to the province, where enterprises can and should be raised, is acute.
In an industrial productive economy, the labor force naturally and not very expensive compared to the West can develop in such a way that sociocultural contradictions in society will be relaxed.
Shamil Sultanov, conflictologist.
I would like to briefly formulate seven ideas.
First, with regard to the severity of the problem. In 2013, our monitoring system recorded an increase in global power tension on 8 points. This indicator is growing for the fourth year in a row. Last year, in August-September, we came close to a direct nuclear confrontation, similar to the situation of October 1973, for several weeks.
Indicators of our predictive model show that the first, very dangerous peak of the likelihood of a large global war will occur in the period from the summer of 2017 to the autumn of 2018. The next probability peak can be expected in 2022-23.
Secondly, many problems of preparing Russia for a hypothetical big war can only be solved within the framework of a system mobilization project. In short, such a mob project assumes organic consolidation of a large system and its main subsystems for the sake of survival.
Only within the framework of the system mob-project the country is able to solve three main, complex tasks:
a) consolidate a multi-structured, clan-corporate society of Russia;
b) to unite the ruling establishment, within which tough contradictions intensify before our eyes, and already 5 groups entered into a latent power struggle;
c) integrate the creative Russian potential in order to really stimulate the national innovative development and prevent the intensification of the technological gap with the main adversary during the transition to the sixth way.
Thirdly, all tasks within the framework of the mob project cannot be effectively solved without ideological support. Unfortunately, ideology in Russia today is understood inadequately - either as massive propaganda or as a certain amount of political technologies.
In crisis conditions, ideology is, first of all, a systemic mechanism of vertical mobilization. In positive terms, this can be observed today in China and Iran, in negative terms - in Ukraine.
Fourthly, such an ideological mechanism should not so much justify the need for a “common cause” as it is to integrate millions and tens of millions of people into the implementation of the practical tasks of the “common cause”.
Fifth, for the formation of such an ideological mechanism, first of all, a skeleton of a mobilization strategy is needed. What it is?
In the framework of the Izborsk club, we identified and recorded 38 of the main system threats and risks that the country faces. The used simulation model shows that as the global and national systemic crisis intensifies, the significance of these threats and risks will increase.
Sixth, it is necessary to realize that it is pointless to manage such a long-term mobilization strategy without involvement, without reliance on millions of Russian citizens.
Finally, seventh, where to start all this? The most important thing for any war is ordinary cards. If we proceed from the fact that the world is moving towards a big war, then first of all, we need thoroughly elaborated system scenarios of fixing the moves of the main players to a decisive clash. Such a collision is inevitable, but it will not necessarily be a classic war with missiles, cannons, tanks ... It is enough to recall the example of the Soviet Union. The political elite was preparing for one war, and lost completely in another, and all the accumulated tanks, guns and other pieces of iron were either stolen after the loss, or went to scrap.
Georgy MALINETSKY, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, Vice President of the Nanotechnological Society of Russia.
Arms, no matter how good they are, are a third-factor. Bismarck said that a schoolteacher and parish priest win wars. I would add - a scientist. War and protection are a matter for the young. And we need to explain to our young people: what will they protect, what are the meanings and values? Those 500 thousands of people who live in London? Recall Brzezinski: Russia will never be able to use a nuclear briefcase, since 500 billions of dollars is in our banks. So is it your elite or ours?
So we need to deal with the elite first of all. Whose is she? Finally, the theme of betrayal of Gorbachev, Yeltsin, Shevardnadze was heard in the press. This is very important, because young people are concerned about this question: how did it happen?
Before talking about defense, it is necessary to say about the meanings and values. In the message of the President to the Federal Assembly from 12.12.12, our meanings and values were identified. Diagnosis: a demographic and value catastrophe occurred in Russia. What values are designated by the president? This is a national and spiritual identity, responsibility towards the future. This is work, creativity and competence. This is justice and morality. The words are very good, and then things are needed.
So - the parish priest. Meanings and values. We must explain to the youth that there is something higher than the life and comfort of the individual. And a school teacher. But let's look at school education in Russia: it’s ruined. 50% of schoolchildren study with tutors. In 2011, the Google Internet system analyzed queries in the national segment of different countries: what is the demand? Leading positions of queries around the world: mathematics, moon, cell, wikipedia, DNA, chemistry, math games, physics, big bang. The query for entertaining mathematics has grown by 2800% over the year. Schoolchildren have a great interest in reality, science.
Similar indicators — inquiries — in Russia: a unified state exam, ready-made homework, reshebnik, answers, results of the Unified State Exam, Wikipedia, Unified State Exam in Russian, Unified State Examination 2011, algebra, ready-made homework in algebra. The demand for ready-made homework in 2011 in Russia grew by 5000%. That is, we have raised a generation of hacks, freeloaders who have very little chance of becoming real engineers, military, doctors, scientists. And if we are going to defend Russia, then we must begin with secondary and higher education.
And further. We will not be moved by 20 trillions aimed at purchasing our weapons. We make a heavy missile, "Armada", build nuclear submarines. But this weapon was created 50 years ago! And to a great extent we buy Soviet weapons. But in the next war it will hardly play. Recall the war in Iraq. There was a very strong army. And our GRU gave a forecast: approximately 35 thousands of Americans will die. Killed 300 people. Because it was cyber war. The blow was struck in cyberspace. Each commander of the closed network was written how he should build his troops.
The Academy of Sciences has an applied problems section. We are addressed with specific questions: what kind of rocket, what kind of communication system? But more important is the question: what will be the war, what kind of war should we be preparing for?
Americans say their intellectuals have been preparing for 15 years for the Gulf War. And when it came, they designed everything. Similarly, Soviet science: the Academy of Sciences took the course to support our defense complex in 1936. In 1942, the Academy reported to the general meeting of the Russian Academy of Sciences: everything that could be done to support the army was done.
And we do not use the huge intellectual potential of Russia.
I have specific suggestions. First, since the RAS under the new law is intended to be the main expert, in my opinion, the problems and issues relating to future wars must be raised and discussed before the RAS.
The second. We have a branch structure. That is, aircraft designers make airplanes, not knowing what others are doing. Shipbuilders build ships, not knowing what others are doing. In design bureaus now, as a rule, already elderly people. And you need to create a council of young designers, those who are now 30-40, who will prepare the next generation of weapons. Let them interact.
Now the system of training civil servants is completely ruined. And you need to start with frames! The most valuable are the engineers and directors. Example: BMP is eight hundred thousand parts and operations, they are made by two thousand people. Two percent - the work of the machines, and 98 percent - is logistics, organization ... Even if you double the productivity, it's only a couple percent. And if you have a strong engineer or director, he can drastically change the situation.
So the war is won by the parish priest, teacher and researcher.
Maxim Kalashnikov, futurist writer.
If we continue the previous policy, then trillions will go nowhere. And the country is facing a serious challenge, on the verge of a crisis. It is necessary to set tasks for the defense science and industrial complexes. These are the tasks: to protect the creation of the future, to create the future ourselves, to ensure the accession of the Russian lands, order inside the country.
From these tasks, it is necessary to create a scientific-military, and not just military forces. Of course, it is impossible to save the defense and scientific-technical complex without the general industrialization of the country. Need a plan for the first five years. These plans are not. The MIC program is adopted separately, separately by industry. And the bulk of the money in general goes to the stadiums and the Olympics. Not only are we tearing up our efforts, but we are also throwing out money for unproductive image projects.
The country must prioritize. When the economy collapses, it is impossible to simultaneously carry out expensive social programs, conduct grandiose sports image events, spend money on civilization and military industrialization, maintain a corruption elite and also be part of the WTO. All this creates the threat of collapse of the Russian Federation. It is necessary to reject unnecessary expenses, focus on the most important areas: on defense, on industrialization.
It was not possible to refuse the Olympics, so we will refuse the football championship! We need to get rid of the ballast and focus on industrialization, on the defense industry.
The Soviet defense consciousness, about which Alexander Prokhanov speaks, was supported by excitement. 30-s. Stratostat "Moscow", stratostat "OSVIAHIM", Chkalov, Gromov, Yumashev - record flights. The first tests of air-cushion vehicles - 1940 year!
And now we are offered the Olympics. Olympiad and other events are values not of an industrial society, but of a wasteful, sybaritic, consumer one. It is necessary to change priorities, set other tasks. Let's set the task of creating cities of the future! This is also a defense task. Urbanization is the strengthening of the country's defense.
It is prestigious to be among the creators of the Russian national-futuristic civilization. And new people will come: strong, confident, brainy, muscular, supporting the idea, combining the struggle for ideals with interesting work.
Vladimir MOLTENSKY, Colonel-General, First Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Land Forces.
I had to serve in the Armed Forces for over 40 years. Participated in various operations, performed the tasks. One war is different from another. Wars in Yugoslavia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya and Syria are different. And if a large coalition group operated in Iraq, it is not clear who and how is fighting in Syria. What is a "private military company"? What are the hidden, hidden special-purpose units that can quickly organize small, medium, large units, depending on the regions of a particular state, to successfully fight it and conquer it?
And for which army do we modernize and create new types of weapons? I was the chairman of the selection committee of the T-95 tank. He finished testing a few years ago. But there is still no one to fight on it! What do we first upgrade? Technique, putting new models, or transfer the army to a new system of military service?
We have been creating a contract army for more than a decade, having spent far beyond 15 billion rubles, but as such it did not work out. One-year term of military service will not allow to master a complex complex - tank T-95 or "Armada." There must be a crew that has been associated with the army for years! And from the army, as a result of modernization and optimization, a number of posts were simply abolished. It was thought that a foreman or sergeant would control a nuclear power plant on a nuclear submarine. But such a specialist must prepare 8-12 years! A person should have not only education, but speculative conclusions that are associated with the greatest responsibility both for the complex, which costs a lot of money, and for the people, for possible consequences.
We completely destroyed our microelectronics. And without a global communication system, no management of organs, headquarters and subunits is possible. Otherwise, it will be like with the Iranian army: they will create interference, break control points, destroy communication systems, and beat the iron with guided ammunition. And how do some put the question? It’s easier for us, for 5-10 billion dollars, to purchase a foreign communications system. And on its basis to create the entire communication system - from the supreme commander to the last unit!
Another question: who will operate this technique? What is the level of our education not only in the military sphere?
Creating new designs and systems is also an issue. There are frequent cases when unclaimed samples close to the “fifth generation” have gone abroad. We do not have intellectual property protection systems. We supply abroad samples of new technology that are not legally protected, not patented. And without the proper management of intellectual property, we will not have the reserves that we previously managed to create.
Problems must be solved in the complex.
Vladislav SHURYGIN, chief editor of the magazine "Soldiers of Russia".
And how are those trillions that are invested in the defense industry protected? Not even from theft, but from interference from, for example, Comrade Kudrin? Already there is talk that everything in the country is bad, you need a sequestration. Let’s say, we’ll cut OPK spending. But if you remove at least 20% from this money, more than 50 programs will freeze.
The money invested in the defense industry is now protected solely by the prestige of the president and several class A officials. If tomorrow one of the liberals moves a little towards the vertical of power, then he may arrange a pogrom that we saw under Gorbachev. We will again be told that we need demilitarization of industry, the more money we take from there and we invest them in banks, the better ...
Who is now creating the image of the defense industry? Several newspapers, magazines, there are agencies that talk about the engines and metals of a weapon. But how is the defense industry protected from default in terms of information security? Dmitry Rogozin talked about creating an agency of good News. I would expand the question. All over the world there is a military-industrial lobby, including in the information space. We need it too.
It is necessary for the entire defense-industrial complex to realize common interests. And on 10 rubles, which are invested in iron, at least to invest the ruble in the information space, not just telling what we have released, but explaining the ideology that the defense industry complex in the state represents.
The developing defense-industrial complex creates a field around itself: a humanitarian field, a social field. And it needs to be expanded. Because the channels through which military-industrial activity seeps into the consciousness of man, into the consciousness of society as a whole, are multidimensional and need constant intensification. In the defense industry there should be a unit that provides a broadcast of this ideology. Humanitarians should work in this difficult area: young strong artists, philosophers, rhetors, representatives of various information professions.
Thank you all for participating in the discussion. Everybody needed this meeting, and a series of such meetings should be held on the decks of aircraft carriers under construction, at submarine fleet bases. This will be useful both for intellectuals and for the defense industry.